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Cornell University Library 
U800 .D38 1894 

An illustrated history of arms and armou 
3 1Q9/I nrin 70e ggi 

Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tile Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 












* Quum prorepserunt primls anlmalia tenis, 

Mutum et turpe pecus, glandem atque cubilia propter 
Unguibus et pugnis, dein fastibus, atque ita porro 
Pugnabant armis quae post fabiicaverat csus." 

Horace, Sat. I. ui 










I. Aebibsed Histoby of Ancient Asms , . 17 

IL ATiMS OP Pre-histokio Times, and oe the Stone Age. 

Arms ill chipped flint . . 75 

Anns of polished flint ..... 80 

III. Ancient Aems of the Bbonze and Ibon Ages. 
Indian arms in brouze and iron 
American arms 
Assyrian arms, etc. 
Egyptian arms 
Greek and Etruscan arms 
Eoman, Samnite, and Dacian arms 







rV. Abms of the Bbonze Age of the so-oalled Babbabio 
Westeen Nations. 
Germanic arms in bronze . . . . .129 

Kelto-Gallic, Grallic, and Lower-Britannio arms . 133 

British arms in bronze . ... 136 

Scandinavian arms in bronze 139 

Bronze arms of various countries .... 144 

V. Akms of the Ibon Age belonging to Noethbbn Nations. 

Germanic arms of the iron age . . 149 

Scandinavian arms of the iron age . .158 

Arms of the iron age of various nations . .159 




VI. Aems or THE Cheistian Middle Ages, or the Renais- 

Complete equipments of the Middle Ages . 
Complete equipments of the Eenaissance . 
Complete equipments of the seventeentli and eighteenth 
centuries ....... 

Description of suits of armour, excepting the helmet . 

Thehehnet . 

The shield . 

Coats and cuirasses 

The arm-guard 

The gauntlet 

Greaves and hose 

The spur 

Horse armour 

The saddle . 

The stirrup . 

The bridle , 

The sword . 

The dagger, poniard, etc. 

The lance, pike, and stake 

The mace 

The morgenstern or morning- star 

The flail 

The "war-scythe 

The scythe-knife 

The gisarme . 

The voulge . 

The war-hammer 

The war-hatchet 

The halbard . 

The ranseur . 

The partizan . 

The bayonet 

The spontoon 

The military fork 

Arms and utensils of war and chase 

Machines of war and siege weapons 

The sling and the staff sling . 



Contents. vii 

VL Abus op the Ohbistian Middle Ages, etc. — continued. 

The blow-pipe . . .... 468 

Bows and arrows 468 

ThecTosB-bow 473 


Heavy artillery .... 

The mortar .... 

The cannon . . , . 

Portable fire-arms . .... 

The hand cannon, hackbnss, arquebus, muskets, etc. 

The pistol 


Accessories for fire-arms ... . 534 

Vin. ThbAib-gtjn 537 

IX. The Akt of the Abuotiber and Abqtizbusieb, — Moko- 
GBAiis, Initials, and Names of Abmohbebs. 
Monograms and names of Grerman armourers . . 540 
German armourers of later years of the eighteenth and 

b^'nning of the nineteenth centuries, celebrated for 

their fire- aud air-guns . . 560 

Monograms and names of Italian armourers . . 563 
Monograms and names of Spanish and Portuguese 

armourers .... ... 565 

Monograms and names of French armourers . 573 

Monog;rams, initials, and names of English armourers . 574 
Monograms and names of Swiss armourers . . 575 
Monogiams and names of Flemish and Dutch armourers 576 
Monograms, initials, marks, and names of armourers 

and towns found on Oriental arms 
Monograms and sdgnatuies the origin of which is 

unknown ...*... 


XL Advicb and Becbipts fob Colleotoes uf Abjis 







ALL that can interest the archseologist, the historian, the 
artist, the soldier, and even the ordinary observer, on 
the progressive march and the successive development of the 
arms of various nations in the past centuries, has been con- 
rlensed in the first chapter of this book in the "Abridged 
History of Ancient Arms," of which several extracts, more 
or less modified, are to be seen as headings to the sub- 
divisions, so as to spare the reader the trouble of looking 
through the whole history every time that he is desirous of 
information on only one point. 

It would have been useless to describe the historical 
development of each kind of arm, as these will be found in 
the different special chapters where these arms are described 
in chronologic order. 

This chronological system is found to be the best for a 
book which is destined to be at the same time a guide to the 
people at large, and a scientific encyclopaedia to collectors, 
tor such repetitions as must inevitably result will contribute 
to facilitate study. 

In addition to this a special chapter describes the pro- 
gressive march of the armourer's art, and gives all the 
iirmourers' signs and marks which it has been possible to 
collect; another chapter treats of the arms and alphabets 
which have been used in the tribunals of the free-judges 
(francs-juges). The whole work is divided into six principal 
parts, among which the most important treat of the arms of 

2 Introduction. 

the middle ages, of tte Eenaissance, of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. The author, who has visited for years 
all the museums and arsenals of Europe, and the most 
important collections of amateurs, has thus been enabled to 
gather enough authentic materials to dispense with referring 
to any books of compilation. As to the kinds of arms which 
no longer exist, these have been studied in manuscripts, in 
miniatures, on coins of the period, and on ancient monuments, 
where sculpture has preserved forms, the exactitude of which 
can rarely be disputed. 

Notwithstanding the present decided taste for retrospec- 
tive knowledge, which has given birth to a perfect torrent of 
local and special treatises, as also to more important works, 
no complete work has as yet existed, either in France or 
elsewhere, on the subject of ancient armour. Nevertheless 
there are few things more indispensable to an artist than the 
knowledge which enables him, at first sight of a sword, a 
helmet, a shield, or any other piece of armour, to fix the 
nation and period to which its wearer belonged. 

The uncertainty on this head has given rise to many 
mistakes, which having rapidly become traditional have thus 
perpetuated lamentable historical errors. The faulty classi- 
fication of a large number of museums and arsenals has 
particularly contributed to the diffusion of these popular 
errors, which have by degrees crept into historical treatises ; 
the majority of guide-books, sculptures, and mural paintings 
have actually transformed our galleries of painting and 
sculpture into public schools for instruction in anachro 

Several of these collections of armour exhibit specimens, 
the alleged dates of which are centuries earlier than the true 
ones. It is more particularly in the Swiss museums and 
arsenals that these errors abound. There we find a large 
number of swords ascribed to the time of Charles the Bold, 
the shape of which declares immediately the end of the 
sixteenth and even the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
as also some armour of the same date, said to have been 
worn at the battle of Sempach. The gjrmnasium of Morat 
exhibits war-harness of the seventeenth century, as " taken 
from the Burgimdians kiUed in the battle," where under the 
walls of the city the terrible duke lost, in 1476, his military 

Introduction. 3 

honour, after having lost at Granson all his treasures. 
Another suit of armour, whose burgonet, with its shade and 
ear-pieces, the lobster-tailed cuishes, and the breastplate, all 
equally announce the seventeenth century, has been attributed 
to Aiian of Bubenberg, the valiant chief of the fifteen 
hundred Bernese who defended Morat for ten days against 
the artillery of the archduke. 

In the arsenal of Soleure the blunders are stUl greater. All 
the personages of the celebrated group, which is composed 
after a design of Disteli, and is meant to represent the recon- 
ciliation of the confederates at the Diet of Stanz, in 1487, 
by the intercession of the venerable Mcolaus Von der Vine, 
are clad in armour of the sixteenth and seventeenth 

The famous iron shield of modern fabrication, attributed 
to Philip the Good (1419), in spite of the round targets with 
which the inights in relief are armed, has been engraved in 
a Swiss publication, and accompanied by a learned disserta- 
tion. This object, and also a French cuirassier's breastplate 
of the First Empire, in which an unskilful armourer has 
awkwardly hammered out two receptacles for a female bust, 
still figure there as precious relics of the middle ages, a fact 
at which the merchant who sold them to the arsenal, and 
who is still living at Soleure, no doubt enjoys many a hearty 
laugh in his sleeve. 

In the arsenal of Zurich all the bossed breastplates of 
fluted armour are rated as cuirasses for women, as though the 
female bosom occupied the lower portion of the chest! 

In England even, a country famed for its archseological 
researches, the armoury of the Tower of London had 
preserved a large quantity of fantastic attributions until 
Mr. John Hewett had showed their faultiness in a descrip- 
tive catalogue. In the classification of this museum, and 
likewise in the drawing-up the catalogue of his own celebrated 
collection. Dr. Meyrick, who has long been considered pro- 
foundly learned on the subject of ancient armour, has some- 
times erroneously attributed dates whose errors have to be 
measured by centuries. At the armoury of Madrid will be 
found such gross errors as the assigned dates differing by 
more than four and even five hundred years from the 
leal ones, and these monstrous blunders axe reprinted in 

4 Introduction. 

the texts which accompany published representations of the 
arms. Even in learned Germany these errors are not less 
frequent. The collection of Ambras at Vienna, for which 
Sclienk, of Notzing, had published, in 1601, a description 
in Latin, afterwards translated into German by Engelbertus 
Moyse van Campenhouten, and illustrated by numerous 
engravings, each one more fantastic than another, exhibits at 
this moment a suit of armour of the end of the sixteenth 
century, which is attributed in the museum to the Eoman 
King Eobert, who died in 1410. In the armoury of the 
same city the observer may have the satisfaction of seeing 
a fight between lay figures attired in armour of the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, which are shown to 
him as " Germans fighting against Romans ;" and similarly 
he may admire at the Dresden Museum a suit of armour and 
a helmet of the seventeenth century attributed to Edward IV. 
of England, who had nevertheless ceased to reign in 1483. 
There was also to be seen at the national museum of Bavaria 
at Munich, before M. de Hefner Alteneck had been named 
director of it, a collar of a buff coat, of the time of the Thirty 
Years' War, attached as a shoulder-piece to the much-valued 
doublet with cuishes and hose of the fourteenth century. 

The museum of Cassel also shows among ancient armour a 
morion and a small helmet, which are certainly much rusted, 
but which belonged to ancient troopers of the seventeenth 
century. In the national museum of Brunswick there is a 
similar morion, which, as being exceedingly rusty, has been 
labelled "twelfth century." A great number of these 
mistakes made by French and Italian museums might be 
quoted, but we may as well refrain. All these anachronisms 
have been carried on into books. There may be seen in a small 
illustrated treatise, published recently at Paris (headed, 
Armes et Armures, par Lacombe, Hachette, 1868), a suit 
of armour of the end of the reign of Henri IV., who died in 
1610, labelled as armour of Charles the Bold, who died in 
1477, where the small helmet figures under the name of 
morion, the large bassineted helmet of the fourteenth 
century is called a "mezail," a word which signifies the 
defensive armour worn only over the eye and forehead, the 
" francisque " is called a defensive weapon, the long pistol of 
the seventeenth century a petronel, the halbard a partisan, 

Introduction. 5 

the gisarme a fauchard, the spontoon and partisan hil- 
barde, &c. 

The desire of exhibiting " historical " curiosities has 
tempted many museums to accept and even to construct for 
their objects, genealogies and titles, which, being afSrmed by 
tradition, have at last become gospel truths to the keepers, 
and to the crowd among whom these gigantic errors are 
circulated and preserved. When will the world begin to see 
that a beautiful specimen of sculpture, painting, chasing, or 
of any other artistic work, needs no other title than that 
which the critic finds in its execution, and in the style of its 
epoch, shown by the archaeological imprint, now faded away 
with Gothic art, and whose stamp is not to be found in the 
works either of the ancients or of their imitators? Titles so 
often conjecturally, and falsely, ascribed serve but to throw 
discredit as much on the collector as on the keeper. 

The errors which are so frequent in the chronological 
classification, and in the histories ascribed to armour, are 
even more numerous as regards their nationality and 
manufacture. Many armourers without merit, and whose 
existence must have equalled that of Methuselah in order to 
produce only the half of what is attributed to them, are 
extolled to the detriment of really great artists, whose 
masterpieces figure under the name of some favourite work- 
man, too often extolled with an idolatrous faith, discreditable 
to men whose real duty is to plant landmarks to histories 
based upon substantial evidences which happily are beyond 
the reach of mutilation. 

It is a sad thing to say, that though archseological in- 
vestigators in vain turn over the dust of centuries and pass 
their lives in pointing out, with evidence in their hands, all 
these involuntary errors, these childish jugglings, the band 
of compilers continue to manufacture books out of old books, 
copying afresh that which has already been copied without 
examination, and so going on from father to son, writing 
about subjects with which they are acquainted only through 

As in museums of keramic ware and mosaics, the pro- 
ductions of Italian art are generally most numerous, and 
those of France in collections of enamelling on metals and 
of sumptuous pieces of furniture, so the museums of ancient 

6 Introduction. 

armour are everywhere filled, for the most part, with 
German work. There is no country where the art of 
armoury was so widely spread as in Germany, nor brought 
to such a pitch of excellence, in the manufacture of plate 
armour, the laminated joints of which covered even the legs 
of the war-horse. Her numerous towns and princely 
residences, as well as the greater part of the free cities, have 
fvirnished during the middle ages and Eenaissance a wide 
field for the artist to display great beauty in the gorgeous 
armour and arms of that period ; the precious work of which 
was often paid to him at its weight in gold, by simple 
patricians, who, like Fugger and others, were rich merchants, 
and at that time handled the sword as well as the clothyard, 
or the money bag. 

Notwithstanding the monograms with which the handsome 
arquebuses, swords, helmets, and breastplates are marked, 
and notwithstanding the design of the figures and ornaments 
which indicate a German school of art, the greater part of 
these arms continues to figure in catalogues and treatises as 
productions of Italian art. As if Italy, the country of such 
men as Antonio Picinino, Andrea di Perrara, Ventura Cani, 
Lazarino Caminazzi, Colombo, Badile, Franoino, Mutto, 
Berselli, Benisolo, Giocatane, and many other celebrated 
armourers, needed a fictitious reputation, and required to be 
decorated with borrowed plumes. 

It will be seen in the chapter which treats " of the 
armourer's art," that the Editors of these treatises are but 
slightly acquainted with art criticisms and recent archfeolo- 
gical discoveries ; for to them, armours made for the kings 
of France, at Munich and Augsburg, still remain Italian, 
and similarly the armour made by such men as Peter Pah, 
Wulff, Kolmann, and Peter (Pedro), of these same cities, is 
still counted as Spanish. They persist in ignoring the fact 
that Seusenhofer of Innsbruck was charged with the forging 
of the armour of the sons of Francis the First, a magnificent 
undertaking, which nevertheless retains an Italian label. 
Even in Germany the depreciation of national art has 
insinuated itself into public collections, for when the author 
of this book, not ten years ago, had recognised at the Dresden 
Museum, in several fine pieces of armour, ascribed to Italian 
artists, incontestable proofs of German workmanship, he met 

Introduction. 7 

with no reply but skrugs and incredulous emiles. At present 
his statement is no longer contradicted, and it is well known 
that many of these pieces of armour are the work of the 
celebrated Kellermann of Augsburg, who for one single suit 
of armour was paid fourteen thousand dollars. The cele- 
brated piece of armour ornamented with embossed (repousse) 
figiures representing the labours of Hercules, in the museum 
of Dresden, is likewise Gferman. 

When the armour of Senri II., at the Louvre, is compared 
with the designs composed for the studios of Munich, by the 
painters Schwarz, Van Achen, Brockbergen and Jean Milich, 
which are preserved in the Cabinet of Engravings, in this 
city, it will be seen (as also on the buckler of the Ambras 
coHection, the counterfeit of which is in France) that its exe- 
cution has been scrupulously based upon these models, which 
have been photographed and published by M. de Hefner 
Alteneck, who discovered them in the cabinet of engravings 
at Munich. It is particularly Pl. xvii. which gives us the 
most striking proof. To have an idea of what the German 
armourers were able to do in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, the reader should visit the Imperial Arsenal, and 
the Ambras collection at Vienna. The niello-work and 
incrustation in gold and silver (Taucher-arbeiten, in German) 
are of a massiveness that leaves far behind similar works of 
Spain ; and the hammered work is equal to that of Italy. 
As to the forms of the armour, they are always graceful and 

Fire arms even more than side arms and plate armour 
owe their perfection to the German armourers, who invented 
the air-gun in 1560 ; the rifled barrel (called in German 
Biichsenlauf) in 1440, or according to others, in 1500 ; the 
wheel-lock in 1515 ; the arquebuse in 1551 ; the double 
trigger (Stecher in German) in 1543 ; the iron ramrod (the 
use of which contributed to the Prussian victory at Mollwitz) 
in 1730, and lastly, in 1827, the famed needle-gun. 

As the archreological and special character of the matter 
treated of in this book might easily lead to useless digressions 
and to the use of technicaKties which are too often employed 
to hide the absence of real knowledge and well-digested 
study, notes of reference have been entirely dispensed with 
in the Historical Chapter, and names which every one can 

8 Introduction. 

■understand, printed in French, German and Englisli, are 
employed for the designation of the objects spoken of in the 
work. The author nevertheless could not refrain from 
exaotly quoting the sources, whether monuments, manuscripts, 
or armour, from which he has derived his knowledge, so as 
to afford means of criticism, as well as of information for 
this sisecial study. 

As soon as the French edition leaves the press, translai- 
tions in English and in German will be published in London 
and Leipsic by Messrs. Bell and Daldy, and Mons. E. A. 
Semann respectively. 

Before beginning the work itself, it will be useful to pass- 
in review the more important collections of armour, so as to- 
enable the reader to judge by their formation in what chrono- 
logical order the taste for ancient armour has developed 
itself in Europe since the Eenaissance. 

The first gathering together of arms and armour as a 
collection, and not for ordinary use, does not appear to date 
earlier than the sixteenth or end of the fifteenth century. 
It will be seen by the catalogue published by M. Leroux de 
Lancy in 1848, in the Library of Charts, that Louis XII. 
had formed, in 1502, a cabinet of arms at Amboise. The 
celebrated museum of historical armour at Dresden, one of 
the finest in Europe, owes its origin to Henry the Pious. 
Augustus I., who was a collector of armour during thirty- 
three years (from 1553 to 1586), is nevertheless the real 
founder of the present museum, which contains upwards of 
sixty thousand pieces, and is especially rich in swords, but 
few of the pieces of armour and arms date farther back than 
the end of the fifteenth century. 

The Marshal Strozzi, who died in 1558, left a cabinet of 
armour of which Brantome speaks very fully : 

" If the Marshal Strozzi was tasteful in fine books he was 
equally so in armour, and in arms, for he had a large hall 
and two rooms, which I had seen in past days in Borne, in 
his palace in the Borgo ; and his arms were of all sorts, as 
much for horse as for foot-soldiers, and of all countries, 
French, Spanish, Italian, German, Hungarian and Bohemian, 
and briefly, of several other Christian nations, and also 
armour belonging to Turks, Moors, Arabs and savagp 
nations. But what was most beautiful to behold were the 

Introduction. i> 

arms in antique fashion, of the old Eoman soldiers and 
legionaries. All this was so beautiful that one knew not 
which to admire most, the armour itself, or the curiosity 
of the person who had placed it there. And to complete 
the whole, there was a separate chamber filled with all sorts 
of engines of war, of machines, ladders, bridges, fortifications, 
and ingenious artifices and instruments ; ia short, of all 
inventions for offensive and defensive warfare, the whole 
formed and imitated in wood so cleverly and truly, that any 
one had only to take the pattern in full size, and use it at 
need. I have since seen all these cabinets at Lyons, whither 
the last M. Strozzi, his son, had transferred them, and also 
saw that they were not kept so carefully as they had been 
at Eome. I noticed that they were confused and spoiled, at 
which I mourned in my heart ; it is a very great pity, for 
they were very valuable, and a king could not have done 
better than buy them, but M. Strozzi disordered and sold 
everything ; this I therefore represented to him one day, for 
he would take a hundred crowns for a thing which was 
worth more than a thousand. Among the other rare things 
which I noticed was a shield made from the entire shell of a 
turtle, so large that it would have covered the tallest man 
from head to foot, and so hard that an arquebuse would have 
pierced it with difficulty from a distance, and yet withal, it 
was but slightly heavy. There were also the tails of two 
marine horses, the handsomest, longest, thickest and whitest 
that I have ever seen. I may possibly have been too long 
and tedious in speaking of this cabinet of arms, but certainly 
had I wished to amuse myself in telling over its curiosities, 
all would have taken pleasure in reading them." 

The fine Ambras collection, now in Vienna at the Belvedere, 
composed only of choice pieces, was commenced in 1570, by 
the Archduke Ferdinand, Count of Tyrol (son of the Emperor 
Ferdinand I., and husband of the beautiful Philippine Welser 
of Augsburg), in his castle of Ambras, near the town of 
Innsbruck, where the prince had collected a hundred and fifty 
complete suits of armour, and a large number of offensive 
and defensive arms, and war harness. A cabinet of curiosities 
and art-objects, of which the greater number are now in the 
Armoury at Vienna, and only a small part still remains at 
Ambras; more than nine hundred historical portraits, of 

10 Introduction. 

small artistic merit, it is true ; a collection of two thousand 
five hundred medals and coins, and several thousand engrav- 
ings ; a library of four thousand printed volumes and five 
hundred manuscripts, among vehich may still he seen the 
three celebrated volumes of water-colour drawings, executed 
by Glockenthon, containing the exact fac-similes of the 
arms and armour of the three arsenals of the Emperor 
Maximilian — all these at that time formed a whole, which 
few cities cotild eijual. The main body of this collection. 
Which had lost only ten handsome suits of armour, carried off 
by the Trench army, was transferred to Vienna in 1806. 
The first work containing representations and descriptions of 
these treasures was published in the seventeenth century in 
Latin, by Jacob Schrenk of Notzing, a slight work, which 
has nevertheless been translated into German by Engelbertus 
Moyse de Compenhouten. 

M. le Baron de Sacken has published another work, in 
1862, in which the best pieces of the collection have been 
reproduced by means of photography. Vienna also possesses 
the celebrated collection of the emperor at the Arsenal of 
Artillery, and that of the " Arsenal of the City." The 
Arsenal of Imperial Artillery at Vienna is an immense pile 
of buildings close to the terminus of the Southern railway, aud 
contains one of the richest collections of armour in Europe, 
derived from the private cabinets belonging to the empeiois 
of Austria. Placed in a building which is one of the most 
successful and beautiful of our time (the work of the Couu-, 
eellor Hansen), this collection contains more than seven 
hundred specimens ; it is at present under the superintendence 
of Captain Querin Leitner, who has classified it perfectly, 
and who is engaged on a publication (Waffensammlung des 
osterreichischen Kaiserhauses im Artillerie Arsenal ; Vienna, 
1868) intended to furnish reproductions of the most remark- 
able pieces of armour in the musemn, which will contribute 
to diffuse a taste for ancient armour. 

The arsenal of the city of Vienna, which dates from the 
■end of the fifteenth century, and whose construction, though 
worse than insignificant, was erected about 1732, contains 
but little good armour, yet has forty large shields or " Setz- 
schilde " of the end of the fifteenth century, and a large quan- 
tity of cut-and-thrust weapons. 

Introduction. 11 

There may also be seen the head of the Grand Vizir 
Mustafa, the cruel monster to whom the sultan sent the bow- 
string, in 1684, after his defeat beneath the walls of Vienna. 
The best suits of armour of this museum, where there is a 
complete absence of classification, and a large number of 
objects ridiculously misnamed, are shockingly bedaubed with 
black paint. 

The first mention of a collection of armour in the Tower 
of London is to be found in an inventory of 1547, and in an 
order of 1578. Paul Hentzner, a German traveller, also 
speaks, in 1598, of the fine armours of the Tower of London, 
though at that time they were rather an arsenal than a gallery. 
In 1630, the real nucleus of the collection was commenced 
at Greenwich, and with what remained from the piQages of 
the civil wars, towards the end of the seventeenth century, the 
actual gallery, whose classification Dr. Meyrick afterwards 
directed, was formed. Since 1820, the collection has been 
augmented by different purchases. The fire of 1841 deprived 
them only of a few cannons, which were completely destroyed. 
There is no keeper; nevertheless Mr. John Hewett, an 
archaeologist, has been able to publish an official catalogue 
of the arsenal, divided into twenty classes, in which thirteen 
objects represent ancient armour, forty stand for the stone 
age, a hundred and twenty for the age of bronze, and twenty- 
five for that of iron. The arms, beginning from the com- 
mencement of the middle ages down to our own times, number 
about five thousand seven hundred. The whole collection, 
therefore, comprises more than five thousand eight hundred 
objects, the oriental division of which is remarkably well 
represented. In addition to the collection of the Tower of 
London we must also mention the celebrated Llewellyn 
Meyrick collection at Goodrich Court, in Herefordshire, one 
of the most perfect in Europe. 

The arsenal of Berlin, which contains a small quantity of 
armour belonging to the Electors, is not rich in either ancient 
armour or arms, and is principally composed of guns, both 
with flint-locks and with pistons, and of trophies taken in 
the wars which Prussia has sustained; it is placed in the 
building to which the masks of Schluter have given an 
European celebrity. There is also at Berlin, in the Monbijou 
Palace, a certain amount of historical armour and arms, as 

12 Introduction. 

well as the handsome collection of Prince Charles of Prussia, 
a thing of worth which unfortunately lacks space enough to 
be properly exhibited and classed chronologically. 

The commencement of the Museum of Artillery at Paris 
dates from 1788. A collection of armour and machinery had 
been commenced, which was pillaged on the 14th of July, 
1789. In 1795, this museum was rearranged in the convent 
of the Dominican Jacobins of St. Thomas Aquinas ; in 1799 
it was enriched by the celebrated collection of the arsenal of 
Strasbourg, and in 1804, by the gallery which the Dukes of 
Bouillon had already formed at Sedan. The museum was 
again pillaged in 1830, but lost only a few of its treasures, 
the greater part of which were brought back after the days 
of July. In 1852, twenty of the richest and most curious 
objects were transferred from the Museum of Artillery to be 
placed in that of the Sovereigns at the Louvre, a loss which 
was in part repaired by an imperial decree, which presented 
to the Museum of Artillery the valuable arms belonging to 
the library of the Eue de Eichelieu. Since then many gifts 
have been made to this beautiful collection, conspicuous 
among which are those made by Napoleon III. and the Baron 
des Mazis. At present it is the richest and one of the best 
organised of collections ; for its excellent classification, which 
is due to the knowledge of the keeper, M. Penguilly THaridon, 
leaves but little to be desired. There are fifty objects for 
the weapons of the flint age, a hundred and fifty for those of 
the bronze age and for ancient armour, thirty for the iron 
age, nineteen hundred and seventy for the armour and weapons 
of the middle ages, the Eenaissance, and the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, three thousand for oriental and modern 
weapons, cannon, machines, and divers other objects, com- 
prising in all five thousand and two hundred numbers cata- 
logued with much care. 

Another old and important collection of weapons and 
armour belongs to the Counts of Erbach, at Erbach Castle^ 
in Hesse-Darmstadt, near Oppenheim. It was begun at the 
end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century, 
by the Count Francis, an enthusiastic collector. The museum 
contains four hundred and sixty offensive and defensive 
weapons, six hundred and twenty fire-arms, and a few 
himdred weapons of the flint, bronze, and iron ages, classic. 

Introduction. 13 

Keltic, German, &c. The Count Eberhard, grandson of the 
founder, has himself drawn up the catalogue. 

The Armeria at Turin was founded by the King Charles 
Albert, in 1833. The Coimt Vittorio Seyssel of Ais pub- 
lished in 1840 the catalogue, which contains fifteen hundred 
and fifty-four specimens of ancient and modern weapons, 
among which are a great number of defensive arms, both rare 
and artistic. 

The museum of Sigmaringen is, like those of Munich and 
Turin, a modem creation, for the first gathering together of 
art objects dates no farther back than the year 1842. In 
the " Artistic Guide for Germany," by the present writer, will 
be found an especial chapter, which gives summarily a descrip- 
tion of the numerous collections which H.E.H. the Prince 
of Hohenzollern has brought together in his residence, and 
which have also been largely augmented by the recent 
purchase of the collection of the Baron of Mayenfisch, super- 
intendent of fine arts to the prince. The Counsellor Dr. 
Lehner is keeper and librarian, and has been entrusted with 
the chronological arrangement of the catalogue, in different 
series, and with publishing fao-similes of the most remarkable 
objects by means of photography. The collection of weapons 
and armoux numbers more than three thousand pieces, among 
which are some exceedingly valuable in an historic and 
artistic point of view. The building, which the prince has 
had erected in the Anglo-Gothic style, is designed by Kruger 
of Dvisseldorf, and is graceful in form and worthy of its 
contents. The fresco paintings, by Professor Muller of 
Diisseldorf, are a work of art, which wUl in themselves repay 
a journey to Sigmaringen, a place where the traveller may 
find museums of every kind, with two exceptions, natural 
history and natural philosophy. 

M. Hefner-Alteneck has also published a work on these 
museums, in which we recognise the habitual exactness of 
this carefol describer. 

The national museum of Bavaria, at this time one of the 
richest in art-objects of the Gothic and Eenaissance styles, 
originated in 1853, in the reign of King Maximilian II. It 
occupies fifty-nine halls of a vast building, three stories high. 
It is to the energetic activity of the late Baron Aretin, and 
to the solid knowledge of the director, M. de Hefner-Alteneck, 

14 Introduction. 

that Germany owes the rapid collection of so many treasures, 
among which may be counted more than a thousand weapons 
and pieces of ancient armour. The construction of the build- 
ding is defective in all respects, and the classification of the 
contents faulty. Happily the new director is engaged in 
rendering the classification more available for study by a 
chronologic and generic catalogue. The large number and, 
for the most part, the historic and artistic value of the objects 
exhibited, place the National Museum of Bavaria among the 
first of these instructive establishments. 

We also find at Munich a collection of ancient arms, in 
the arsenal of the city ; these are objects which have belonged 
to the different corporations, dating as far back as the four- 
teenth century. But the organisation of this collection dates 
only from 1866. All is arranged there in chronological 
order so as to show the armour worn by the lower orders, 
grouped together in their different epochs, the last of which 
comes down to the end of the Thirty Tears' War. The 
arsenal of the city of Munich, of which the keeper, M. Kaspar 
Braun, has published, in 1866, a descriptive catalogue, con- 
tains in all about fourteen hundred ancient weapons and 
pieces of armour, both for the horse and rider. 

The King of Sweden, Charles XV., has also commenced a 
cabinet of ancient armour, composed for the most part of 
the Soldinska collection from Nuremberg, brought thence 
about 1856. It comprises more than a thousand specimens, 
among which will be found a great many oriental weapons, 
and a large number of western arms of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. A series of fac-similes of this beau- 
tiful coUeotion has been published by Lahure, at Paris. 

The cabinet of armour of the Emperor Napoleon III., 
commenced only a few years back, and which is placed in 
the castle of Pierrefonds, is already one of the richest in the 
empire, especially so in fine German tilting armour of the 
best periods. According to the catalogue published by 
M. 0. Penguilly I'Haridon, it contains five hundred and 
twenty-five ancient weapons and suits of armour, and four 
machines for ancient warfare, of which the two balistEe, 
erroneously called catapults, and intended to shoot arrows, 
are constructed after the designs of Hiero and Philo, two 
Greek authors, contemporaneous with the successors of 

Introduction. 15 

Alexander and Vitruvius, which last are supposed to 
have lived in the reign of Augustus. The other two are 
catapults of the kind oallei palintones, also constructed after 
the designs of Hiero. These four machines of warfare have 
been taken, some years since, to the Museum of St. Germain. 
Some photographic representations, by Chevalier, have been 
published by Olaye, in 1867, but are not sold to the public. 
Another fine collection of armour and weapons but recently 
begun, is that of the Senator Count of Nieuwerkerke, placed 
in the apartments which he occupies at the Louvre. This 
cabinet, entirely formed of choice pieces, contains more than 
three hundred and thirty specimens, of which M. de Beaumont 
is forming a catalogue, to be illustrated with copperplate 

We may also point out in France the museum of Chartres, 
which possesses a good collection of ancient weapons ; among 
other things the war-harness attributed to Philip IV., le Bel 
(1285 to 1314), where the bassinet alone indicates the date, 
for the coat of mail, of which a portion is modern, belongs 
to many different periods. 

For the study of weapons in flint and bronze, of primitive 
and ancient times, the museums of Mayence, Copenhagen, 
Schwerin, Sigmaringen, Saint Germain, and Christy's Ethmo- 
graphic collection at London, ai'e those which offer the 
greatest amount of resources. 

All travellers know the museums of armour at Madrid, 
and of Tzarskoe-Selo at St. Petersburg; reproductions of 
the most remarkable objects have been published in photo- 
graphs and lithographs, but no one has given any information 
regarding these museums, nor of those of Venice and Malta. 
As for the arsenals of the Swiss Cantons, which, though 
they date back as far as the earliest wars, contain few things 
anterior to the end of the fifteenth century, there are but 
those of Geneva, Soleure, Lucerne, and Berne, which possess 
what can be called a collection of ancient weapons ; Morat, 
Zurich, Basle, and Liesthal are less richly gifted, and the 
other chief towns of the Cantons have hardly anything re- 
maining of their armour or weapons of offence. 

Holland does not possess a museum of ancient arms, nor 
has she any in her arsenals ; private collections are rare ; 
we know of none but that of the Baron de Bogaert van 

] 6 Introduction. 

Heeswyk, in Lis coimtry-liouse near Bois-le-Duc, and that of 
the late M. Kruseman, a painter, which now belongs to the 
Archseological Society of Amsterdam. 

The collection of ancient arms at Brussels is somewhat 
extensive, and is placed in the museum of the " Porte de 

Besides the first-class museums which we have here cited, 
there are still a large number of important collections, most 
of which are mentioned along with the engravings from 
them in the body of this work, and if we count the galleries 
in process of formation, we must admit that the taste for 
armour nearly equals that which has been so universally 
shown for keramic ware. 



IN all countries, and as nmch among primitive tribes as 
among ci-vilised nations, the question of weapons has been 
one of great importance. From the beginning, man, exposed 
on the earth without means of defence, must have been 
forced to invent methods of repelling the attacks of those 
creatures who were with him joint proprietors of the soil, 
and to whom Nature, in depriving them of reason, had given 
as compensation natural weapons. Hence, weapons, originally 
invented for destructive purposes, have become the most 
powerful means of civilisation ; the improvement of these 
deadly instruments has constantly supplied deficiency of 
numbers, and finally secured the triumph of reason ; for, in 
modem times, the most ambitious of conquerors contributes 
to civilisation, since he is always followed by the pioneers of 
intellectual and mechanical culture. Gunpowder has, in all 
probability, opened the road to printing, has lessened the 
stoppages and smoothed the road of progress by supplying 
strength to disciplined minorities arrayed against bar- 
barous masses. Mind has found means of resisting and 
subduing brute force. If we deplore warfare, we must not 
regret the ever increasing perfection of weapons, which, 
though making warfare more deadly at a given time, yet 
by shortening renders it eventually less fatal to mankind. 

Even among the most backward in civilisation, the im- 
provement of weapons can have nothing injurious to the 
progressive march of society, since all progress is mutually 
advantageous ; and as soon as intellectual culture gains ground, 
no matter in what branch, the chances of unjust war, and 
dread of the reign of brute force, diminish. 

Of the earliest known civilisations — those of India and 
America — the latter, though lost and almost ignored, has 
left the most ancient trace of a defensive weapon, perfected 

18 Abridged Kistory 

in its form. This is tlie helmet worn by a figure on a bas- 
relief, in Palanque, in the ruins of the city Culhuacan, whose 
date may possibly reach back three thousand five hundred 
years, and the circumference of which measures over eighteen 

To obtain an exact account of the progressive march in 
the construction of weapons among different nations, and of 
the transitions and combinations which are to be seen in the 
forms of these products, they should be divided into four 
distinct heads : weapons of prcvhistoric times, of the age of 
stone, rough, chipped, and polished; weapons of the age 
of bronze — a category in which are comprehended the manu- 
factures of the ancients as well as those of the Scandinavians, 
Germans, Britons, Kelts, Gauls, and others; the early 
weapons of the age of iron, which includes the Merovingian 
times and the reigns of a few of the Carlovingian kings, that 
is to say, the end of ancient times and the beginning of the 
middle ages ; and, lastly, the weapons of the middle ages, 
the Eenaissance, and the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 

The use of the words, " an age of bronze," does not infer 
that iron was unknown at this period ; it indicates only that 
the use of this metal was not widely spread, and that nearly 
all tools, and all weapons, even edged ones, were among most 
nations made of bronze. Ingots of iron, wedge or pick- 
shaped, and a few other objects in forged iron preserved in 
the Assyrian museum at the Louvre, and also a fragment of 
an Assyrian coat of maU in steel, in the British Museum, 
are proofs that in the tenth century before Christ the 
Assyrians were as well acquainted with this metal as the 
Egyptians. Thirty passages in the Iliad and the Odyssey, 
where iron is often spoken of, under the epithet of" difficult to 
work in," show that the Greeks were likewise acquainted 
with it. Bronze, on the contrary, which is a mixture of 
metals (called erroneously in Grimm's dictionary " messing," 
brass), has nothing in Nature exactly corresponding to it ; it 
is a composition formed by man, and which varies according 
to the country and 'the time ; sometimes, for instance, it is 
copper and tin, sometimes copper, tin, lead, spis-glas, &c., and 
requires the knowledge of a mixed fusion of metals; for 
while pure copper can be worked with the hammer only, 

of Ancient Arms. 19 

bronze must be submitted to the action of melting. The 
preparation of iron- only needs a high degree of oxygenal 
h^t and. its separation from carbon to become malleable — a 
fact known even to the Kaffirs, who employ bellows to send 
oxygen through their fiirnaces. The use of bronze, instead 
of ^preceding, must necessarily have followed the use of iron, 
as. the latter metal might be worked without being completely 

Earth, wood, stone, and the skins of animals, which can 
be fouiid aver aU the earth, must of necessity have been the 
first materials- which loan employed in -the manufacture of 
his utensils and weapons. The use of stones for the manu- 
facture of the latter dates back everywhere to the infancy of 
all nations, and it is these rude creations alone Tvhich still 
compose the arms of the savage. There are even some coun- 
tries, where, notwithstanding that tte preparation and employ- 
ment of metals for other uses was known, the inhabitants 
still continued to make use of stone only for the manufacture 
of offensive weapons. Such was the case in America anterior 
to its final discovery by Columbus. Flint, chalcedony, ser- 
pentine, and particularly the fragile black obsidian, in which 
the ancient mirrors of the Incas were cut, were all in request 
for the heads of lances, and arrows, and blades of swords, for 
■war-hatchets and knives : copper and bronze were used only 
for tlie making of tools. 

In:Europe stone weapons are found of vory great antiquity, 
and they serve to show that man must have existed during 
the third geological period ; a fact of which the picture of 
the mastodon or mammoth engraved on a deer's antler found 
in Perigord, as also the numerous bones of the cave-deer, 
scattered among flint hatchets, ■which have been gathered in 
platonic strata, have furnished additional proof. When 
these rough sketches shall have been examined under the 
microscope, so as to obviate the possibility of deception, it 
will then be time enough to discuss the hypothesis. It is 
not enough, though, that these bones and weapons should 
have been found in alluvial-diluvial districts, for these might 
have been subjected to disturbance — a fact which is indeed 
demonstrated by the " movable deposits," so called because 
composed of objects belonging to different epochs. The 
diluvium fAlpin) contains no organic matter in the state of 

20 Abridged History 

ossine, a substance whioh characterizes bone not fossilized : 
lience it results that any alluvial deposit containing even the 
smallest bone with ossine must be posterior to that great 
terrestrial perturbation designated as the deluge. 

A great many tools and weapons in worked stone are also 
a sure sign that they do not date further back than the 
deluge, as they are made out of pebbles, and everything tends 
to show that these must have been rolled together before 
being shaped by man's art. 

It is impossible to assert the priority of one people over 
another respecting the first manufacture of these weapons, as 
they are to be found everywhere. Some weapons have been 
found in France of flint, chipped by splintering, mixed with 
bones of reindeer, and fossil bones, both occasionally carved 
by the hand of man, and used as handles for the flint, which 
is always the cutting instrument, and whose manufacture, 
without the aid of metals or corrosive acids, can be explained 
only by the comparative ease with which flint, freshly 
quarried, and before undergoing the influence of the outward 
air, can be chipped and splintered. 

Lines of demarcation between the so-called ages of rough 
stone, worked stone, and even of bronze, can be drawn only 
with that small amount of certainty which belongs to epochs 
partly or wholly pre-historic. Objects of two, and even of 
all three epochs, have been found intermingled — a fact which 
indicates a transition state. The researches made in the 
ancient German cemetery of Hallstatt, near Ischl in Austria, 
have brought to light instruments in stone, bronze, and iron, 
and even some half bronze and half iron, the whole at times 
mingled in a single tomb, of which more than a thousand 
have been visited. The kitchen refuse heaps {KioTikenmoedr 
ing — Kitchen midden) of Denmark, as well as the objects 
found in the lacustrine habitations of Switzerland, Savoy, 
and the Duchy of Baden, though all found in alluvial soil, 
may nevertheless be attributed with certainty to the pure 
flint age, when no weapons or utensils showed any trace of 
metal, while the lake dwellings found near Noceto, Castiana, 
and Peschiera belong to the epoch known as the age of 

Of all these primitive weapons those found in Denmark 
(at present coimterfeited in Germany) show the greatest 

of Ancient Arms. 21 

amount of finish ; curiously enough, they appear to indicate 
that at these epochs civilisation was more advanced in the 
north than in the central parts of Europe. We must, never- 
theless, remember that these arms have been found in alluvial 
deposits, and must necessarily be more modem than those 
found in the caverns or in diluvial and quaternary strata. 

As for the weapons in polished stone, these are most fre- 
quently of granitic serpentine, not a hard stone, though more 
so than ordinary serpentine. They have also been found in 
flint, in chalcedony, basalt, jade and jadaic stone of different 
colours. The jade-like stone, so common in Auvergne, is of 
the same kind as that which was formerly employed to make 
amulets against spinal complaints, whence it took the name 
of nephritic stone. The talismans or stones of victory of 
the Scandinavian Sagas were probably nothing more than 
serpentine. Some wedges have been found too small for any 
other use, which must have been worn round the neck as a 
talisman, as is shown by the hole through which the string 
was passed. In the north these stones are always green, a 
colour which appears to be much liked and considered sym- 
bolical by the Teutonic races, for it predominated largely at 
a later period in their enamels and miniatures, whUe blue 
takes the principal place in works of Gaulish and Frankish 
origin. The nations in remote antiquity appear to have 
used stone weapons simultaneously with iron and bronze 
ones, as the museums of London and Berlin possess several 
very ancient examples of Assyrian and Egyptian origin in 
these materials. 

Bronze weapons have been discovered in the north as 
frequently as on classic soU. They may have been intro- 
duced in the west by victorious oriental races, as the weapons 
of the so-called age of bronze of the different countries re- 
semble each other more than those of other periods ; and in 
the Scandinavian Sagas we find the conquerors treating dis- 
dainfully the people still content with flint weapons, and 
calling them "little demons of the earth." The use of 
bronze weapons had not yet ceased completely among the 
Gauls after the conquest of Csesar, and it may be admitted 
that the superiority of iron weapons contributed to the 
success of the Pranks, as it had done to that of the Eomans. 

If one wishes to become apt in the knowledge of classifying 

22 Abridged History 

ciironologically the weapons of these periods, which so much 
resemble one. another, and in-.whieh transition states are.' sd 
frequent, the construction of the different tombs^ should; b©^ 
studied. The high hillocks > surrounded or surmounted b|: 
stones, more or less colossal (and called dolmens), and whostf- 
interiors, closed with slabs of stone, contain bones unburnt,' 
and flint weapons, may be considered as very ancient ioiabs. 
The second category of tombs is most commonly recognisable 
by a smaller hillock, and by the absence of large blocks of 
stone, by a vault or tomb formed of unhewn stones of small 
size, and heaped together without much skill, aid by the 
urn, which indicates a burnt corpse. These tombs generally, 
contain objects in bronze. Tombs still less eleyated, ' and- 
constructed almost wholly of earth,. belong to the third stage,- 
in which the burning of bodies had again given way to rtheir 
burial, and where the tombs often form cemeteries, ranging 
from south to north. 

While engaged on the subject of ancient weapons, we must 
especially seek for the first traces which have reached us on 
Hindoo, Assyrian, and Egyptian monuments. From the 
foundation of the cities of Nineveh and Babylon: by Assur 
and Nimrod, in the twenty-fifth century b.o., until the 
third century B.O., in the reign of Sardaiiapalus V., there 
are no monuments from which the slightest notion can be 
gathered of the arms of a soldier under the five great Asiatic 
monarchies. We are equally ignorant of the equipment of 
the armies with which Belus conquered the Arabs in B.C. 
1992, and Ninus, his son, subdued Armenia, Media and 
nearly the whole of Northern Asia ; nor does anything in- 
dicate to us in what manner were constructed the brilliant 
weapons in use under the gorgeous Semiramis, the widow of 
Ninus, who, from b.Oj 1968 to 1916, extended her empire 
as far as the Indus, and accumulated fabulous treasures at 
Babylon. From the reign of Ninyas, her son, history fur- 
nishes absolutely nothing respecttQg the long line of hi& 
successors, save a few tales about the well-known Sardanapalus,' 
who w»s dethroned in 759. 

The Chaldasan, Babylonian, Assyrian, Median, and Persian 
bas-reliefs and casts in the British Museum, and in those of 
Berlin, Munich, and Zurich, are useful supplements to written 
documents, and furnish ample materials for the history of 

of Ancienit Arms. 23 

the armament of these military monarchies, from, the 
thirteenth to the seventh century B.C., for, in contradistinc- 
tion to all Hindoo and Egyptian monuments, the subjects of 
these sculptures, which are nearly all provided with cimei- 
form inscriptions, offer for the most part warlike episodes, 
and show us the entire armament of the soldier duriiig 
seven centuries. In this interval military eqtiipment appears 
to have changed but little, and the valuable evidence of 
Sennacherib (b.c. 712 — 707) informs us that the Chaldsean 
soldier was armed like his Assyrian contemporary. 

The infantry soldier of the regular troops wore for defen- 
sive armour the helmet with chin-strap, sometimes orna- 
mented with a crest of horsehair ; a round buckler, and for 
sieges, a long pavois, a cuirass, or, more properly, corselet, 
made with plates of inetal sewed on to woven stuffs or skins, 
and also real coats of mail in steel, such as the fragment in 
the British Museum shows, or sometimes a long tunic, 
probably of buff leather. Leggings, or greaves, covered the 
front of the leg as high as the knee-joint. The offensive 
arms were the lance, sword, sKng, and bow. The auxiliary 
soldier, like the militia, wore either a helmet^ without a crest 
or chin-strap, or a frontlet with chin-strap of leather or metal, 
resembling that worn by the Frankish-Merovingian warriors. 
The buckler, generally breast-high when round, and two- 
thirds of the height of a man when it was long, was usually 
squared at the base and rounded at the top ; it covered nearly 
the whole body of the man, who wore a long tunic, and had, like 
&e regular soldier, for offensive arms, a sword, which hung at 
the left side, a lance, sling, BJid bow. The Persian archer 
on the bas-reliefs of Persepolis, the ancient capital of 
the ancient monarchy of- Persia (560), is often covered 
with a casque or bonnet, which resembles in shape the 
cap of the French magistracy. Two mouldings of these 
bas-reliefs, exhibited in the British Museum, also show- 
casques in scales, and with chin-pieces, which greatly re- 
semble those of the second part of the Christian middle 

The Assyrian horseman rode without either saddle or 
spurs, wore a casque with cheek-straps, but -without a crest, 
and whose semi-conical shape, something like the Gaulish 
helmets, differed from those worn by the foot soldiers ; he 

24 Abridged History 

rarely carried a buckler, but wore a cuirass, or rather, coat of 
mail, witb a sort of miner's apron banging from tbe back, which 
resembled the garde-reins in plate-armour of the middle ages, 
and was, like it, intended to protect the lower part of the back. 
He also wore leggings of scales made in the same manner 
as the corselet, and always carried the lance and sword. 

The archer, who is sometimes represented mounted, wore 
the corselet, but seldom the casque. Like the auxiliary 
soldier, his head was protected only by the frontlet. Often 
the lower part of the archer's leg is encased in greaves. 
When on foot he wears the long tunic. In addition to the 
bow, arrows, and quiver, he carries a sword, but not a lance. 
The Assyrians were acquainted with war-chariots, which 
are to be seen on several of their bas-reliefs, carved in the 
thirteenth century e.g., which invalidates the opinion of 
Virgil, attributing their invention to Erichthonius, King of 
Athens, and also those of other authors, who give the credit 
to Triptolemus and Trochilus. We see, too, on these 
valuable granite sculptures, the catapult and the balista, 
whose invention is due to the Assyrians, as classic authors 
affirm. The shape of these war-engines — intended to hurl 
projectiles of all kinds against the enemy, to batter in the 
walls of the besieged cities, and to strike from far oif their 
defenders — differ but slightly from the Greek and Eoman 
ones. As to the ancient Persian arms, the only guides we 
have are a few casts from the bas-reliefs of Persepolis, exhi- 
bited in the Louvre and the British Museum, among those 
of Chaldsea, Babylonia, Assyria, and Media. The defensive 
armour, as we have already mentioned, resembles more closely 
!that of Europe during the middle ages than Asiatic armour. 
They had the helmet with scales, one laid over the other, 
:and with the chin-guard, and perhaps also the vizor turning 
on a pivot. Mithras sacrificing the bull, on a monument 
(an engraving of which is to be seen in De la Chaussee, 
Kom. MS.), wears the helmet with rounded head-piece in 
ithe Etruscan style. This piece of sculpture, which is 
believed to date back to the birth of him who reformed 
Magianism, a time which wavers between the twelfth and 
sixteenth centuries B.C., is not much to depend on. It is 
■doubtful whether the shape of the helmet, and still more of 
the knife, with which the god sacrifices, and which resembles 

of Ancient Arms. 25 

the modem Indian dagger, can really be attributed to the 
ancient Persians, whose language, the Zend, has been dead 
for a long time, though the Ghebir priests use it still, in 
repeating prayers of which they have ceased to understand 
the meaning. The bronze Persian helmet with rounded 
top of the dynasty of the Sassanides (e.g. 220 — 552), pre- 
served in the British Museum, recalls the shape of the 
German round-topped casque of the tenth century. 

After the fourth dynasty, that of the Caliphs (652), until 
the end of the twelfth, that of the Mongols, and other 
Mahomedan rulers, Persian weapons take an entirely Mus- 
sulman character. During the dynasty of the Sophis 
(1499 — 1736), Persian weapons have hardly changed form, 
and greatly resemble one another. The miniatures in a 
copy of the Schah-Nameh, or Eoyal Book, composed by the 
poet Ferdusi, in the reign of Mahmoud (999), and copied at 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, now in the library 
at Munich, show nearly the same shape of helmets, and the 
same weapons that are stiU used in Persian warfare, from 
whence comes the scimitar, a name derived from the 
Persian chimichir, or chimchir, a weapon called seymitar by 
the Germans, and acinace by the Eomans, the forefather of the 
sabre, the German Sable, or Sabel, which was already 
known by the Dacians, and on the farther shore of the Ehine, 
about the fourth century, and introduced into the rest of 
Central Europe at the beginning of the first Crusade. 

The Chaldasan and Median weapons are often confounded 
with those of Assyria. The soldier of ancient Babylon — 
which was peopled by Chaldseans from the sea, whose capital 
was Teredos — nevertheless appears to have worn, instead of 
the conical casque, a metal head-dress, similar to that 
represented on a Persian bas-relief, already mentioned, and 
which has the shape of a French judge's cap. Media, the 
most powerful kingdom among those which were formed 
from the ruins of the first Assyrian empire, can with diffi- 
culty be separated in treating of the armament of its troops, 
from Persia, and particularly inasmuch as its first king, 
Arbaces, did not live more than 759 years B.C., and that 
the kingdom of the Medes was, in 536, already absorbed 
in that of Persians under Cyrus. From this time forward 
the terms Medes and Persians are always spoken of to- 

26 Ah-id'ffed History 

getherj and employed indistinctly for tte inhabitants of these 
two different countries, so .that even the Persian wars against 
the Greeks have been called Median wars. 

Without taking into account the-fabulous history in whicb' 
the Hindoos place their origin at a date of exaggerated' 
antiquity, we may fix the first known dynasty of kings, that 
of the Chandras, at B.C. 3200, a dynasty which had probably 
been preceded by many periods of civilisation, now lost to us. 
It is much to be regretted that the English officials who 
have successively governed India should not have gathered 
more of the numerous and splendid architectural ruins, 
which even now cover the soil. The few sculptures in the 
British and South Kensington Museums are insufficient, nor 
do the Louvre or the Berlin Museum possess any of the 
peculiar carvings, figures twisted and contorted in the style 
of the European religious sculptures of the end of the seven- 
teenth and beginning of the eighteenth century. And none 
of the museums possess any monuments for the study of 
Hindoo armom-. The photographs exhibited at the Kensing- 
ton Museum, which represent a large number of ruined 
palaces, temples, and a few commemorative stones in sculp- 
tiu'ed granite, show that the Hindoos, like the Egyptians, 
cared Httle to perpetuate their feats of arms on buildings, 
for among all the sculptures there are only a few stones of 
Beejanuggur, the Hunguls, which represent warlike subjects, 
nor do these date farther back than the first haK of the' 
Christian middle ages. The figures represented betoken 
that Hindoo war-harness has changed but little as regards 
offensive armour ; and it is only in the casques that a radical 
change has manifested itself, since the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries of our era, when the Arab taste began to 
react against that which had nearly effaced it, in its own produc- 
tions. As to the Javanese armour, there is only a fine 
statue of the Goddess of War in the Museum of Berlin, 
which gives a few indications, though not very ancient, by 
reason of the sword which she carries. 

The funereal and civil monuments of Egypt — a country 
where the genius of the nation turned inore towards agricul- 
ture and the sciences than towards war — also exhibit far fewer 
military subjects than do those of Assyria. Denon, in his 
" Voyages dans la Basse et Haute Egypte," has, it is true, 

of Ancient Arms. 27 

given a few drawings of weapons, as also • has M. Prisso 
d'Avesnes, in liis " Monuments E^^tiens ;" but these are too 
few, even when combined with the bas-reliefe of Thebes, and 
the few actual weapons presei'ved in' the musemns of J Londoii, 
the Louvre, and Berlin, to' convey an. exact idea of the arm- 
ing of the whole pi the Egyptian forces. In the , drawings 
we find a helmet, which recalls the fool's cap and bells of this 
Christian middle ages, and the casque of the Hindoot 
Hungul ; a coat of bronze scale armour, drawn by M. Prisse 
d'Avesnes from a monument of the age of the Pharaohs 
(eighteenth dynasty, B. c. 1000), judging from a Biblical 
inscription engtayed on one of the scales, which measures 
an inch and a half iii length, by three-fourths of an inch 
in breath. The buckler, square at the base and rounded 
at the top, has a hole pierced in ,it, through which the 
soldier can see thfe enemy without imperilling his safety ; 
this buckler was nearly the height of a man. The bow, 
the arrows with their qtiiyer, a hlow-warder — a peculiar- 
instrument, which brings to mind the small round shield with 
hooks, and the swordrhreaher of the middle ages, and intended 
like the latter to catch and break the adversary's sword ; a 
few swords, or rather knives, with a single edge, in the style of 
the Meroviugian " scrama saxe," and rarely the lance with a 
metal head ; these are all that we know of the armour of 
this country, for the kind of hood on the wounded warrior, 
from a bas-relief of Thebes, does not enable one to dis- 
tinguish whether it be a piece of defensive armour or a simple 
covering. The few daggers in bronze exhibited in the 
l^yptian museum at the Louvre seem by their shape to 
indicapte a Greek origin, though the weapons were found in 
Egypt. The coat in crocodile's skin in the Egyptian mu- 
seum of the Belvedere at Vienna, and the bronze dagger in 
the museum of Berlin, appear, nevertheless, to be of very 
great Egyptian antiquity. 

Etruria, Greece, and Eome, have fortunately left us wea- 
pons in which art manifests itself as well in the harmony of 
form as in the detailed execution; and it is only by starting 
from the epoch when these countries were flourishing that a 
history of weapons can be based on' a firm footing, by study- 
ing the pieces exhibited in a large number of museums. 

The offensive and defensive Greek weapons in the time of 

28 Abridged History 

Homer (b. o. 1000) were all composed of bronze, though iron, 
as we are aware, was not unknown. The defensive armour 
was composed of the cuirass, breast- and back-plate, each 
plate cast or hammered in one piece, and also the corselet of 
imbricated scales, the casque, the large round convex shield, 
and the greaves, or leggings. The offensive weapons were 
the cut-and-thrust sword, straight-bladed, at first short and 
broad, afterwards longer and double-edged, sharp-pointed, 
with a rectangular sheath, always worn on the right side ; 
the " parazonium," a short, broad dagger (resembling the 
" langue de boeuf " of the middle ages), worn on the left, the 
lance, from eleven to fifteen feet in length, the blade broad, 
long, and sharp, rounded towards the socket, and with a cross- 
piece in the centre, and which was used either to thrust or to 
throw, and the javelin, with its amentum or thong, which 
was a kind of long arrow. The Greeks had at that period 
no cavaby ; they had even no phrase to signify mounting on 
horseback, similar circumstances being probably the reason 
why the French language lacks a substantive to render the 
German word " Eeiteu." Later on, in the year b. c. 400, the 
Greeks made an addition to their armies by enrolling slingers 
and horsemen. 

The Etruscan armour, a portion of which ought to precede 
in this work Greek armour, shows in its first period the 
influence of the Phoenicians, and in its second that of the 
Greeks, with whom the Etruscans, after the emigration of 
.ffineas, were so closely allied. The third period is purely 
Eoman, and is involved in obscurity. Polybius, born in the 
year 552, after the foundation of Eome, or 202 before 
Christ, is the first author who has described the arms of 
a Boman soldier, and speaks only of those of his own time. 
The information left by this tutor and friend of the second 
Scipio Africanus, taken with the small indications furnished 
by monumental sculptures on the borders of the Ehine in 
Germany, by the columns of Trajan and Antoninus, and by 
the Arch of Orange (in France), comprise almost all that is 
known on the subject. Thanks to the poems ascribed to 
Homer, we have much better information about the Greek 
arms in use in the tenth, or possibly in the thirteenth, 
century before Christ, at the time of the siege of Troy, than 
on those with which this sovereign people subdued the 

o/ Ancient Arms. 29 

world. It is very probable that the Eomans, as well as the 
Greeks and Etruscans, at first used only bronze in the fabrica- 
tion of their offensive weapons, but in the time of Polybius 
this metal was no longer employed except for casques, breast- 
plates, greaves, and other arms of defence. Whilst bronze 
was still the only metal in use among the Gatds, the Bomait 
weapons were already made wholly of iron and steel. 

The Eoman army was composed of three kinds of troops, 
the velites, or foot soldiers lightly-armed, the Jiastarii, spearmen, 
or legionaries, and the cavalry. The first were armed with 
small javelins, about four feet in length, the iron of which 
measured nine inches, with swords, and with a light shield, 
roimd or oval, three feet in diameter, and called parma, on 
account of its round shape. This was the same kind of 
shield which the gladiators used. The casque had generally 
cheek-pieces, but no crest, though sometimes it was orna- 
mented with woH-skin. The spearman was protected by a 
helmet of iron or leather, ornamented with a plume of three 
black and red feathers, by greaves (ecreoe), by a breast- 
plate (or cuirass with two shoulder-pieces), all of bronze. 
He also carried a large convex shield of wood, leather, and 
iron, four feet in length and two and a half feet wide. TTis 
weapons of attack were the Iberian (or Spanish) sword, worn 
on the right side, similar to the Greek soldier, two javelins, 
one of which was the celebrated pilum of the legionary, 
which we shall meet at a later period in the Frank equip- 
ment. The slinger was armed with the sling, copied from 
that cajried by the Achseans. 

The cavalry soldier in the time of Polybius was equipped 
Hke the Greek. As before that time the cavalry soldier's only 
weapon of defence had been a roxmd, oval, or hexagonal shield 
of bull's hide, it was now foimd necessary to equip him in a 
more complete style, so as to resist the formidable attacks of 
barbarians. Later on, in the time of Trajan and of Septimius 
Severus, a flexible cuirass was added, being either a squamata, 
composed of small iron or bronze scales sewed on linen or 
leather, or a hamcUa, made of metal chains — ^the same kind of 
coat of mail as those that have been found at Avenches, in 
Switzerland, and which are at present exhibited in the 
museum of that town. On examining the Trajan Column it 
will be seen that a great many of the soldiers represented 

30 Abridged History 

on it have breast-plates that are made neither of mail nor 
scales, but of long plates of metal, something like the armour 
of the middle ages ; and from the bas-reliefs on this monu- 
ment it will be seen, that the Roman army was composed of a 
great number of troops whose different equipments varied 
as milch as the/ do how in our modem armies. 

The ancient Eomans as well as the Greeks made use of 
machines in war. Besides the scythe chariots originally 
imported, like many other instruments of warfare, from 
Assyria, they were acquainted also with battering-rams, 
which lad been already in use at Palss-Tyros (the ancient 
Tyre, founded about 1900 B.C.), and are mentioned in the old 
Testament. Ezekiel (599 b.c.) says that the king of Babylon 
used battering-rams against the walls of Jerusalem. (Ezekiel, 
ch. :xxi. V. 22.) 

Of these instruments of war, already referred to, the halista 
was used to shoot enormous arrows, and the catapult, or tormen- 
tum, even larger projectiles, some of which were ingot-shaped, 
sharpened at both ends ; these in Greece were often inscribed 
with the word AEAHI (receive this), as we may see by 
several leaden specimens, which have, been found in making 
excavations. Among the Greeks those catapults which fired 
point-blank were called a}&vTova, while those which carried 
missile's as our mortars throw shells were called iraXivTova. 

Another engine used in warfare was the tolleno, a kind of 
weighing machine with two baskets attached to it which was 
used to deposit the attacking party in the besieged place. 
M. Ehodios makes mention in his treatise IIEPI nOAE- 
MIKHS TEXNHS (Athens, 1868) of a catapult, or more pro- 
perly portable balista, something like the crossbow of the 
middle ages, which he describes and illustrates from the 
Byzantine MSS. ; but we doubt if the kind of crossbow that 
M. Ehodius calls gastrafetes, because the crossbow-man used 
to rest it on his stomach, can be traced back to the Greeks 
and- Eomans, for the ancient writings do not mention it. 

We have already seen from the introduction that several 
of these machines of war, described by Heron, Philon, and 
Vitruvius, and which were called respectively, eutJiyiones, 
xybeles, palintones, and scorpion catapults, have been made at 
the present day for Napoleon III.'s collection of arms. With 
regard to the polyspaste or crane of Archimedes (an engine 

of Ancient Arms. 31 

whicli was used to raise and shatter to pieces wJiole vessels) 
a good deal of uncertainty exists, but there is good reason to 
believe that it may be identified with those enormous hooks 
that were used to pulL off the heads of the batteriirg-rams. 
The. shell-like covering or shed tmder which the battering- 
ram was worked was called <e«iij(fo,- or tortoise, from its 
resemblance to the shell of that animal. 

M. Ehodioa has' also told us in Jiis very interesting work 
that his ancestors, the Greeks, . made use also of explosive 
machines, somewhat like an air-cannon or air-gun of the 
present day on a gigantic scale. 

Bronze arms, showing more or less in their make the 
influence of their ahdent models, have been found in the 
tombs of almost all those European nations whioli the 
Eomans usedtooaU barbarians; but those of Scandinavia 
(Northern Geriaany and Denmark) are like the Danish arms 
of the stone age, far superior to those of other northern 
countries, and falling very little short of the arms of the 
Greeks and Eomans tKeinselves. The specimens contained 
in the museums of Copenhagen and of London, placed, 
as they are, side by side with the arms of the Britons 
and Anglo-Saxons, show what progress the art of working in 
metal had already made. The defensive armour of the 
Scandinavian soldier seems to have consisted only in the 
round or oblong shield, the cuirass, and the casque, although 
not a single , specimen of the latter is to be found in the 
museum at Copenhagen; and' the large twists of liair 
worn seem to prove that the casque was used only by the 
chiefs, a custom prevailing also among the Franks and 
Germans. The casque with horns found in the Thames, and 
preserved in the British Museum among the national arms, 
may very likely have been of Danish origin, as well as the 
shield exhibited side by side with it. 

In treating of the arms of Keltic Gaul and of Lower 
Brittany, our researches are attended with still greater com- 
plications. It is very difficult, in fact almost impossible, to 
draw up a distinct category of those that have been found in 
France. On this point all is uncertain. Even that famous 
weapon, the celt, an axe, or, more properly speaking, axe-head, 
easily recognisable from its straight socket and ring, has been 
found in Eussia, in France, in Italy, in Germany, and in 

32 Abridged Eistonj 

England — a fact wMcli shows the extreme difficulty of an 
accurate classification. The kelts seem to have been spread 
in every direction, and to have belonged to no country in 
particular. As late as the time of Julius Caesar the defensive 
arms of the Gtauls were, like their offensive arms, of bronze, 
and consisted of a conical casque, very pointed, like those ex- 
hibited in the museum at Eouen, and worn most probably only 
by the chiefs. We cannot even attribute this casque entirely 
to Gaul, for some have been found at Posen, and at Inn, in 
Bavaria, where this helmet is exhibited in the national , 
museum of Munich, under the title of Hungarian or Avar 
helmet. The cuirass was the same as the one worn by the 
Roman soldier, some specimens of which are to be seen in 
the Museum of Artillery in Paris in the Louvre, and at Saint- 
Germain. The shield completed the defensive arms. From 
the carvings on the sarcophagus of the Vigna-Ammendola, and 
from those on the Arch of Orange, we see that the shield 
was sometimes round and sometimes oblong, but rather wider 
in the middle than at the ends. The weapons consisted of 
an axe, which varied considerably in shape ; with this is often 
classed the celt, which we incline to believe to have been a 
javelin-head ; a sword, which also varied in its form, being 
sometimes the short Greek sword, sometimes the three-edged 
sword, without a guard to it, such as may be seen in the 
Eoman bas-relief of the Melpomene in the Louvre. The 
lance, the javelin, and the bow, were among their weapons. 
The Gallic standard with the device of the boar, represented 
on one of the bas-reliefs of the Arch of Orange, is a proof of 
the influence of Eoman taste in armour. One of these made 
of bronze, was discovered in Bohemia, and is now exhibited in 
the museum at Prague. The arms of the Germanic nations 
during the so-called bronze age were as varied as those of Gtaul. 
The numerous excavations that have been made in the 
cemetery of Hallstatt in Austria, where more than a thousand 
Germanic tombs have been opened, have only served to increase 
our imcertainty on this subject, for the bronze casques found 
in these sepulchres, together with other weapons made of 
iron, bronze, and stone, are exactly like the double-crested 
casques preserved in the museum of Saint-Germain, that 
are generally supposed to be Etruscan, or Umbrian, though 
by some considered Keltic. We find among the ancient 

of Ancient Arms. 33 

Britisli weapons exMbited in the museums in England, some 
that were in shape like the Danish, and among the arms 
found at Hallstatt the celt frequently occtu-s ; the short swords 
remind us strongly of those of Greece, while the Scandi- 
navian and Gennanic ones bear the same characteristics, 
without taking into account the so-called Keltic sword — an 
epithet, by-the-bye, unpleasantly vague. 

The bronze weapons belonging to this age that have been 
discovered in Eussia and in Hungary consist almost entirely 
of battle-axes and spear-heads. Several of the Russian axes 
are ornamented with the device of a ram's head. 

The period which by common consent is usually though 
improperly called the Iron Age, ought, logically speaking, to 
end at the close of the fifth century, that is, after the down- 
fall of the Western Empire, but many carry it as far as the 
end of the Carlovingian dynasty, a.d. 987 — a very easy but 
not very correct limit to assign. 

Its proper termination is undoubtedly that period imme- 
diately preceding the age of chivalry, that is, the seventh and 
eighth centuries. 

We have already seen that iron was known in all times, 
but that when universally adopted for the purpose of making 
arms of defence and offence, bronze was still in use. The 
Eomans very soon learnt the superiority of the iron over the 
bronze weapon for offensive purposes; they accordingly 
used bronze only for arms of defence. In the year 202 b.o. 
the Roman soldier was furnished with weapons of iron only, 
and there is no doubt that, in the second Punic war, this 
fact contributed in no small degree to the Eoman victories. 
Several of the iron weapons discovered in the cemetery of the 
Catalauni (in the department of Marne), and which are at 
present preserved in the museum of Saint-Germain, would seem 
to be of Germanic origitt, because the swords are very like 
those found at Tiefenau and at Neufchatel in Switzerland — 
weapons probably made by the Burgundians, who were so 
celebrated for working in iron. Helvetia, which in the year 
450 had been rendered almost desert by those systematic 
massacres perpetrated by the Eomans, was repopulated about 
550 Aj). by the Burgundians, numbers of which people had 
abeady settled in the west, by the AUemanni, who took pos- 
session of that portion where German {Allemand) is spoken to 


34 Abridged Uistorij 

this day, and by the Ostrogoths, who settled in the south, 
where Italian and French is now spoken. The Burgundians 
were a tall, strong race, and from the length of their sword- 
hilts we see that they must have had very large hands. A 
battle-axe and two iron spear-heads, found near the village 
of Onswala (Bara-Schonen) in Switzerland, prove conclusively, 
from the difference of their shape, that they must have be- 
longed to a people who were neither Gauls nor Franks, but 
most probably Burgundians. 

The arms of the Germanic races generally are very little 
known ; we only know that their favourite weapons were the 
lance, the battle-axe, and the sword ; and that their shields 
were painted in bright colours — usually white and red ; that 
they were made of plaited osier covered with leather, and 
generally about eight feet by two in size. Their shields were 
subsequently made of lime-wood bound with iron ; but the 
iron framework of several round shields, with very prominent 
bosses (a shape which seems to have been particularly in 
favour with the Franks), has been discovered at Sigmaringen, 
in Bavaria, in Hesse, in Silesia, in Denmark, and in England — 
these shields being everywhere adopted. The battle-axe of 
the Northern Germanic races is easily distinguishable from 
that of their brethren of the south by its different shape. The 
francisque, the characteristic weapon of the Franks, is not to be 
foimd anywhere ; those discovered being always of the Saxon 
shape. The only remains of a Germanic cuirass belonging 
to these ages that have been discovered, are those at present 
exhibited in the museum at Zurich, and which were found in 
the territory originally occupied by the Allemanni. The 
workmanship of this cuirass is very curious : it is made of 
small metal scales joined together. The Quadi were most 
probably the only people who had armour made of horn. 

Concerning the Franks and their mode of equipment, our 
information is fuller than with regard to any other nation of 
those times. This we gather from several authors, Sidonius 
Apollinaris, Procopius, Agathias, and Gregory of Tours, &c., 
and also from the numerous excavations that have been made 
in the Merovingian cemeteries, by means of which we can 
make out a nearly complete classiiication of armour, such as 
was originally worn by these rude warriors. This armour, 
which was, on the whole, not unlike that of the Germans" 

of Ancient Arras. 35 

consisted of a small circular shield of convex sliape, about 
fifty centimetres in diameter, and made of wood or leather. 
No helmets or cuirasses have yet been found, but we know 
from history that their chiefs wore them. The common 
soldier used to have part of his head shaved, and had a 
pig-tail like a Chinaman ; only that it was twisted round 
Ms head to form a protection for it, somewhat in the style 
of a helmet, and dyed red. But with weapons of offence 
he was well provided : these consisted of a double-edged, 
smooth, narrow sword, two feet eight inches in length, and 
pointed at the end, and the long dagger or cutlass about 
twenty inches in length, called a scrama saxe : the latter part 
of the word means a knife, the first part being derived either 
from the word scamata, a line drawn on the arena between two 
contending gladiators, or from scrarsan (to clip), from which 
word is derived the German Scheere. Hence scrama saxe would 
mean either a cutting-knife, or otherwise a duellist's knife. 

Many of these knives have been found with very long 
tangs. A specimen is to be seen in the museum of Zurich 
more than nine inches in length; another at Sigmaringen, 
ten inches in length. Some archeaologists try to persuade 
themselves that these swords were intended merely for hewing 
wood, because the length of the haft seems to prove that 
both hands were used ; but the scrama saxe is undoubtedly 
a weapon, and not an implement of husbandry, as we inva- 
riably find it in the tombs of warriors laid side by side 
with the long spaiha. 

This weapon appears to have been generally in use 
by all the Teutonic nations, inasmuch as the museum of 
Copenhagen as well as most of the German and Swiss museums 
contain specimens of it. The blade is single-edged, sharpened 
to a point, and scooped out in several places to make it lighter 
and more serviceable. These weapons, which M. Penguilly 
I'Haridon has restored in such perfection for the " Mus6e Im- 
p&iale d'Artillerie " at Paris, were attached to a leathern belt, 
furnished with clasps. The javelin, or ' pilum,' with a barbed 
point, the lance with a long iron head, and the battle-axe, 
completed the list, bows and arrows being more frequently- 
used for the chase than for war. The javelin being hurled 
at the enemy's shield, could, if fixed therein, drag it down by 
its weight. 

36 Abridged Eidory 

The Frank used then to follow up his attack with the 
sword or with the francisque, a single-edged weapon — not 
double-edged, as many have asserted — often making use of this 
likewise to hurl at the foeman's shield when the javelin had 
not taken effect. 

The sword said to have belonged to Childerio I. (457-481), 
and still preserved in the Louvre, has been so imperfectly 
restored that it is impossible to form a correct idea of its 
original appearance. The pommel has been placed on the 
lower part of the hilt instead of the upper, so that it looks a 
second guard, and gives the weapon an utterly absurd shape. 
We unfortunately have neither documents nor arms which 
would enable us to give a detailed account of the manner in 
which the Franks were armed between the end of the Mero- 
vingian and the beginning of the Carlovingian dynasty. The 
sword and spurs that are said to have belonged to Chai-le- 
magne are almost all that remains, for the ivory cover belong- 
ing to the Antiphonarium of St. Gregory, made in the end of 
the eighth century, has Koman characters traced upon it, 
and was no doubt copied from a diptych. We must look in 
the Bible of Charles II., surnamed " le Chauve," and even 
on that we must not place much reliance, for the artist 
has evidently allowed his fancy to guide him in some 
of the illustrations. In one of these the king is re- 
presented sitting on a throne, surrounded by guards clad 
like Eoman warriors, in mantles like those worn by the Pre- 
torian guard; whilst in a bas-relief now in the church of 
Saint-Julien at Brioude (Haute Loire), made in the seventh 
or eighth century, a warrior is represented in a coat of 
mail, and a conical helmet ; and in a German MS. of Wes- 
sobrunn, at Munich, written in 810, the soldiers have 
helmets that come low down on the neck, and round shields. 
It is impossible to reconcile either of these pictures with the 
evidence of the monk of Saint-Gall, who -nTote as an eye-wit- 
ness about the end of the ninth century, and says that Charle- 
magne and his soldiers were literally encased in iron ; that the 
emperor wore an iron helmet ; his arms were protected by 
plates of iron, his thighs by scales of the same ; the lower part 
of his legs was protected by greaves, and his horse was clad 
in armour from head to foot. This testimony is confirmed 
by the laws of that sovereign, who ordered that all warriors 

of Ancient Arms. 37 

should wear ai-mlets, helmets, leg-pieces, and also carry a 
shield. Although the Codex aureus evangelia of the monastery 
of Saint-Emeran at Ratishon, a work undoubtedly written 
about 870 a.d., shows in the equipment of the soldiers many 
Eoman characteristics similar to those in the Bible of Charles 
le Chauve before mentioned, and of the Codex aureus of Saint- 
Gall, it is hardly likely that such a retrogression should have 
taken place in the days of Charles II. from the formidable 
and complete equipment in the reign of Charlemagne. The 
Leges Longohardorum of the ninth century, which are pre- 
served in the library of Stuttgard, confirm these doubts, for 
in them the king of Lombardy is represented bearing a long 
shield like those worn in the fourteenth century, and the 
bas-relief on a shrine of the ninth century in the treasury of 
the church of Saint-Maurice in Switzerland, shows a warrior 
in a complete suit of mail armour. 

After these we find a singular dearth of historical and 
archsBological traces, with the exception of the Martyrologium, 
a manuscript preserved in the same library, and the Biblia 
Sacra, another MS. in the Imperial library at Paris ; both 
these MSS. are of the tenth century. In these the German 
knights are already armed in the same manner as the Norman 
knights that are represented in the Bayeux tapestry about the 
end of the eleventh or the beginning of the twelfth centuries. 

As we remarked above, there is a great scarcity of docu- 
ments on this subject during the Carlovingian period, from 
the year 687 to 1)87 ; but for the period of the Crusades 
(1096 to 1270) our information is much fuller. 

An Anglo-Saxon MS. of the British Museum library, the 
PsychomacMa et Prudentius, written in the tenth century, repre- 
sents a soldier without any coat of mail, but wearing a helmet 
with a rounded crown, like the soldiers in the Biblia Sacra 
mentioned above ; whilst another Anglo-Saxon MS., called 
Aelfric, written in the eleventh century, represents a knight 
in mail armour, with a helmet of a very singular shape, having 
no nose-piece to it, though in the Martyrologium, a MS. written 
in the tenth century, now in the library at Stuttgard, the soldiers 
are represented wearing helmets with the nose-guard. The 
Aelfric MS. is particularly interesting to the archKologist for 
the various shapes of swords it gives, for by the length and 
shape of the blades one can fix the date with tolerable accuracy. 

38 Abridged Hidory 

In the illustrations of this MS. may be seen swords with tri- 
Idbated hilts, like those borne by the warriors in the Biblia Sacra. 
The German knight, however, is armed in a very different 
manner in the Jeremias Apoealypsis, a MS. of the eleventh 
century, in the library at Diisseldorf. He is there represented 
as wearing a hauberk with long sleeves of mail, and the upper 
and lower part of his hose are of the same material ; while he 
also carries the little bassinet and the long-pointed shield of 
a convex shape, square at the top and pointed at the end. The 
same armour may be seen on one of the statues of the founders 
of the cathedral at Naumburg, of the same date ; the only dif- 
ference being that the shield on that statue is of the shape 
that is generally called in France, Norman. We also see 
the same armour in the sculptures of twelfth-century date 
on the gate of Heimburg in Austria, a town close to the 
Hungarian frontier. The warriors on the mitre of Seligenthal 
in Bavaria, on which the artist has represented the martyr- 
dom of St. Stephen and of St. Thomas Becket, have very tall, 
rounded helmets, like sugar-loaves in shape. A bas-relief of 
the eleventh century, in the basilica at Zurich, represents the 
Duke of Bourckhard with helmet and sword, the shape of which 
reminds one of the weapons of the Martyrologium of Stuttgard. 
A statuette in yellow copper of the tenth century, in the col- 
lection of Count Nieuwerkerke, is very interesting, because the 
nose-piece of the helmet is much broader at the bottom than 
others of the same time. The Bayeux tapestry, which was 
made soon after the conquest of England by William the Con- 
queror, in the year 1066, is our best authority on the subject of 
Norman armour, as it shows us the manner in which soldiers 
were armed about the end of the eleventh and first part of the 
twelfth centuries. The conical helmet on the bas-relief of 
Brioude is also to be seen in the tapestry, but it has generally 
a fixed nose-piece, similar to the casques in the Martyr- 
ologium of the tenth century. Henry I. of England (1100) 
and Alexander I. of Scotland (1107-1128) are represented on 
their seals wearing the conical helmets, called in Franco 
Norman ; it is only toward the end of the twelfth century 
that we find helmets with round crowns worn in England, 
similar to that on the seal of Richard I., Coeur de Lion 
(1189-1199), though this same kind of casque was worn in 
Germany as early as the ninth century. (See MS. of Wes- 

of Ancient Arms. 39 

sobniim, and tho reliquary of the churcli of Saint-Maurice.) 
On the other hand, the frescoes on the dome of the cathe- 
dral at Brunswick, painted in the reign of Henry the Lion, 
Tvho died in the year 1195, represent Imights wearing conical 
casques, and others already provided with rounded helms. 

About the end of the tenth and beginning of the eleventh 
century, a knight wore usually a long tunic or hauberk 
(called in German BaZ«6ergr; in old German, hrunne or hrunica), 
that extended to just above the knee, and with sleeves which 
at first reached to the elbow, but were subsequently brought 
lower down on the arm. He also wore a sort of hood called 
a camail, which covered the greater part of the head and 
neck, so that only a little of the face remained exposed. 
This hauberk or smock frock was made of leather or linen, 
and had either strong wrought iron rings, sewed on it side by 
side, or chains placed either lengthways or crossways, or 
metal plates in the shape of scales. In the Bayeux tapestry 
William the Conqueror is represented with the lower part of 
his stockings covered with rings, while the knights, like the 
Anglo-Saxon warriors, have their feet bound round with 
thongs. The statue of one of the founders of the cathedral 
at Naumburg, a building of the eleventh century, mentioned 
above, wears leggings covered with mail, and the figures re- 
presented on coins of the reign of Henry the Lion, Duke of 
Brunswick, have the same kind of armour. 

The Norman hauberk, therefore, was a sort of close-fitting 
upper garment, with stockings attached to it. It was made 
in one piece from the neck to the knees, and reached down 
to the elbows. The camail was a separate garment, and pro- 
tected the back of the neck, the head, and a portion of the 
face ; but amongst the Normans additional safety was afforded 
by the conical helmet, fitted sometimes with a long nose-piece, 
and sometimes with a guard for the back of the neck. 

The hauberk is generally represented having a lattice- 
work, and in each of the squares large iron rings sewed 
on, or the heads of nails riveted. In the designs on the 
MSS. it is almost impossible to distinguish the one kind from 
the other. Coats are also to be seen, made entirely of iron 
scales, and hauberks latticed all over, but not having either 
nails or rings fastened to them. The Veleslav manuscript, 
in the library of the Prince Lobkowitz at Eaudnitz, seems 

40 Abridged History 

to prove that the knowledge of body-armour in BoHemia 
had not made very much progress in the thirteenth century ; 
but, nevertheless, we already find pointed mailed shoes in use 
(a la poulaine), hats, large iron helmets, and small shields. 
The latter may also be seen in the valuable MS. of that time 
called the German Jilneid of Henry I. of Waldeck, in the 
library at Berlin. In this last-mentioned MS. the horses are 
covered with housings in lattice work and studded with nail- 
heads, and the knights have high helmets with crests, two 
things that were very rare at that time. The German MS. 
Ti istan and Isolde, written in the thirteenth century, now in the 
library at Munich, is also very interesting, for in it we see 
the knights armed with leg-pieces of plate and solerets, or 
small shoes, a la poulaine. 

The defensive armour of the Norman was completed 
by a shield, generally pear-shaped, being rounded at the 
top and pointed at the bottom, and of a sufficient size to 
cover the body, reaching as it did a little above the shoulder 
and just below the hip. The Anglo-Saxon shield was round 
and convex, something like those of the Franks, and also 
like the circular buckler of the fifteenth century. His wea- 
pons consisted in a long cross-hilted sword, which was never 
very sharp, a mace, a battle-axe with either a long or short 
handle, and a lance with a little pennon hanging to it, about 
two feet in length. The sling and the bow were their missile 
weapons. The helmets worn by the archers were mostly 
without a nose-piece. The best kind of latticed, or chequered, 
hauberk was made of several layers of stuff with wadding 
between each, quilted and kept together by pieces of leather 
placed so as to form diamond shaped spaces, a ring or nail- 
head being sewed in each space, and also on every inter- 
secting angle. The coats of scale armour, usually called 
jazerans [Iwrazims), are very rare at this period ; in fact, 
we may venture to say there were probably none. The 
earliest one that I can trace in the manuscripts of the 
middle ages is a kind of shirt of mail worn by a knight in 
the Codex Aureus of Saint-Gall, written in the ninth century. 
Nevertheless we must not fail to make a distinction between 
these _/aze)'ans and those of a later date, for in the museum 
at Dresden there is a genuine specimen of the latter kind that 
King Sobieski wore before Vienna, in the year 1629. It 

of Ancient Arms. 41 

seems that hauberks made of scale armour were not at all 
uncommon in the north, for they are to be seen on many of 
the coins of Magdeburg from 1150 to 1160, as well as 
several other German coins of the same date. 

AU these coats of mail above mentioned may be divided 
into four sorts of ringed coats, made of flat rings sewed on 
side by side ; coats made of oval rings, each one placed so as 
to overlap haK the next, coats made of lozenge-shaped pieces 
of metal, and coats with scales. 

The real coat of mail, which is erroneously thought to have 
been brought from the East after the crusades, was already 
in use in the centre and in the north of Europe some time 
before the eleventh century. Some pieces in the shape of rings, 
about a quarter of an inch in diameter, have been found at 
Tiefenau ; they are of perfect workmanship and date, certainly 
some hundreds of years before the crusades. The epic poem 
of Gudrun relates how Herwig took off his hauberk and placed 
it upon his shield ; and a little farther on, how his clothes 
were covered with the rust of his hauberk. The " Enigma 
of Aldhelm," a work written in the eleventh century, mentions 
this " lorica as being made entirely of metal, having no tissue," 
a passage which certainly describes the original coat of mail. 
It is also spoken of in the Boman de Bou, written after 
the Norman conquest. It must be about this species of 
coat that the Byzantine Prinoesse Anna Comnena (1083-1148) 
speaks of in her memoirs, when she says " that it was made 
entirely of steel rings riveted together, that it was unknown 
at Byzantium, and was only worn by the inhabitants of 
the north of Europe." The coat of mail is also mentioned 
by a monk of Mairemontiers, who lived in the time of 
Louis VII. (1137-1180), who has given a detailed description 
of the armoiir of Geoffrey of Normandy. 

The lattice-worked coat, as well the hauberk covered with 
chains or rings, although proof against arrows, were of no 
avail against heavier weapons, such as lances ; in addition to 
this, they were found to be too heavy and cumbersome, and so 
were given up by degrees, so that we find, at the beginning 
of the thirteenth century, coats of mail very generally worn 
by the richer knights— a defence which, like the former, 
was of no avail against rude shocks, but which the art of 
wire-drawing, invented in 1306 by Eodolf of Nuremberg, 

42 Abridged History 

brought within the reach of the poorest knights. The in-ought- 
iron rings had been previously made one by one, and then 
riveted together, so that on this account coats of mail were far 
too expensive to be used by the poorer knights or by the simple 
man-at-arms. At the battle of Bouvines in 1214, the armour 
of the men was in a very perfect condition. They had ankle 
and knee-pieces, coats, a kind of shirt called oamail, arm- 
guards, all made of mail, and so closely worked that thoy 
were proof at every point against the dagger, the detestable' 
misericorde and the Panzerbrecher, so that in order to kill an 
unhorsed antagonist one was forced to beat him to death. 

During the whole of the reign of St. Louis (1226-1270) 
the whole suit of mail was in general use amongst people of 
means in France and Italy. It was alike on both sides, with- 
out any seam, and was slipped on like a shirt ; over it was 
worn a garment of quilted stuff or leather, called a gamboison 
or gambeson ; for a long time this latter garment was the only 
species of defensive armour worn by the foot soldiers in 
Prance. In that country the armour of the common horse- 
men during the middle ages was very imperfect, for the 
French towns, not being nearly as rich or as influential 
as the large German, Flemish, and Italian cities, were unable 
to organise regular bodies of townsmen properly armed. The 
gamboison of the sixteenth century was made of linen embroi- 
dered with eyelet-holes. Plate armour, made at first of leather, 
and later on of steel, was in use at a much earlier period in 
Germany than in Italy, for some German MSS. of the thk- 
teenth century represent knights in this new sort of armour 
with the lieaume complete, whilst in Italy we do not find 
any trace of it till the fourteenth century. 

Over the coat of mail the knights commonly wore a sort of 
loose frock made without sleeves ; it was of a light material, 
and was called in German Waffenrock. It reached as far as 
the knee, and on it were embroidered the armorial bearings' 
of its owner. This coat was generally the work of the Cas- 
tellan's lady. The large hauberk, sometimes called the white 
hauberk (die ganze Briinne), was made entirely of mail, and 
in France the knights alone had the right of wearing it. It 
weighed from twenty-five to thirty pounds (French), and was 
composed of a long tunic, with the hood, sleeves, and stockings. 
Subsequently the hands were covered with mittens of mail, 

of Ancient Arms. 43 

the thumb alone Laving a separate division. Under this coat 
was worn a large plate of iron, which covered the whole of the 
chest. At this time such was the usual armour of the Trench 
cavalry. The small winglets that were attached to the shoulder- 
pieces of the earlier coats of leather and of horn, were sorts 
of escutcheons, which varied in shape ; the oval form heiug 
usually preferred, like those on the statue of Eudolph of 
Hierstein in the cathedral at Basle. These winglets, as well 
as the shield, had the arms of the owner blazoned on them. 
They were, however, in use for about fifty years only. 

The small bassinet (called in Celtic bac) must not be con- 
founded with the larger bassinet or casque that was in use 
from the thirteenth to the beginning of the fifteenth century. 
It was worn as often under as over the camail, and between it 
and the head was a cap of quilted stuff, sometimes fastened by 
strings to the bassinet. Over this was worn, during tourna- 
ments or in battle, the heaume (derived from the German 
lielrn), an enormous helmet, which, at first, had no crest, 
usually carried at the saddle of the knight when riding. 
The long shield, rounded at the top and pointed at the 
bottom, completed the equipment. Subsequently the large 
bassinet was worn underneath the lieaume, which became 
in consequence even larger than before. The habergeon, 
a species of small hauberk, was worn only by the shield- 
bearers, archers, men-at-arms, and such like. It was after- 
wards called a jaque, and came again into fashion in the six- 
teenth century. It is very difficult to fix the exact date of 
each separate kind of coat, for all the coats of mail were made 
in the same way ; that is, in small links, called a grains d'orge, 
from their resemblance to barleycorns. Still we may gene- 
rally take it for granted that the thicker and heavier the link 
the more ancient is the coat. Chambly on the Oise was cele- 
brated for the manufacture of a double tissue of links, which, 
according to the authors of the period, was made with four 
rings joined on to one ; still I very much doubt if such a coat 
were ever really made. Many of the coats of mail that one 
sees now-a-days are counterfeit, and can easily be detected by 
an amateur from the fact of their not being riveted. 

The Persian coats of mail, however, are still as often made 
with riveted as unriveted rings. Briganiines, which were so 
often confounded with the Tcorazins, and even with the hauberks, 

4-1 Abridged History 

are not to be found earlier than the fifteenth century, at which 
time they began to be in general use, particularly in Italy. 
They were worn by the archers on horseback, and by knights 
of moderate means. Some of these were made of thin plates 
covered with silk velvet, and were worn by nobles in Italy 
instead of the quilted doublet, as a protection against bandits. 
Charles le Temeraire used to wear one. The brigantine was 
generally made of thin rectangular plates of metal, each one 
being riveted on to the lining, and overlapping half the other. 
In several museums these hrigantines have been exhibited on 
the wrong side, with the scales on the outer side ; this is evi- 
dently an error, for we can see by the curved scales that they 
were meant to line the brigantine, which was worn over the 
ordinary doublet. 

Their principal weapons were the lance and the sword, the 
hilt of which during all this time had remained unaltered as 
to the straight guard for the hand. 

Towards the end of the thirteenth century the hauberk 
began to be shortened, and, arm-guards and leg-pieces made 
of prepared leather or steel being added, a radical change 
soon began. 

In the fourteenth century we see German armour, made of 
plates of steel, and called plate armour [Schienenriisiung), 
gradually gaining ground. This armour, particularly when 
of good workmanship and well jointed may, when found in the 
north of Europe, be assigned to a much earlier period than 
in Italy and France : in these countries the transition period 
lasted till the reign of Philip YI. (1340), at which time 
even complete suits of plate armour did not yet exist. 

In the German MS. of Tristan and Isolde, written in the 
thirteenth century, knights are represented clad in plate 
armour, wearing helms, and their horses completely clad in 
armour, though the illuminations of a Burgundian MS. in 
the " Bibliotheque de 1' Arsenal " at Paris, a work supposed 
to have been written by the Duke of Burgundy, Jean Sans- 
Peur (1404 to 1419), but apparently of the fifteenth century, 
show Burgundian armour in a far less advanced state. 

These illuminations satisfy me on a point which I had already 
noticed in the Swiss arsenals ; that is, that black armour was 
more extensively used among the Burgundian and Sardinian 
nations, and bright steel ar mour jjBgfig the Austrians. 

of Ancient Arms. 45 

While this new kind of armour had been substituted for 
the hauberk of mail, the under-garments had also undergone 
a change. Doublets without sleeves, but with hose attached 
to them, were worn, very like in appearance to the common 
dress of little boys at the present day. 

This doublet was made entirely of linen, slightly quilted, 
and having rings of mail under the breast-plate and under 
the knees and arms, so as to protect the body wherever the 
armoiu: was weakest, and wherever an opening might occur 
for the sword or small three-sided poniard (called in German 

The only specimen of this dress that has been handed down 
to us at the present day is to be seen complete and in capital 
preservation in the museum at Munich. 

It will not be amiss here to correct an erroneous idea, 
which has sprung up that the men of the days of chivalry 
were taller and broader than the men of the present day ; the 
fact being that, with very few exceptions, they must have 
been of smaller make, for the armour from the fourteenth to 
the sixteenth century is too narrow for any one of average 
proportions now-a-days to wear. I made several experiments 
in the arsenals of Germany which strengthened the opinion I 
had already formed by inspecting other collections. It is in 
the shape of the leg and calf that the superiority of the pre 
sent race may be seen ; for it is almost impossible for any 
one of the present day to make a leg-piece of the middle 
ages or of the Eenaissance period meet round the calf. 

During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the form of 
plate armour underwent a great many changes, which varied 
according to the country and the period. 

The influence of the changes in ordinary costumes, and the 
alteration in the manner of fighting through the invention of 
firearms, may be traced in the altered form of the armour. 
During the greater part of the fifteenth century the armour 
was usually Gothic in style. The shapes of the swords and 
breast-plates of that time are very tasteful, some of them being 
among the most beautiful ever made. 

Towards the end of the fifteenth and beginning of the six- 
teenth century the breast-plate was often rounded in shape, 
the passe-gardes had increased to an extravagant size, the 
tassettes of jointed work were made even more curved than 

46 Abridged Histortj 

before, and the whole armour be^an to lose its beauty and 
simplicity as well as its severe and formidable character. 

The fluted armour, which was invented in Germany, and 
was indiiferently called Milanese or Maximilian, marks the 
period of the decay of chivalry ; for the cuirass of the time of 
Henri II., which is very like a close-fitting coat in shape, as 
well as the breast-plate, which resembles the deformed figure 
of Punch, have lost all manly character. 

Very shortly armour assumed a most grotesque appearance. 
The breast-plate was made smaller and flattened, whilst the 
long cuissarts, that had taken the places of tasseis as thigh 
coverings, were brought round behind so as to cover the 
loins — all these alterations making the wearer look like a 
lobster. We soon find top-boots taking the place of greaves, 
so that as early as the time of Henry IV., and still more so 
in the reign of Louis XIV., armour had almost disappeared ; 
in losing its massive character it had become of very little 
use, and in a very short time tanned leather took its place. 
In Germany as well as in France during the Thirty Years' 
War, the huffletin with its high stock took the place of the 
cuirass ; the latter was worn only on special occasions. 

We are able to distinguish and classify armour through ob- 
serving the characteristics of its period, which are as easily 
recognisable as in the civil costumes of the same dates. 
For instance, the conical casque, called in France Norman, 
so often represented on monuments of the tenth century ; the 
heaume, made according to the English pattern with nose-piece, 
or according to the German pattern with vizor, belonging to 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries ; the crested helm, from 
the thirteenth to the fifteenth century ; the small bassinet or 
cerveliere, which used to be worn under the heaume ; the 
larger bassinet belonging to the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries ; the salade of the fifteenth century ; the metal head- 
coverings and saucepan helmets, tho earliest specimens of 
which are to be seen in the manuscripts of the tenth and 
eleventh centuries ; the different sorts of burgonets in the 
sixteenth ; the armet or helmet of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries (the last technical name applied in the trade 
to a headgear) ; the morion and the cabasset, both of which, 
being lighter sorts of helmets, were worn only by the in- 
fantry — all these different pieces of armour help us, by their 

of Ancient Arms. 47 

stape and general characteristics, to fir the date of their 
make with tolerable accuracy. 

The importance of the buckler among the northern nations, 
and particularly among the German race, gave rise to an art 
which was quite original in its way. We shall see shortly 
that the shield was a much more important portion of the 
armour in mediseval than in ancient times. It is on the Ger- 
manic shield that the feudal spirit is first to be traced, 
as on its surface may be seen the origin of armorial bearings. 
When Tacitus, writing in the first century of our era, stated 
in his " De Germania " that the Germans were in the habit of 
painting their shields with all sorts of gay colours and devices, 
he was ignorant that these devices were a sort of hierogly- 
phic denoting the most famous deeds achieved by the owner 
of the shield. This custom was so general among the Germans 
that the words for painter (^Sdiilder) and the verb to paint 
(ScMldern) in old German are derived from Schild, a buckler. 

These records of deeds achieved, whether they were re- 
presentations of the weapon by the aid of which they had been 
accomplished, or of the enemy or monster overcome, remained 
during the warrior's life as his distinctive badge — a custom 
which proves that, at the outset, armorial bearings were not 
hereditary ; for as the son could gain no credit in any way 
from the deeds of his father, he was obliged to conquer in 
his turn so as to be able to have his shield painted — a fact 
to which Virgil refers when he says " Parma inglorius 

From the beginning of the tenth century tournaments 
became so frequent in Germany that in a short time armorial 
bearings were considered common to the whole family, then 
to their descendants, and in a short time strictly hereditary. 

It was about the beginning of this century, and some time 
before the crusades, that, in order to facilitate the recog- 
nition of the new nobility, a knight, when he arrived at the 
barrier of the tournament, used to deposit there his shield 
and his helmet, which was a sign to the heralds (derived 
from the German Herald, noble crier) that the bearer of 
these arms had the right to engage in the tourney. 

In the eleventh century, at the time of the first crusades, 
almost all Europe had adopted these distinctive marks, and 
from that time armorial bearings and the art of heraldry have 

48 Abridged History 

existed amongst Cliristiaii nations, and even amongst the 
Moors in Spain. 

It was not long after this that the nobles took to adding 
to their names the name of their castles or of their lands — a 
custom which gave rise to the fashion of differences in 
family arms. 

The Normans as well as the Franks introduced into 
France at a very early period the custom of wearing armorial 
bearings. The shields of the Norman knights were all 
painted with representations of fantastic animals, which were 
clearly their personal arms. 

The shield has varied in shape more than any other part of 
defensive armour. The Keltic, the German, the Scandinavian, 
and British shields — all furnished with a boss — the square 
Germanic shield of the anti-Merovingian period ; the buckler 
of the Merovingians, Carlovingians, and the Anglo-Saxons ; 
the long painted shield of the tenth and eleventh centuries, 
generally called the Norman shield ; the triangular shield of 
the same epoch ; the small shield of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries ; the German shield called pavois ; the 
manteau d'armes ; the round shield of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries ; the buckler and the target — had all their 
distinctive features and names, and open a large field for 

The shape and make of the gauntlet also helps us in most 
cages to fix the date of the armour vdth tolerable accuracy. 

The first kind, which was used in the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries, was only a sort of bag made of mail, formed 
from the end of the sleeve of the hauberk. In the fourteenth 
century the regular gauntlet, with separate fingers to it, 
came into fashion, which again in the iifteenth century was 
superseded by the mitten. The mitten was made of thin 
plates of steel, with joints, to enable the hand to move freely, 
and it is to be found in the armour of the Pucelle d'Orleans. 
It is also of this mitten that Bayard speaks when he says, 
" Ce quo gantelet gagne, gorgerin le mange." Towards the 
middle of the sixteenth century gauntlets were again mad© 
with divisions for the fingers, the invention of pistols and 
firearms having rendered this necessary. 

About the fourteenth century coverings for the feet, mado 
of thin plates of steel or iron, called solerets or pedieuse, 

of Ancient Arms. 49 

xvore universally adopted ; and in the north, as early as the 
tweKth and thirteenth centuries, when also the lower part of 
the mailed hose was superseded by tumelieres, or plates of 
armour. The form of the soleret is a safe indicator of its 
date; it originally terminated in an ogival point; which 
gradually began to grow longer, till at last it assumed a very 
extravagant length, like the chaussures a la poulaine. 
From 1420 to 1470 these shoes were worn in a fashion 
called I'ogive tiers point ; from 1470 to 1550, sabot et le 
pied d'ours; after 1570, hea de eanne ; but it is difficult 
to fix the precise date when the changes took place. At the 
end of the seventeenth century top-boots had taken the place 
of solerets and greaves. The shape of the shoes called 
a la poulaine is only useful in helping to fix the date of a 
suit of armour when one is certain of the country to which 
they belong, for they were adopted at different times in 
different countries. This kind of shoe called a la poulaine 
was in fashion in France from 1360 to 1420, while, on the 
other hand, as early as at the battle of Morgarten (1315) the 
Austrian knights are said to have cut off the long points of 
their shoes on dismounting from horseback ; and still earlier 
(1154-1189), Henry II., of England, wore shoes a la poulaine 
for the purpose of hiding a deformity on one of his feet. 
The fashion, however, first originated in Hungary. 

The defensive armour worn by horses has imdergone 
changes of fashion as well as that worn by men, for the 
fluted armour was used as a protection for the breast, the 
nose, the sides, and the hind-quarters of the horse; the 
oldest representation of this kind of armour that I have been 
able to find is on a coin of the time of Henry the Lion of 
Germany (1195), where the horse belonging to the duke is 
covered with a trellis-work, with heads of nails riveted into 
the squares, the same as those represented in the German 
.ffineid of the thirteenth century of Henry of Waldeck, now 
in the library of Berlin. 

The spur in use till the eleventh century had a straight 
point, but no rowel. After that time the point was made so 
as to slope upwards slightly, while in the thirteenth century 
it was made with a bend or crook in the shank, but the 
rowel does not appear to have been used till the fourteenth 
century, when it generally had eight points. Dtiring the 


50 Abridged Histori/ 

■fifteentli and sixteentli centuries the shank bscame longer and 
longer, till at last it was transformed, through the fancy of 
the artist, into a mere toy. The saddle varied much in 
shape, particularly those used in tournaments. The cele- 
brated wooden saddle made in Germany, and constructed 
so as to prevent the tilter remaining seated, is the rarest. 

The list of swords is very long, and comprises the rapier, 
a duelling and fencing sword — a weapon which cannot be 
traced earlier than the first half of the sixteenth century, 
about which time, in the reign of Chai-les V., the art of 
fencing was first introduced — tlie ancient claymore, which had 
not a basket hilt, as is generally supposed ; the scimitar ; the 
sabre already employed among the Daoians in the time of 
Trajan ; the yatagan, the cangiar, the flissat, the koukris, have 
as many varieties as the dagger, the poiguard, the stiletto, the 
khouttar, and the cris. The lance, the pike, the mace, the 
morgenstern, the scythe and the sickle, the boar-spear, the 
hammer, the flail, the hatchet, the halberd, the corsesea — a 
kind of spear — the roncone, the partisan, the spontoon, the 
war-fork, and the bayonet, furnish as many subjects for 
study and research as do the sling, the fustibale, the bow, 
the cross-bow, and the sarbaoane, or blow-pipe. 

All those machines formerly used in war, such as the 
balista, the catapult, the trehuchet, the battering-ram, and 
many others, had been adopted by the Christians of the 
middle ages, who added a large number of their own inven- 
tion — a fact which we gather from the manuscripts of that 
period, and of the Eenaissauoe. 

Nevertheless, we must not put implicit faith in the 
supposed existence of all the machines described and re- 
presented in these MSS. ; very few really existed, the greater 
number being merely designed by the inventors. But it is 
quite as certain that fire-barrels and incendiary arrows 
were hurled by means of these engines, as that pots of 
unslaked lime were shot into a besieged town to blind 
the eyes of the defenders. Leonard Fronsperg has described 
the way in which they were used in his work, Kriegahucli, 
published in 1573 ; and in the museum at Zurich are 
exhibited some specimens which were found under the ruins 
of an old castle. 

It is worth while observing, that from the fourteenth 

of Ancient Anns. 51 

century until the end of the fifteenth, knights, par- 
ticularly in Prance, had adopted a habit common likewise 
in England, Germany, and Italy, of dismounting and fight- 
ing on foot — a practice adopted, as our readers will re- 
member, at the battle of Crecy (1346). It is to this sacri- 
fice of old traditional dignity that may probably be ascribed 
the change in construction of armour which took place in the 
reign of Charles VII. (1445). 

The Musee Imperiale d'Artillerie possesses two of the finest 
suits of this new kind of ai-mour, which were originally in the 
Ambras collection ; but it appears to me that they must have 
been useless for all practical purposes. I do not belieye it 
to be possible for a man to move in this double-jointed 
armour. It would be very interesting if the directors of this 
museum were to cause some experiments to be made for 
the purpose of deciding this question. 

At the end of the twelfth century, when toui'naments 
became a regular practice, the want was felt of some 
better protection for the head against the formidable thrusts 
of the heavy lance, not unlike the trunk of a tree in size and 
cumbersomeness, and which later on was fixed to the cuirass 
as in a vice, by means of a hook called faiicre, or rest. The 
heaume, that enormous helmet that covered the camail and 
the hassinet, the earliest existing specimens of which are of 
English origin, was soon added, and was fastened to the rest 
of the armour by means of screws and chains. 

The introduction into tournaments of the laws of chivalry 
is thought to date from about the twelfth century, although 
tournaments, conducted on a certain method, but not i-egu- 
lated by any fixed laws, date much earlier. Some tourna- 
ments are known to have taken place in Germany as far back 
as the ninth century, which accounts for the great perfection 
to which the manufacture of armour had been carried in that 
country. According to the registers existing in difforent towns, 
no fewer tban a hundred and eighty regular tournaments 
must have taken place at different times, not including a 
large number of smaller " passages of arms." The most im- 
portant, starting from the ninth century to the end of the 
twelfth, were almost all of them held in Germany, and are, at 
Barcelona in 811, on the occasion of the coronation of Count 
Linofre ; at Strasburg in 842, in the reign of Charles the 

62 Abridged History 

Bald; at Eatisbon in 925, under Henry tlie Fowler; at 
Magdeburg in 932, under the same ; at Spires, under Otho I., 
in 938 ; at Eothenburg in 942, under Conrade of Tran- 
conia; at Constance in 948, under Lewis the Swabian; at 
Merscburg, on the Saale, in 968 ; at Brunswick in 996 ; 
at Treves in 1019, under Conrad I., and another also at 
Treves in 1029 ; at Halle in 1042, under Henry III. ; 
at Augsburg in 1080, under Hermann of Swabia; at 
Gottingen in 1118, and again in 1119; at Liege in 1148, 
under Theodore of Holland, in which took part fourteen 
princes and dukes, ninety-one counts, eighty-four barons, 
one hundred and thirty-three knights, and three hundred 
nobles; at Zurich in 1165, under Duke Guelph of Bavaria; 
at Beaucaire in 1174, under Henry II. of England; at 
Corbie in Picardy in 1234, where Floris IV. count of 
Holland was slain. 

These tournaments often occasioned much bloodshedding, 
at one time as many as sixty people being killed in one 
passage at arms. Notwithstanding the anathema launched 
by Pope Eugenius, in the ninth century, against these 
barbarous sports, they increased more and more, so that after 
the return of the first Crusaders, when hereditary arms were 
universally adopted, it was found necessary to institute a 
regular heraldic code, which, though very complicated, still, 
by its strict regulations, gave to this military exercise a 
chivalrous bearing, which in Provence assumed almost the 
character of romance. It is a fact that in these tourna- 
ments, which took place of course in time of peace, as 
many, if not more, titles of knighthood were conferred than 
in battle ; and it was on these grand occasions that noble 
alliances were generally formed. As the young country 
squire passed most of his time in hunting in the vicinity of 
his castle, placed on the top of high rocks, or in the midst of 
thick forests, he had no other opportunity of meeting the 
daughters of nobles but at tournaments, at which places 
they displayed their charms, being dressed out in finery 
and stuffs of. such brilliant colours, that the rude en- 
closures and galleries seemed to contain nothing but perfect 
baskets of flowers. Whilst the most beautiful lady, who was 
usually the queen of the day, was distributing the prizes to 
the winners, all the ladies remained standing, and the knights 

of Ancient Arms. 53 

nsed to look round and select their partners for dancing, and 
not unfrequently also for life. It was for these very fetes 
that many nobles ruined themselves in the desire to eclipse 
their rivals in the richness of their armour and accoutre- 
ments, a step which often reduced them to a state of depend- 
ence on the Hebrew usurer. 

These tournaments are generally divided into three sorts, 
the German Bennen or tilt, the German Stechen or passage at 
arms, and the German Fausstournier ; three sorts, which in 
Germany became subdivided into eighteen. These divisions 
and limitations were too strict and precise for the middle 
ages, for in the fetes of that time these arrangements and 
restrictions were set at naught far more than is supposed by 
the authors of the sixteenth century, whose imagination is as 
fertile on this subject as on that of war machines. 

The armour usually worn for tilting is supposed by some 
authors to have been lighter than that used in war, but this 
is an error, as it was really a great deal heavier. It is clearly 
impossible for a man to have borne the weight of one of those 
polished steel suits of armour so well known by the beauty 
of their design, their massive character and enormous weight, 
for more than an hour at a time. The passage at arms 
was, however, often mixed up with the 'joust ' (the latter 
being always practised on horseback), for the combat was 
very often continued on foot with the same armour after one 
of the combatants had been unhorsed. Suits of armour made 
specially for foot combats are very rare, and in the designs 
of fifteenth-century date, preserved in the Maximilian 
Museum at Augsburg, we see that in tournaments the wooden 
mace (hoTbenturnier) was not the only weapon employed, for in 
the melee knights are represented as wearing the heaume, and 
carrying swords attached to their breastplates by means of 
small chains, whilst others are using that less dangerous 
weapon the wooden mace mentioned above. 

'i'he Gothic armour which originated first in Germany 
spread rapidly wherever the spirit of chivalry had shown 
itself It is to be found in England, France, Spain, and even 
on the classic soil of Italy, but in all these places it has under- 
gone certain modifications, according to the customs and tastes 
of the nation. In Italy armour has always been marked by 
an incompleteness of style, though the designs and execution 

54 Abridged History 

of the ornaments are usually very artistic. The artists of 
that country were too much influenced by a natural prejudice 
in favour of classic traditions to be able to abandon the 
Pagan for the new style, which was characterized by great 
simplicity of treatment and by a complete change from that 
of the past age. They also seemed to forget that the 
changes introduced into the manner of lighting required a 
corresponding change in the armour. 

The Arab invasion in Spain acted rather as an impulse for 
improvement in the making of armour than for its decadence, 
as some authors would have us believe, for the decline in 
the manufacture of armour did not take place till after the 
expulsion of the Moors from Granada in 1492 ; and although 
after this the Spanish artists had recourse again to the Gothic 
style it was only for a short time, for the decay of this art 
was complete in the reign of Charles V., on account of the 
influence of the Italian school. The art of painting alone 
freed itself at length from this unhealthy foreign influence, 
and some of the finest master-pieces conspicuous by their 
originality and beauty date from this era. As to the oriental 
arms of the present day, they are almost identical in make 
to those that the eastern nations manufactured hundreds 
of years ago. We see particularly in the illustrated copy of 
the Schah-Nameh, or Eoyal Book, that is in the library at 
Munich, a poem written by the poet Ferdusi in the reign 
of Mahmoud, the founder of the Ghaznavides, 999 years 
after Christ, that Persian equipment was in the sixteenth 
century exactly the same as it is at the present day. 

We find very little change in Chinese and Japanese armour, 
for although a slight alteration can be traced in costume 
throughout these various epochs, separated by hundreds of 
years, the form of arms has remained stationary. The 
sabres, iron-forks, pikes, swords, and even cuirasses and 
helmets exhibited in the Musee d'Artillerie at Paris, used in 
the last war, are identical with those dating centuries back, 
that may seen in the Tower of London and elsewhere. 

War machines, the artillery of ancient times, were adopted 
by the middle ages with very slight modifications from those 
used by the Romans, for we see from the illustrations of the 
period that their construction was almost identical. We can 
have no doubt of these machines having really existed, new 

of Ancient Anns. 55 

proof liaving been afforded to us by tlie remains of balistas 
found under the ruins of the castle of Itussikon in Switzer- 
land, wbicb was destroyed by fire in the thirteenth century. 
These remains, together with a large number of broad arrow 
heads, are preserved in the cabinet of antiquities at Zurich. 
In some illustrations by Zeitblom in a manuscript of the 
fifteenth century belonging to the library of Prince Wald- 
burg Wolfegg, we have a representation of the catapult or 
tormentum of the ancient Eomans, known in French imder 
a slightly different form by the name of ' onagre,' and very 
like one in the " Eecueil d'anciens pcetes frangais " in the 
Imperial library at Paris. The records of Mons also make 
mention of these catapults, but we can nowhere find any 
traces of the pohjspasie. Besides these machines for hurling 
missiles used in the middle ages, many others were invented 
for the defence of camps and of besieged towns, such as arc 
seen in the water coloux drawings, executed by Nicolaus 
Glockenthon in 1505, of the arms and armour collected to- 
gether in the three arsenals of the Emperor Maximilian. Two 
collections of drawings dating about the beginning of the 
fifteenth century, which are as well as the above in the 
" Ambras collection," represent a species of diving-dress not 
at all unlike the modern ones. Still, as we have already said, 
too much faith must not be put in the real existence of all the 
machines which are represented in the MSS. of the middle ages 
and of the Eenaissanoe, for in those times the minds of men 
were as fertile in constructing machines for the destruction 
of human life as they are now, and these drawings may at 
times represent projected ideas rather than accomplished 
facts. Passing on to hand weapons, we find at this time, as 
at all periods, the sling, the fusiibal, and the bow everywhere 

The crossbow which M. Eodios supposes to have been 
identical with the dostrafeies of the Greeks, seems to me to 
have been an invention of central Europe, and to date no 
farther back than the tenth century at earliest ; for if it 
had been known elsewhere, the Princess Anna Comnena 
(1083-1148) could scarcely have been ignorant of it, 
inasmuch as M. Eodios gathers his information frcm 
Byzantine MSS. The princess states, however, " the tzagara 
is. a bow unknown among us." 

56 Abridged Historij 

The sling and tbe fustibale CwHch was only a sling witli a 
handle fastened to it) were used as late as the sixteenth 
century for hurling fireballs and grenades, as may be seen 
in the paintings by Glockenthon, mentioned above. 

The bow was used by the Germanic races for hunting 
only ; for the Franks, Saxons, AUemanni, Burgundians, 
Angli, Catti, Cherusci, Marcomanni, and many others, 
scorned it for warlike purposes, considering it too childish 
and treacherous a weapon, and preferring to it even the battle- 
axe or the anjon for missile purposes. 

In the Bayeux tapestry Normans and Anglo-Saxons are 
alike armed with bows, and it must be admitted that at 
the battle of Hastings both sides made good use of tliem. But 
the Germans continued to make very little use of missile 
weapons until the invention of the crossbow. The Norman 
bow was small, being only about a metre in length, while 
the bow used by the English archers, who were so celebrated 
for their skill in archery about the thirteenth century, 
measured two yards in length, and varied according to the 
height of the person who used it. The rule was that the 
bow should measure the exact width between the two middle 
fingers when the arms were outstretched. The English 
archers were so expert, that they were able to discharge as 
many as twelve arrows in a minute, which rarely, if ever, 
missed their mark. 

The Italian bow, generally made of steel, was about a 
yard and a half in length, like the German bow. The 
English arrow was a yard in length. 

In the twelfth century, an archer usually carried two 
cases, one of which was tlie quiver (called couin, in old 
French ; in German, Flitz) ; this held tBe arrows, which, 
according to the records of Saint Denis, were then called 
'pilles and sayettes ; the other case held the bow. The points 
of the arrows were of various shapes, some of them being 
square, like the crossbow bolts, with two, three, or four 
points, whilst others were barbed like ancient arrows. There 
were also some of cork-screw shape, others petal-pointed, 
and even crescent-shaped, for hamstringing men and horses. 

The crossbow mentioned by the name of tzagara by Anna 
Comnena is also spoken of by William of Tyre in tht? 
year 1098, about the time of the first Crusade. In the reiga 

of Ancient Arms. 57 

of Louis VI., surnamedle Gros (1108-1137), this crossbow was 
in general use in France, and a law was passed at the Lateran 
council held in 1139 forbidding its employment amongst 
Christian nations, though, strange to say, it authorised the 
use for the purpose of slaying infidels and miscreants. In 
England, however, Eichard CcBur de Lion (1189-1199) al- 
lowed crossbowmen to form part of his army, notwith- 
standing the pastoral letter of Pope Innocent III. PhiHp 
Augustus (1180-1233) organised in France some bodies of 
crossbowmen on foot and on horseback ; soon these regi- 
ments became so important that their commander took the 
title of grand master of crossbowmen, a high post in the 
army, and next in rank to that of marshal of France, and 
it was not tUl 1515 that this of&ce was united with that of 
grand master of artillery. 

In the charter of Theobald, Count of Champagne, about the 
year 1220, it is said, " Chacun de la commune de Vitre aura 
XX livres, aura aubeleste en son ostel et guairiaux, etc." 
Crossbowmen are also mentioned in the chronicle of Saint 
Denis. The first paintings representing crossbowmen are in 
an Anglo-Saxon MS. of the eleventh century, now in the 
British Museum, also in some frescoes in the cathedral at 
Brunswick, painted in the reign of Henry the Lion, who 
died in 1195, and in the chapel of Saint John at Ghent, in 
paintings done in the thirteenth century. It is well known 
that Boleslaus, Duke of Schweidnitz, introduced amongst 
his subjects the practice of shooting with the crossbow in the 
year 1286, and a little later it was introduced at Nurem- 
berg and Augsburg. Charles VII. had caused to be planted 
in all the cemeteries in Normandy yew-trees for the manu- 
facture of crossbows ; in point of fact, throughout France 
this weapon had entirely superseded the long bow, which 
however continued to be used in England till the end of 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603), at which time 
all archers were armed with open casques and brigantine 
coats. The bow used by the English was much superior 
to the French crossbow, for the crossbowman couM with 
difficulty shoot three bolts to the bowman's twelve arrows. 
Moreover, the rain often slackened the string of the cross- 
bow, while the bow-string could easily be protected. The 
loss of the battle of Creoy (1346) was in great part owing 

58 Abridged History 

to this circumstance, wliicli rendered it almost impossible for 
the French to return the unerring shots of the English archers. 
In 1356, after the defeat at Poitiers, the inferiority of the 
crossbow became so evident, that in France corps of archers 
were organised, who soon became so expert that the nobility 
grew fearful of their power, and had them disbanded. In 
the year 1627, at the siege of La Koohelle, there were some 
English archers in the pay of Eichelieu who distinguished 
themselves at the attack on the Island of Ee. 

- The crossbow had also become a favourite weapon amongst 
the Germans, who had improved it in various ways. In 
France it fell out of use in the seventeenth century, when the 
corps of crossbowmen was finally given up. The crossbows 
of the cavalry were lighter than those of the infantry, and 
the string was stretched by means of a simple lever, called a 
goat's foot. This species of windlass was called cranequin, 
and the foot-soldiers who used it were surnamed Graneque- 
niers ; Monstrelet, however (1390-1543), calls iheui Petau- 
diers and Sibaudiers. 

There are seven different sorts of this weapon. 

The Goat's foot crossbow, used by the cavalry. 

The Windlass crossbow, generally called cranequin crossbow, 
which, as mentioned above, caused the infantry to be called 

The Latch crossbow, also called a tour and de passot, 
specially adapted for sieges and for shooting at a mark. 
This was the weapon used by the Genoese at Agincourt 

The German crossbow, having the wheel attached to the 

The crossbow a galet, or pebble crossbow of the sixteenth 
century, so called from the round pebbles, leaden bullets, and 
earthenware balls that were shot from it instead of bolts. 
The Germans called it Balestre, from its being somewhat 
large in size. 

The ramrod-crossbow, a heavy and comparatively useless 
weapon of the time of Louis XIV. 

The Chinese crossbow, fitted with a case which turned on 
the stock by means of a lever moved by the wrist, and which 
furnished twenty arrows in succession, just like our modern 

of Ancieni Arms. 59 

The projectiles carried by these crossbows, with tlie ex- 
ception of the bullets mentioned above, were called carrels or 
carreaiix, from the square shape of the head. The viretmi 
was a bolt furnished with feathers, or thin pieces of wood or 
iron, which were arranged in a curved direction round the 
shaft, BO as to impart a rotary motion to the bolt. Another 
bolt called matras had a round disk or head, which killed 
without piercing whatever object it struck; it was, however, 
oftener used for the chase than in war. It was especially 
useful in bringing down such beasts as the hunter might 
wish to preserve with the skin uninjured. 

We now come to fire-arms, the use of which in Europe 
cannot be traced back earlier than the fourteenth century, 
and on this subject our researches are attended with many 

The Chinese knew of gunpowder for several centuries 
before its use was general among us. It was believed 
for a long time to have been the invention of two monkS; 
Constantino Amalzen or Schwarz (1280-1320), belonging 
to the convent of Friburg in Breisgau, but it is now 
supposed to have been known to the Kelts and to all the 
ancients. In the Palafittes, or lake- dwellings of Switzerland, 
which, thanks to Dr. Keller, have been, so to speak, restored, 
have sometimes been found fire-bullets, which were filled 
with a composition which might very likely have been 
gunpowder. The words Shet a gene (centueur) and 
agenasler (fire-arms ?) found in the sacred Indian books, as 
well as the machines with which, according to Dion Cassius, 
Caligula used to imitate thunder and lightning, seem to 
strengthen our belief in the existence of an explosive 
powder for the purposes of war. Vossius, in his Liber obser- 
vationum, inclines to the same opinion, from a description by 
Julius Afi'icanus, who lived in ihe year 215 A. d. 

The Falarica of the Komans, which was also used in the 
middle ages, and probably identical with the incendiary 
arrow, assigned by Gregory of Tours to a Keltic origin, was 
most likely covered with a preparation of similar materials 
to those used now in the manufacture of gunpowder. 

Callinicus, a Greek, had learnt from the Arabs how to 
make three different kinds of Greek fire, and this secret he 
communicated to Constantine Pogouatus during the siege of 

60 Abridged Sistory 

Constantinople. One of these compositions bore a strong re- 
semblance to gunpowder. The fire-arms which were used 
by Hagiacus and the Arabs in 690, at the siege of Mecca, 
would' lead one to conclude that Mohamedanism was propa- 
gated not only by means of the sword, but also by gun- 
powder. The secret of gunpowder most likely came over 
from India, for the Arabs call saltpetre Thely Sini, which 
means Indian or Chinese snow, and the Persians call it 
Nemek-Tschini, that is, Indian or Chinese salt. The em- 
brasures for cannon constructed in the great wall of China, 
built about 200 B.C., furnish additional proof that the 
Chinese used artillery at this epoch. 

The MS. (Liber ignium ad comburendos hostes) written ■ 
by Marcus GrEecus, 846 a.d., contains a receipt for making 
gunpowder, and also proves that the author was acquainted 
with a composition called raquette. This receipt includes, 
besides other things, six parts of saltpetre, two of sulphur, and 
two of charcoal. We have proof that in 1232 the Chinese 
and the Tartars employed gunpowder regulaily in war, and 
it was also used at the siege of Seville (12i7), and the receipt 
for this powder and for that called raquette, given in the De 
Mirahilibus Mundi, a work written by the Bishop Albertus 
Magnus of Eatisbon in 1280, enables one to assign distinct 
dates on this question. 

Till the commencement of the fourteenth century in Europe, 
what were called fire-arms were only engines which threw fire 
into besieged places for the purpose of destroying the 
buildings and machines of the enemy ; and it is not until the 
end of the fourteenth century that weapons which carried 
leaden or stone bullets were invented, and that the history 
of artillery and fire-arms really begins. Before gunpowder 
was used, victory in battle resulted as much from the mus- 
cular strength of the soldiers as from the strategic skill of 
their leaders or fury of the combatants, for notwithstanding 
the manoeuvres of their captains, it always resolved itself at 
the last into a hand-to-hand struggle of the most exciting 
and deadly kind, which has no parallel in our modern 
v/arfare, though our appliances for the destruction of life are 
much more formidable. 

As soon as artillery began to be used battles changed 
entirely in character. The combatants did not rush on each 

of Ancient Arms. 61 

other after sliooting off a few arrows or bolts, but used to 
station themselves at a distance, and ply destruction among 
each other's ranks with their pieces of artillery, and it was 
not till the end of the action that a hand-to-hand struggle 
for some important locality was needed to decide the day. 
Gimpowder, the process of corning which was known in 
1452, has helped, as well as the art of priutiug, to protect 
modern civilisation against the chance of agaia vanishing. 

In order to proceed systematically in this matter, we must 
divide fire-arms into two categories, one comprising all large 
and heavy pieces of ordnance — such as cannons, etc. — the 
other, all portable arms. 

We are quite justified in believing the traditional story 
that the idea of making use of gunpowder to shoot balls 
through an iron tube accidentally occurred to the inventor. 
While pounding a mixture of sulphur, charcoal, and saltpetre 
together in a mortar, the composition suddenly exj)loded, and 
the man was knocked down ; this proves that it must have 
been from a common domestic mortar that the first idea of 
a cannon was conceived; a touch-hole was added for the 
purpose of firing it without danger. The mortar ought, 
therefore, to be considered as the first European fire-arm. 
Not long after the invention of this weapon several guns or 
mortars were made of pieces or bars of wrought-iron, like 
the staves of a barrel joined one to the other by hoops. The 
largest one is in the arsenal at Vienna, and is three feet 
seven inches in diameter, and eight feet two inches in 
length. The first cannon (a name derived from the German 
Eanne, a drinking-vessel), generally called lombarde, was 
made of wrought-iron, and this was a mortar, though open at 
both ends. The charge was inserted at the lower extremity, 
which was then stopped up with wedges of metal or wood, 
sometimes one whole piece, sometimes several hammered in 
with a mallet. 

This, the most ancient form of cannon, is found in 
■Germany as early as the sixteenth century, but of an im- 
proved shape. It was followed by the charge a la hoite mobile, 
called veuglaire, from the German Vogler, fowler, in which 
the chamber and tube were formed of separate pieces, and 
finally, by the muzzle-loading gun. 

In examining the MSS. and the designs, more or less 

62 Alridged Sistory 

fantastic, of the fifteenth and sixteontli centuries, it appears 
as if the cannon called bombarde, that was open at both ends, 
were more modern than the veuglaire ; but from the pieces 
that still exist, whose origin and date of manufacture is 
known, the veuglaire is proved to be the more modern 

Cast-iron cannons succeeded those of wrought-iron. 

The first mention of the use of fire-arms — perhaps powder- 
arms would have been a better title — which for a very long 
time did not entirely supplant the old-fashioned machines, as 
these, particularly for siege opei-ations, are to be found in 
use throughout the whole of the middle ages, dates as far 
back as the year 1301, when the town of Amberg in Germany 
had constructed a large cannon, and Brescia succumbed 
under a volley of arquebusses (?). In 1313 the town of 
Ghent had stone-throwing guns ; and it was probably from 
Flanders that Edward III. brought over these new weapons 
for use against the Scots in 1227. 

In the year 1325, the Eepublic of Florence granted to the 
priors, the gonfaloniers, and to the twelve municipal magis- 
trates, the right of nominating two oflicers, charged with the 
construction of iron bullets and metal cannons, for the 
defence of the castles and villages belonging to the republic. 

A few years later, in 1328, the Teutonic nations through- 
out the north of Europe made use of large cannons in then- 
wars in Prussia and Lithuania. It was also about this time 
that all the free towns of Germany began to provide them- 
selves with artillery. 

It is stated in authentic history, that at the sieges of Puy- 
Guillern and of Cambrai by Edward III., cannons were 
already in use (1339), and there exist representations of the 
cannons used by the English at the battle of Crecy in 1346. 

On referring to a passage in De remediis utriusque fortunae, 
by Petrarch (1382), it is clear that wooden cannons existed 
at that date in Italy. But I doubt if the small wooden 
cannons made of thick staves covered with leather that are to 
be found in the arsenal at Genoa are of as early a date, and 
may not rather be contemporary with the leather cannons 
used by the Swedes in the Thirty Tears' War. 

In 1428 the English made use of fifteen mortars that were 
loaded from the breech, at the siege of Orleans. 

of Ancient Arms. 63 

When the manner of loading was changed from loading at 
the breech to insertion at the muzzle, the charge was at 
first enclosed in a small copper case, such as is repre- 
sented in the work of Fronsberg, written in the sixteenth 
century, and similar to one exhibited in the arsenal at 
Soleure. Between the ball (which was at first made of 
stone, and called stone, simply) and the charge of powder was 
placed a wooden wad. The charge was at first fired by 
means of a live coal or a red-hot iron, and it was not till 
some time later that a slow match fastened to the end of a 
stick was used. The mantlets or wooden blinds which used 
to be dra\vn down during the time of loading the cannons, 
were for the purpose of sheltering the gunner and his man. 
It was in 1346, at Toumay, that a man named Piers made 
the first experiment with the long-pointed projectiles, which 
may be regarded as the precursors of the conical bullets 
actually used at the present day. According to the Thu- 
ringian chronicles of Eothe, it was the artillery of the Duke 
of Brunswick in 1346 who were the first to use a new kind 
of projectiles, viz., leaden bullets. Not long after this 
some German manufacturers sent over to the Venetians a 
great many iron cannons and balls, that were used with great 
success in the siege of Claudia-Fossa. 

About the year 1400, iron balls superseded those of lead. 
A MS. of the fifteenth century, in the Ambras collection at 
Vienna, contains designs where the gunners are represented 
loading their guns from the breech with red-hot iron cannon- 
balls. This same MS., as well as another in the Hauslaub 
collection, Vienna, shows us also how they used the small 
incendiary barrels in sieges about this time. 

In Switzerland fire-arms were not introduced till a later 
date ; at Basle the first cannons were cast in 1371, at Berne 
in 1413. 

In 1372, at the battle of Ehodes, some of the French ships 
fired carronades. 

With regard to the use of bronze in casting of cannons, 
and of hollow iron and leaden shot, these are mentioned for 
the first time in the casting of thirty guns at Augsburg ia 
1378, by a founder called Aarau. 

In Italy bronze cannon were not cast earlier than 1470. 

The trunnions that support the cannon, keep it evenly 

S4 Abridged Hisiortj 

balanced, and prevent its recoil oif the carriage, appear in 
<jermany as early as the fifteenth century, but it is not 
known who was the first person to introduce this improve- 
ment, the discovery of which was of great importance, as it 
enabled the cannon to move easily in a vertical direction. 

The artillery of Charles the Bold had no trunnions, as 
is generally supposed ; the idea being taken from MSS. that, 
cannot be relied on. The cannons taken at Morat in 1476, 
now in the Museum of Artillery at Paris, and in the Gym- 
nasium at Morat, as well as those taken at Grandson and at 
Nancy, at present in the Museums of Lausanne and Neuville, 
jbave no trunnions. 

Cannons were introduced into Eussia in 1389 ; and the 
Taborites, the avengers of Huss, used howitzers in 1434. 

At first mortars were usually placed on blocks of wood or 
in sorts of sockets {affuts fixes) : later on (1492) they were 
placed on movable carriages that enabled the shot to be 
■directed on any side. The scala lihrorum, or measure 
for the bore, was invented by Hartmann of Nuremberg in 
1440, and it was brought into use throughout Germany 
by the celebrated smelter of Charles V., George Lofler of 
Augsburg, who also instituted a standard of the four sizes 
(which were 6, 12, 24, and 40). It was at this period that 
cast shot was invented, which was destined to effect a great 
change in artillery. 

As to the powder mines, which were preceded in the middle 
ages by firebrand mines, it is generally admitted that they 
were first used, in 1503, at Naples, when it was besieged by 
the Spanish general Gonzalvo of Cordova, though Vannoccio 
Biringuccio attributes the invention to the Italian Francisco 
-di Giorgio. 

The cannons that at first were fixed on wooden blocks and 
cases were soon placed on gun carriages with wheels, and 
shortly after fore-carriages and gear were also used. Towards 
the fourteenth century, chariots bristling with spears, formerly 
used by the ancient nations, were adopted for the defence of 
camps, having small cannons fixed on the framework of the 
car. These were called Bibaudequins, from Bibaud, an 
assistant gunner, and were also used as a cheek against a 
cavalry charge. These cannons were usually placed on two- 
wheeled carriages, and are still to be seen in the designs 

of Ancient Arms. 65 

of Nicolaus Glockenthon, executed about the year 1505, 
after the camions then existing in the arsenals of the 
Emperor Maximilian. 

It is very difficult, in fact, almost impossible, to classify 
exactly, according to the names then in use, all the different 
species of cannons, for very often the same piece was named 
differently in each large city. There were serj>entines (in 
German Hothschlangen'), culverins (FeldscMangen), demi- 
culverins, falcons, and falconettes. There were also mortars 
(^Moerser, or Boeller, or Boiler) that were moved from place to 
place on chariots. In France the names passevolants, basilics, 
spirales, bombardes, veuglaires and pierriers, were used to 
designate various pieces of ordnance. L'orgue a serpentins, 
which was a machine composed of a great nimaber of guns 
of small bore, loaded either from the muzzle or at the 
breech, had each separate chamber encased as far as the 
muzzle in wood or metal : these chambers were fired in 
succession or all at once. 

In Germany they were called Todtenorgel (death-organ). 
Weigel, writing in 1698, says that in the arsenal at 
Nuremberg there were organs with thirty-three pipes to 
them; and that death might be said to play dance music 
on them. One of the earliest of these machines is in the 
Museimi at Sigmaringen ; it was made at the beginning 
of the fifteenth century. It is loaded from the muzzle, and 
is composed of small wrought-iron cannons rudely mounted 
on what looks like the trunk of a tree, and moves on two 
round disks of wood for wheels. Another of these machines, 
termed orgue de danse Macabre, copied in 1505 by Nicolaus 
Glockenthon from one in the arsenals of the Emperor Maxi- 
milian, is composed of forty square-shaped tubes fiarmly 
joined together and mounted on a stand with large wheels 
somewhat similar to the carriage of a field-piece. A third 
one, of the seventeenth century, consisting of forty-two 
barrels, mounted so as to form a triangular block, and to 
fire six successive volleys, is now in the Museum at Soleure. 
From the " fitudes sur rArtiUerie," by Napoleon III., pub- 
lished in 1846, it will be seen that there were some of these 
machines which could fire a hundred and forty shots at 
once. With regard to hand grenades, they appear for the 
first time in 1536, while petards, which are supposed to 

66 Abridged History 

have been invented by the Hungarians, do not appear till 

The Swedes had in the Thirty Tears' War cannons of 
leather lined with a tubing of brass or yellow copper. 
These cannons, specimens of which may be seen in the 
Arsenals of Berlin and Hamburg, in the Museum of Artil- 
lery in Paris, and the collection of the king of Sweden, were 
about three feet seven inches in length. The centre barrel was 
of thin copper, and wound round it was a stout cord that 
separated the leathern casing from the metal tube. These guns 
were not very strong, and the charge was only about a quarter 
of what would be used at the present day. They were given 
up after the battle of Leipsig, for on that occasion they be- 
came so hot that they discharged themselves spontane- 
ously. They were superseded by a species of ordnance 
called Swedish guns, which diifered very much from those 
used by the Imperial Austrian army, and which had been pro- 
posed by the Count of Hamilton. In the arsenal at Zurich 
there is another kind of cannon very like the leather cannons 
of the Swedes. Like those mentioned above, these cannons 
were made of a tube of yellow copper, but between it and 
the exterior leather tube there was a thick layer of lime, and 
round them were also several rings of wrought iron. This 
gun was very useful because of its light weight in a moun- 
tainous country like Switzerland, for a man could carry it 
on his shoulders ; it also had trunnions like the Suedoise, and 
a covering plate on hinges for the touch-hole. The length 
was about seven feet. 

The rifling of hand fire-arms was invented in Germany 
towards the end of the fifteenth century, and a little later it 
was applied to large cannons, as may be seen from the rifled 
cannon of the sixteenth century in the Museum at the Hague. 
The iron cannon in the arsenal at Berlin has thirteen grooves 
to it, and is dated a.d. 1661 ; and at Nuremberg there is a 
wrought-iron cannon of the year 1694 which has eight 
grooves. Not much attention had been paid to the rifling of 
large guns till after Benjamin Eobins, a member of the 
Eoyal Society of London, born in 1707, had treated the sub- 
ject mathematically. Modern artillery has been greatly 
altered through the improvements made by Paixhans, pub- 
lished in 1822 ; by those of Armstrong, and by the wonderful 

of Ancient Arms. 67 

progress that M. Krupp has made in the manufacture of 
cast-steel cannons ; one of which, a breech-loader, exhibited 
by him in 1867, weighed 49 tons 2 cwt. ; the shot was also 
of cast steel, and was 10 cwt. 3 qrs. in weight. 

Portable fire-arms were often confovmded with heavy ar- 
tillery in Europe in the days when gunpowder was first em- 
ployed. The first trace of hand fire-arms is towards the 
middle of the fourteenth century; and it appears that the 
Flemings used them some time before other nations. The 
town of Liege had made several experiments in the manu- 
facture of small liand cannons, portable firearms, called by 
the Germans KnallbiiscTien ; they were adopted at Perugia 
in 1364, at Padua in 1386, and in Switzerland in 1392. 
These cannons were used also at the battle of Eosebecque 
iu 1382, at the siege of Trosky in Lithuania in 1383 ; and 
in the records of Bologna of 1399 they are called sclopo, 
from which word is derived sclopetto and escopelte. 

At Arras in 1414 this small hand cannon was used for 
projecting leaden bullets ; at the siege of Bonifacio in Corsica 
in 1420 these bullets even penetrated the armour. In 1429 
and 1430 this new kind of weapon was used for firing at a 
mark both at Augsburg and Nuremberg. At the close of the 
fifteenth century its use had extended to the cavalry, as may 
be concluded from the expression JEques scoppetarius, used 
by Paulus Sanctinus. 

The continual alterations that have been made in the 
different sorts of portable arms that have been invented since 
the adoption of hand cannon have given birth to more nume- 
rous names than even those of large firearms. By classifying 
them carefully according to their mechanism, we may divide 
them into thirteen distinct kinds, viz., the Jiand cannon of the 
middle of the fourteenth century, a rudely-made weapon in 
wrought iron, fastened to a piece of rough wood, so that it could 
not be brought to the shoulder ; the touch-hole was at first made 
on the top of the cannon, and had a covering plate on a pivot 
or on hinges, to preserve it from damp. A little later the 
touch-hole was placed to the right of the cannon. This 
primitive weapon is represented in the water-coloxir drawings 
of Glockenthon, executed in 1505, and mentioned above as 
having been copied from some canncns in the arsenal of the 
Emperor Maximilian. Four small tannons are represented 

68 Abridged History 

fixed to the four corners of a board, and a gunner is firing them 
with a match. This hand cannon was often served by two men. 
When of a small size, and intended for the use of cavalry, this 
hand cannon was called in Trance petronel, from the old 
Spanish word pedernal, a fire-arm ; or perhaps (foitrinal) 
from the fact of its being rested against the cuirass. 

The hand cannon, which could be fired from the shoulder, 
termed in French Le canon a main a epauler, belonging to 
the end of the fourteenth century, is distinguished from the 
former by having a rudely-fashioned stock. The touch-hole 
is generally on the right side. All these weapons were 
fired with a separate match. 

Two other sorts of hand cannons, a serpentin, or a dragon, 
without trigger or tumbler, were invented about the year 
1424. The match was fastened to the weapon itself, and was 
held by the serpentin, a sort of small linstock. When this 
weapon was better made it was called a hand culverin, 
petrinal, or poitrinal, from the shape of the stock, which was 
often rested on the cuirass. 

The hand cannon, with match-holder, without spring, but 
with a trigger, that could be fired with a surer aim when 
rested on the shoulder. 

The Harquebus (from the German word Sack-Buss, or 
cannon with catch), with match-holder, trigger, and tumbler, 
made about the latter half of the fifteenth century. It is a 
weapon very perfect in make, and the prototype of our guns 
of the present day ; the barrel was about three feet three 
inches in length. 

The double Harquebus (from the German Doppelhacher), a 
firearm with a double catch or match-holder. It was mostly 
used for defending ramparts; the length being from three 
to seven feet. The lock is distinguished from that of the 
simple Harquebus, in having two match-holders working in 
opposite directions. It was often supported by a stand 
resting on iron spikes or wheels that was called fourquine. 

The wheeled or German Harquebus {Badschlosbiiclise in 
German) was invented in 1515 at Nuremberg. Its dif- 
ference consists in having a wheel-lock, usually made of ten 
separate pieces. It is not, like all earlier arms, fired with a 
match, this being superseded by the sulphurous pyrites, called 
also marcassite, which is found in cubes of a brilliant golden 

of Ancient Arms. 69 

yellow. This is that combination of sulphur and metal 
that the Eoman patrols took care never to be without, so 
as to procure a light as quickly as possible. The pyrites, 
when struck by this cogged wheel, ignited and fired the 

This new weapon, however, was never able to replace 
entirely the harquebus with the match, whose mechanism 
was more simple, solid, and much more sure, for when used 
the sulphurous pyrites, which was extremely brittle, broke 
very easily. 

The Museum of Dresden possesses a smaU hand cannon 
eleven inches long and four inches and three quarters in 
diameter, of the beginning of the sixteenth century, which 
appears to have preceded the invention of the wheel-lock and 
given the first idea A rasp by grating against the sul- 
phurous pyrites showers sparks upon it as soon as it is 
removed from the screw-plate. This piece has been for a 
long time ignorantly considered as the first fire-arm invented 
by Berthold Schwarz (a.d. 1290-1320), a German monk, to 
whom also was attributed the invention of gunpowder. The 
flock of compilers still continue to call this little hand- 
cannon " Moenchsbiichse," or monk's arquebus, and to point 
it out as the first fire-arm. 

The musket, whose construction and mechanism is the 
same as that of the arquebus, is used either with a wheel lock 
or match ; it differs from the arquebus only in diameter, 
the charge and bullet being double in size. Being much 
heavier, it necessitated the use of a rest or carriage like that 
of the double arquebus. The French musket in 1694 was 
generally, according to Saint-Eemy, of the calibre of twenty 
leaden bullets to the pound ; it was three feet eight inches 
long in the barrel, and including the stock was five feet 

The arquebus or musket with rifle barrel, with balls driven 
home by a mallet. 

The rifled barrel invented in Germany, according to 
some authorities at Leipsig in 1498, according to others at 
Vienna by Gaspar Zollner, was not adopted by the French 
army until 1793 ; it was the carbine of Versailles. 

The arquebus or musket with the " chenappan," a name 

70 Abridged History 

corrupted from the German " Solmapphahn," a cock pecking, 
indicates the time of its invention, which was the latter half 
of the sixteenth century, for mention is made of moneys paid 
in 1588 by the chamberlain of Norwich to a gunsmith, 
Henry Eadoc, who changed the wheel-lock of a pistol to a 
" snaphaunce." The name " Chenappan" was soon given in 
France to robbers who used this new weapon, and the 
Spanish bandits of the Pyrenees who were em-olled under 
Louis XIII. were also called " chenappan ;" as were 
also the Barbets of the Alps, the last remnants of the 
' imhappy Vaudois, who were forced by religious intolerance 
to become marauders and bandits. The "snaphaunce" 
method, which was worked by means of the sulphurous 
pyrites, may be looked upon as the forerunner of the French 
flint-look, which is derived from it. Nearly all the Oriental 
arms, and particularly the Turkish guns, subsequent to 
this date were snaphaunces. 

The flint-lock gun was in all probability invented in 
France about 1640. This gun was also uaxaeAfusilr-mousquel, 
as it had a bayonet with a socket, an invention wrongly at- 
tributed to the Scottish General Maokay, in 1691, but really 
introduced into the French army by Vauban. The socket 
allowed the marksman to shoot, and still keep his bayonet 
on the gun-barrel. The handled or " plug " bayonet was 
obliged to be fixed into the gun-barrel at the moment of 
charging, which was very inconvenient. 

Some few Italian authors have wished to attribute to their 
country the invention of the musket, because its name 
"focile" is derived from the Latin "focus," fire, but as the 
name "fusil" already appears in France in the orders of 
hunting in the year 1515, that is to say, a hundred and fifty 
years before the replacing of the wheel-lock by the flint 
process, it must be admitted that the name of " fusil " was 
then applied to arquebuses of the old fashion. It has been 
already mentioned that the invention of the socketed bayonet 
is wrongly attributed to the Scottish General Mackay, in 
1691. M. Culemann at Hanover possesses an arquebus with 
a wheeled lock of the end of the sixteenth century, where a 
long bayonet, whose blade at the same time serves as a barrel 
cleaner, is fastened by a socket. 

The change which the lock of the fire-arm underwent 

of Ancient Arms. 71 

by the invention of the flint battery was important, but 
neither immediate nor radical, because it was preceded by the 
snaphaunce lock, in which we already meet with the dog- 
head or hammer. In the French guns, the pyrites was 
replaced by flint, which was strongly held in the grip of the 
dog-head and sharply struck against the steel hammer, as 
soon as the finger pressing on the trigger loosed the spring, 
and the shower of sparks set light to the powder in a pan 
communicating with the touch-hole. 

Vauban also invented a gun with a double firelock, after 
the manner of the arquebus with wheel and screw, so that, 
supposing the gun were to flash in the pan, a screw-match 
would set fire to the priming. The old match-lock was not 
entirely replaced by the new gun with the hammer until 

Prince Leopold I., of Anhalt Dessau, the organiser of 
Prussian infantry, introduced in 1698 the iron ramrod among 
his soldiers, and this amelioration of the gun contributed to 
their victory at the battle of Mollwitz in 1730. 

The cartridge, that is to say, the complete charge of the 
fire-arm wrapped in one packet, appears to have been used for 
the first time in Spain about 1569 ; it was not adopted in 
Prance until 1644, along with the cartridge-box invented 
by Gustavus Adolphus in 1630. 

The carbine is a fire-arm with a rifled barrel, generally 
short and used by cavalry ; but war and hunting fire-arms 
with rifled barrels are also called carbines. 

The blunderbuss [mmisquet tonnerre, French ; donderbus, 
Dutch; " Streubiichse," German) had a wide trumpet-shaped 
barrel, and discharged ten or twelve balls at once. 

The pistol, the diminutive of the arquebus and fusil, whose 
name was probably derived from "pistallo," a pommel, 
rather than from "Pistoia," the city of that name, appears 
to have come originally from Perugia, where as early as 
1364 they constructed " hand-cannons " only the length 
of a " palma," about nine inches. 

The German " Tercerole " was a small pocket pistol, 
probably of Italian origin. 

The percussion-capped gun, whose invention is wrongly 
attributed to the English Captain Fergusson, commanding a 
Hessian regiment in the American war (1775-1783), dates 

72 Abridged History 

back no further than 1807, when the real inventor, a Scottish 
armourer of the name of Forsyth, took out a patent for the 
percussion gun. The first chemical researches concerning 
the composition of detonating materials,* appear due to 
Pierre Bouldure, iu 1699. Nicholas Lemery continued 
these researches in 1712. Bayon, army surgeon under Louis 
XV., appears to have made known in 1764 the fulminate of 
mercury — a salt composed of carbon, azote, oxygen and 
mercury — an invention erroneously attributed to Howard, 
who in 1800 composed the iirst explosive powder of ful- 
minate of mercury and saltpetre, a preparation fitted to re- 
place the priming powder in fire-arms. Liebig and Gay- 
Lussac in 1824 analysed these fulminates ; and it is to 
Fourcroy, Vauquelin, and Berthollet, that the discoveries 
(between 1785 and 1787) of the fulminating salts of gold, 
silver, and platinum, as well as the muriated oxygen of 
chlorate of potash, are due. 

In 1808 the armourer Pauly, who had modified Forsyth's 
gun, introduced it into France. The percussion gun of 
Joseph Egg may also be cited as having led this gunsmith 
to the invention of the priming capsule, a small copper 
cylinder open at one side and filled with fulminate. 

In 1826 M. Delvigne found out a method of forcing the 
bullet into the rifled barrel of the carbine without the use of 
the hammer, and in a manner to avoid the inconveniences of 
the systems hitherto tried. 

The " Stecher," or hair-trigger, erroneously called in 
French " double detente," an ingenious piece of mechanism 
to render almost insensible the concussion produced by the 
loosing of the ordinary trigger, invented by a gunsmith of 
Munich in 1543, is not a new system, but merely an amelio- 
ration which may be adapted to most carbines, and with 
vrhich all the ancient German fire-arms of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries are provided. 

We have seen that the wheel-lock has been in all ages 
very little used in warfare, but it was universally adopted 
for hunting and parade weapons, and has given way only to 

The arquebus and the musket, whether match or wheel- 

* Ammoniwes fulminantes, which must not be confounded with 

of Ancient Arms. 73 

lock, were not two dijfferent systems, but only two kinds of 
tlie same system ; they differed neither in form nor mechanism, 
but only in calibre ; they were the usual arms of the regular 
troops. The arquebusiers were provided with large powder- 
flasks, a horn for the priming, several yards of match, and a 
bag of buUets. The musketeers had in addition to the 
sword and cushion a baldrick with wooden powder-tubes, 
called Pulvermassen in German, a priming horn, a bag of 
bullets, some matches and a match-case, a copper utensil 
invented by the Dutch, and nearly identical with the match- 
case of the grenadiers of the eighteenth century. 

The origin of portable breech-loading fire-arms, of guns 
with more than one barrel, and even of revolvers, dates 
from the beginning of the sixteenth, or even the end of the 
fifteenth century ; these appear to be all of German inven- 
tion. The Mus^e d'ArtiUerie at Paris possesses a German 
wheel-lock arquebus of the sixteenth century, which was 
loaded at the breech, and another, also of the sixteenth 
century, with an opening in the barrel, receiving the charge 
either in a metallic envelope, or in a movable chamber, 
a system which has been brought forward again in modern 

The " amussette " or plaything of Marshal Saxe, at the 
Mus^e d'ArtUlerie at Paris, is also a breech-loader. There 
are specimens of these weapons at the Tower of London, at the 
Museums of Sigmaringen, Dresden, and the Imperial Arsenal 
of Vienna. The Museum of Sigmaringen possesses a German 
arquebus of the sixteenth century, which is a revolver with 
seven barrels, and a German gun of the eighteenth century, with 
four barrels. The Musee d'ArtiUerie at Paris also exhibits 
one of these weapons still retaining the old match-lock. In 
modem times in France, Pauly in 1808, Leroy in 1813, and 
more recently Lepage, Gastine-Eenette, and Lefaucheux, 
have invented different systems of percussion breech-loading 
guns; but that of M. Lefaucheux alone has remained in 
favour for sporting weapons, after Grevelot had introduced a 
great amelioration in the manufacture of percussion caps. 

The repeating but not revolving fusil, that is to say, a 
weapon the barrel of which receives various charges in a 
groove which can be discharged successively, is likewise not 
a modem invention ; the Museum of Sigmaringen possesses 

74 Abridged History of Ancient Arms. 

an ancient gim of tHs character; it is grooved, and fires 
successively six shots. 

Since America has begun to manufacture metallic cartridges 
the revolving fusil has reappeared in that country, where 
Spencer and Winchester have invented different processes. 

The revolving pistol, revived at Paris by the gunsmith 
Lenormand in 1815, who constructed one with five barrels, 
was soon followed by the Devisme revolver with seven 
barrels, and by the Hermann revolver at Liege, by the 
Mariette pistol with twenty-four shots, and lastly by the 
Colt revolver in 1835, the best of all, and which is most 
generally in use. 

After the mention of these different descriptions of fire- 
arms we have only to speak of the celebrated breech- 
loading needle-gun. The inventor, Jean Nicolas Dreyse, 
was born in 1798, at Soemmerda, near Erfurth; he con- 
structed the first needle-gun in 1827, after seventeen years 
of study, and took out a patent in 1828, for eight years, for 
his spring needle and fulminating cartridge. This gun, the 
first perfect model of which was adopted in Prussia about 
1841, has since undergone many changes, for it was only in 
1836 that breech-loading was applied to the manu- 
facture of this gun. Since that time every nation has pro- 
duced its needle-gun, and attempted to manufacture a weapon 
superior to that which produced such terrible results in the 
late war. It is difficxilt to ascertain which of the new modi- 
fications deserves the palm. 

The results of the experiments made on September 5th, at 
the shooting-gallery of Spandau, with the models of the needle- 
gun uSed by different nations, are, according to oflicial re- 
port, as follow: — The Prussian needle-gun discharges 12 
shots per minute, the Chassepot 11, the Snider (England) 10, 
the Peabody (Switzerland) 13, the Woenzl (Austria) lo' 
the Eomington (Denmark) 14, the Werndl (Austria) 12, and 
the revolver of Henry Winchester (North America) 19. In 
respect of accuracy, however, the last-mentioned weapon 
takes the lowest rank, only eleven of the nineteen shots 
being on the target. 





IT is certain, as we tave already observed, tliat earth, wood, 
tlie skins of wild beasts, and, above all, stone scattered 
over the earth, must of necessity have been the first materials 
which man employed for the manufacture of his tools and 
weapons; and it is with these primitive products that a 
universal history of the weapons of all people shoidd begin. 
It would be superfluous to reiterate here what has been said 
on this subject in the first pages of the preceding chapter ; it 
has been shown that weapons of chipped stone have every- 
where preceded those of polished stone, the manufacture of 
which required less primitive processes. There exist also 
some of these weapons which are neither in the first rough 
state, nor in the fine polished state of the second ; smoothed 
but not polished, they belong to epochs of transition, the 
dates of which naturally vary according to their different 
countries. In France it has been attempted to divide these 
productions into three distinct classes ; that of their first 
appearance, that of the existence of the reindeer in France, 
and that of the dolmens ; but as epochs in the progressive 
march of civilisation sometimes differ greatly even among 
people of the same origin and race, this classification is not 
altogether satisfactory. 

The stone weapons found in the Perigord along with bones 
in a cavern, some of which are engraved with the image of 
the mastodon, might indeed add a few proofs of the existence 
of man during the third geological epoch, but it would be 
necessary to submit these engravings to a microscopic obser- 

76 Chipped Flint 

vation, so as to assure ourselves of the absence of any decep- 
tion. It is not enough that these bones and weapons should 
be gathered up in alluvial-diluvial deposits, which may have 
undergone disturbances, as is shown by the different 
"movable deposits," so called because they are com- 
posed of objects belonging to different epochs. The 
Alpine diluvium, when undisturbed, contains no organic 
matter in the state of ossine, a substance which is peculiar to 
unfossilised bone, so that aU alluvial soil containing the 
least bone, with ossine, is later than the great terrestrial 
disturbance which we call the Deluge. 

Many weapons and tools of manufactured flints betoken 
surely that they are not antediluvian ; they are formed out of 
pebbles which, although found in the interior soils of our 
continent, have clearly been rolled together before being 
worked by hand. The manufacture of flint without metallic 
tools or corrosive acids can be explained only by the facility 
with which the flint, when freshly quarried, and before it 
has undergone the influence of the atmosphere, can be 
divided by splintering. 


1. Babylonian flint arrow-head ; reign 

of Nimrod, the founder of Babylon 
(2J inches). 

Museum of Berlin, 

2. Egyptian flint knife (4 inches). 

Museum of Berlin, 

3. Egyptian flint knife (6 inches). 

Museum of Berlin, 

i, Egyptian flint lance-head (6 inches). 
A quantity of chips in flint, in- 
tended to be made into tools and 
weapons, has also been found at 
Sarabut El Khaden. 

5. German hatchet in basalt (7 inches), 

found near Lintz (Austria). 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

6. Wedge of serpentine (6J inches), 

found near Lintz, in Austria. 

Museum of Sigmaringen, 

7. German flint lance-head (or chisel) 

(7i inches), found at Balingen. 

Museum of Sigmaringen, 

8. German flint hatchet (5 inches), 

found at Eugen, an island in the 

Museum of Berlin, 

9. German flint knife (5 inches). 

Museum of Berlin. 



10. Point of German lance. 

11. Doubled-headed hatchet of smooth 

stone ; a transitory link between 
the chipped and polished stones. 
It is 5 J inches long, and was found 
at Lunehurg. 
Museum of the City of Hanover, 


Chipped Flint 


12. Kelto-Gallio yellow flint hatcliet 

called " Pain de benrre." It 
is 10 inches long, and found at 
Pressigny-le-Grand (ludre et 
Loire). See the " Moniteur" 
of France, IS May, 1865. 

Author's Collection. 

13. Kelto-Gallic yellow flint knife 

of 5 inches : found as above. 
Author's Collection. 

14. Kelto-Galho yellow flint knife 

(3 inches) : found as aboTe. 

Author's Collection, 

15. Helvetian flint dagger of 5 

inches length : found near 
Stavaye', in the lake of Neu- 

Museum of Fribourg. 

16. British flint arrow-head of 2| 

inches length. It may data 
from a time preceding the 
arrival of the Phoenicians. 
Llewellyn Meyrieh Collection, 

17. Irish barbed arrow-head, whitish 

flint, of 5J inches. 

Christy Collection. London. 
British wedge or hatchet in 
whitish flint, of SJ inches: 
found at Cisburg Camp {sic) 
in Sussex. 

Christy Collection. London. 
Iberian or Spanish flint dagger 
of Si inches ; found at Gib- 

Christy Collection. London. 

20. Bohemian flint knife (5 J inches). 

Museum of Prague, 

21. Danish flint hatchet (11 inches) 

(called in Danish, Kiler of 

Museum of Copenhagen. 





22. Danish flint hatchet of superior 
shape (5§ inches), (in Danish 
KUer of Flint). 

Museum of Copenhagen. 

23. Danish flint lance-head (7J 

inches). This weapon (Lanse- 
spits of Flint) is as sharp as 
any steel ■weapon. 

Museum of Copenhagen. 

24. Danish flint lance-head (9 

inches), less sharp, but show- 
ing equally skilful work with 
the preceding one. 

Museum of Copenhagen. 

25. Danish ilint dagger (8 inches), 

worked in an admirable man- 
ner. (Dolk of Fliut). 

Mtiseum of Copenhagen, 

26. Danish flint dagger with rounded 

handle (13J inches). A marvel 
of workmanship. 

Museum, of Copenhagen. 





27. Danish fliat hatchet-sabre (15J 

inches). Very fine work. 

Museum of Copeiihageti. 

28. Two Danish barbed flint arrow- 

heads (IJ inch) (Pilespidser 
of Flint in Danish). 

Museum of Copenhagen. 

29. Long arrow-head, unbarbed. 

Danish flint (34 inches). 

Miisemn of Copenhagen. 





When we see that Denmark produced these beautiful 
weapons in chipped flint, the fineness of whose workmanship 
generally surpasses that of the polished flints of the second 
epoch of other countries, it must necessarily be admitted that 
the phases of Danish civilisation do not tally with those of the 
Germanic and Gallic nations, and that the Danes continued 
to work in flints at a time when many of their neighbours 
were already acquainted with bronze weapons. The alluvial 
soils in which great quantities of these beautiful weapons 
have been found (in the so-called Kiokkenmoedinge or 
kitchen-refuse heaps), appear to show that their manufacture 
is later than that of the weapons from the lake dwellings 
in Switzerland, Savoy, and Baden, which have yielded us no 
bronze weapons, and that the Danish flints are probably not 
of earlier origin than the lake dwellings of ISToveto, Castiana, 
and Peschiera, which date from the bronze age. 

Even when taking note of the more or less rapid march of 
civilisation in each country, it is difficult to fix the priority 
of one people over another in the construction of these 
primitive weapons ; where everything is plunged in ob- 
scurity, and when new excavations from time to time over- 
throw what preceding ones have established, we can only 
argue from hypothesis. In England, likewise, these weapons 
have always been found in alluvial soils ; but the hatchets 
in chipped or rough flint of the Christy collection of London, 
mentioned in the preceding chapter, may possibly date farther 
back than the fourth geological epoch. As the modern 
weapons of savage nations do not enter into the scheme of 
this work, the flint ones likewise must of necessity be passed 
over, even when ancient, for the modern construction of 
savage nations is just what it was in the bygone centuries. 
The author has nevertheless made an exception in favour of 
Mexico, because the Mexican arms which have been here 
represented are no longer made. 

It is very difficult to establish exact demarcations between 
the times when nations made use of rough flint weapons, 
and the times when these weapons were in polished flint or 
bronze, for two of these products, and even all three, 
have been found mingled together. 

Weapons in Polished Flint. 81 

The excavations made in the cemetery of Hallstatt have 
in fact furnished proof that iron was not unknown in 
Germany, even when flint and bronze were still the usual 
materials for cutting weapons. In the chapter which treats 
of the products of the so-called iron age will be seen some 
representations of dagger-points in iron, found in the tombs 
of HaUstatt along with weapons in bronze and flint. 


Weapons m 





30. German wedge, amulet, or talis- 

man in serpentine (1 inch). 

Author's Collection. 

31. German hatchet in serpentine 

(9 inches), found at Gensen- 
heim, near Mayence. 

Christy Collection. London. 

32. German double hatchet, of 

greenish touchstone (6 

inches), found at Hildesheim. 

Christy Collection. London. 

33. German hammer - hatchet, in 

granite (6 inches), found at 
Christy Collection. London. 

34. German hammer - hatchet, in 

serpentine (6 inches), found 
at Kaufbeuren. 
National Museum of Bavaria at 

35. German hatchet, serpentine (6 

inches), found at Enus, near 
Lintz, with bronze and iron 
Museum Francisco-Cardlinvm at 

36. Fragment of German hatchet, 

serpentine (8 inches), found 
with bronze and iron weapons 
in the tombs of Hallstatt. 
Museum of Antiquities at Vienna. 

37. British double-headed hatchet, 

basalt {il inches). 
Christy Collection. London. 

38. Large Kelto-Galho hatchet, 

jade (16 inches). 

Museum of Vanrm. 

39. Small Kelto-GalHo hatchet, in- 

serpentine granite (3i inches), ' 
found in the Nivernais. 

Author's Colteetian 

Polished Flint. 


40. Kelto-Swiss hatchet, serpentine, 

fixed into a stag's horn, and 

with a ■wooden handle, found 

in a Swiss lacustrine dwelling. 

Museum of Zurich. 

41. Kelto-Swiss hatchet, serpentine, 

■with long wooden handle, 
found at Botenhausen. 

Mitseum of Zurich. 

42. Danish hatchet, basalt (5^ 


Museum of Copenhagen. 

43. War hammer, Danish basalt (5 


Museum of Copenhagen. 

44. Danish double-edged hatchet, 

basalt (8j incbes). 

Museum of Copenhagen. 

45. Double-edged Danish hatchet, 

basalt (5 inches). 

Museum of Copenhagen. 

46. Double-edged Danish hatchet, 

basalt (8 J inches). 

Museum of Copenhagen. 

47. Danish single hatchet, called 

Niolner, in basalt (9 inches), 
found in a tomb on the coast 
of Scotland. The Niolner is 
an attribute of the Scandi- 
navian god Thor, and is often 
mentioned in the Sagas. 

Meyrich CoUecHon. 

48. Iberian or Spanish hatchet in 

basalt (7i inches). 
Christy CoUeetion. London. 



Weapons in Polished Flint. 

49. Fragment of a Hungarian hatchet, 

in basalt (7i inches). 

Christy Collection. London, 

50. Russian -war-hamnier in black stone 

(llj inches). Museum of St. 
Petersburg. There is a cast of it 
at the Museum of St. Germain. 

51. Mexican sword of the 15th century, 
of iron wood, with ten blades, 
fixed into the wood, of black 
obsidian.* This weapon is 25 
inches long. 

.",2. Mexican sword of 1 metre, 8 inches 
long, in iron wood and black 

Museum of Berlin, 

53. Mexican spear-head of the 15th 
century, black obsidian, fixed in a 
wooden handle. 

* Obsidian is a volcanic production, 
of a greenish black, with an enamelled- 
looking surface, and capable of taking 
a high polish. The Peruvian Incaa 
employed it for min-ors, and the priests 
of HuitzUopoohtli for ornaments. It is 
not the only stone made use of by the 
ancient inhabitants of America for their 
weapons; they used also flmt, chaloe- 
dony, and serpentine. 






THE ctanges in the weapons of the ancients, including in 
this term the five great Assyrian monarchies, who 
appear rather to have given the model of their arms to the 
Egyptians and Greeks than to have borrowed from them, 
have been explained in the historical chapter, pages 17 
to 74. We have seen that even in times of the greatest 
antiquity iron and bronze were employed indistinctively for 
the manufacture of offensive and defensive weapons, so that 
the establishment of a veritable Age of Bronze and Age of Iron 
is inadmissible. If these terms have been preserved in the 
chapter which speaks of the weapons of northern nations, it 
is from fear of creating confusion of ideas by a new, though 
more correct, method of classification ; but the author has 
only acted thus after having entered his protest, and ex- 
plained in what manner the conventional denominations were 
to be understood. 

Few arms and weapons and few docmnents of the Hindoo, 
American, Assyrian, Persian, and Egyptian nations have 
reached us, and it has been found necessary to study the 
military equipment of these countries almost entirely from 
their monuments. Our museums are much richer in Greek 
and Eoman arms, which enable us to follow the changes of 
armour on classic soil during a number of centuries. 

The American weapons have been placed after those of 
India, for everything tends to show that the lost civilisations 
of America have even preceded those of a great part ci India^ 

86 Weapons of 

and probably those of the countries we have been in the habit 
of calling classic. 

The Keramic wares of the heroic age of America, among 
which may be counted some products of Palenque and Mitla, 
show, even in their state of artistic decline, to what height the 
worship of pure outline and ornament, so visible in EgyptiajQ, 
Assyrian, and Greek art, had been carried by a people whose 
very shadow has disappeared from the field of history. 

The Louvre possesses one of these ancient pieces of 
Transatlantic pottery, the design of which recalls the decora- 
tion of ancient Etruscan vases, and classic mythology ; it is 
a Hercules defeating his antagonist ; and many specimens of 
American keramic ware are known, the classic ornaments of 
which show an equally incontestable priority. The moiie 
remote the date of these antique products, the more their 
workmanship resembles Greek art, insomuch that the least 
ancient are always the least artistic ; a fact which authorises 
us to draw the conclusion of an ancient American civilisation 
since declined, but whose most flourishing epoch was two 
and even three thousand years before Jesus Christ. 

See the historical chapter. 

Nothing has been found to throw any light on the arms of 
the ancient civilisation of this country, whose history goes 
back to B.C. 3000. The figures here represented indicate that 
Hindoo armour has varied but little in the matter of ofiensive 
weapons, and that the helmet alone betokens a decided 
change, which appears to have manifested itself from the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries of this present era, as will 
be seen in the chapter which treats of Western weapons of 
the Christian Middle Ages. 

Bronze an I Iro 

1. Hiiidoo warriors, from granite me- 

morial stones of Beenjanugar. 
of which the Kensington Mu- 
seum possesses photographs. 
The date of these monxunenta 
corresponds with our Middle 

It will be seen that the sword 
is placed on the right side of 
the warrior. The Assyrians and 
all modem nations wore it on 
the left, while the Greeks and 
Eomans wore it on the right. 
The engraving of this has-relief 
is reversed, so that the com- 
batants appear to hold their 
spears in their left hands, and 
their shields in their right. 

2. Hindoo hatchet, from an Indian 

piece of sculpture in the city 
of Saitron in Eajpootana. (A.r. 

Kensington Museum. 

3. Hindoo aahre from a bas-relief of 

Beenjanugar and the Husso- 
man monument. 

4. Javanese sword, from the statue 

of the Goddess of War at the 
Museum of Berlin. 



It has been observed in the historical chapter that the 
people of America never employed either bronze or iron in 
the construction of their offensive weapons, and that the 
European conquerors found only pure stone in request for 
all cutting weapons. In regard to those of defence, they 
were manufactured in bronze, gold, mother-of-pearl, horn, 
wood, and leather ; and traces have been found of different 
arms, the origin of which is lost in antiquity. Such is the 
helmet engraved further on, from a stucco bas-relief in the 
ruins of Palanque, or city of Culhuacan,* the circumference of 
which was about eighteen miles. This city was situated in the 
state of Chiapa, in the northern part of Central America, where 
the cradle of the most ancient American civilisation, now 
extinct, was placed — a civilisation which may easily have 
been contemporaneous with, if not anterior to, that of India. 
The helmet of the bas-relief of Hoohicalco, though less 
ancient, still belongs to a remote period, when the horse, in- 
troduced by European navigators, was as yet unknovm. As 
the American weapons of the period corresponding to the 
Christian Middle Ages are few and insignificant, they have 
been placed at the end of the chapter which treats of 
polished stone weapons, and not in the place where the 
weapons of a time prior to the Merovingian epoch are 
mentioned. These American arms, as we have seen, are 
generally of wood edged with obsidian. 

* Palanqui, or Culhuaoan, or Huehuetlapatl'aa, was discovered only 
in 1787, by Antonio del Eio, and Jose Alonzo Calderon. 

American Weap^ 



1. American helmet, drawn from a 
bas-relief of Palauque. The 
figure in this bas-relief, which 
is mentioned in M. de Waldeck's 
work, is represented sitting with 
the left leg folded under the 
body, similar to the statues of 
the god Boodha, or the Chinese 
god Fo. 

2. Mexican helmet drawn from a 
bas-relief of great antiquity at 
Hoohicaloo, in the province of 
QuMnaraca, Mexico. 

Two Mexican helmets drawn from 
a Mexican manuscript of the be- 
ginning of the fifteenth century, 
the property of M. de Waldeck, 
in which is described the con- 
quest of Ascapuaala. 

Mexican helmet in solid gold, 
ornamented with feathers, of 
the fifteenth century. It was 
part of a royal suit, destroyed in 
Mexico by fire. 


American Weapons. 

5. Mexican helmet in leather, wood, 
leopaid alrin, and feathers, o^ 
the fifteenth century. 

From a Manusaript. 

6. Mexican helmet in wood, leather 

and feathers, fifteenth centmy. 

From a Manuscript. 

7. Mexican corsletofscalesofmothei 
of pearl (Jazeran or Koiazin) ol 
(he fifteenth century. This finG 
piece of defensive armour was 
part of a royal suit, mentioned 
on the preceding page at fig. 4, 
as having been destroyed m 
Mexico by fire. 

8. Buckler or small round Mexican 
shield, 25 inches in diameter, of 
gold and silver, and ornamented 
with feathers. It was part of 
the same suit of the fifteenth 
century, which was burnt. The 
hieroglyphic ornaments have 
not hitherto been explained. 

American Weapons. 


9. Bnckler or romid Mexican shield, 25 
inches in diameter, composed entirely 
of leather, and ornamented by the 
hieroglyphic sign which among the 
Mexicans stood for a hundred, and 
■which here indicates that the shield 
belonged to a centurion or captain 
over a hundred men. 

10. Ensign or Mexican standard in gold, 
surmounted bya grasshopper, or locust, 
12i inches long, fifteenth century. 

11. Mexican ensign in gold, surmounted 
by an eagle's head, life size, fifteenth 

Eor American offensive weapons in wood and obsidian, see 
the end of the chapter on polidied stone weapons. 



The history of the weapons of the five great monarchies, 
to the whole of which the name Assyrian has been commonly 
allotted, has been given at pages 22 to 26. It has been seen that 
iron as well as bronze was already used in these countries in 
the eleventh century, b.o. as is proved by the ingots of this 
metal, and the few iron utensils in the Louvre, as also by the 
fragment of a steel coat of mail in the British Museum. 

Assyrian Weapons. 


1. AsByrio-Babylonian archer with war 
coat, leggings, and fillet instead of 
a helmet. Bas-relief, e.g. 700. 

Museum of the Louvre. 

8. Foot soldier of the Assyrian army, 
armed with the coat, helmet and 
oresi^ target and lance. We also 
notice the greaves or leggings. Bas- 
reliefe of Nineyeh of Saidanapalns V. 
B.O. 700. 

soldier without leggings, 

hnnting game. Bas-relief of Khorsar 
bad, of the reign of Sargon. 

British Museum. 


Assyrian Weapons. 

i. Foot soldier of the army of Sennacherib 
(B.C. 712—707), from a bas-relief in the 
British Museum. The shape of the conical 
helmet approaches that of the Samnite 
one (see the chapter on Eoman and Sam- 
nite armour) ; the coat and leggings appear 
to be of mail ; the shield is round, large, 
and very convex. 

5. Persian archer, from a bas-relief of Perse- 
polis, the ancient capital of Persia and of 
aU the Persian monarchy (b.o. 560). The 
long coat, probably of leather, descends 
to the ankle. The headdress has nothing 
of the helmet, but nevertheless indicates 
workmanship in metal. The archer carries 
the sword on the left side, while the 
Greeks and Komans wore it on the right. 

6. Persian warrior from a bas-rehef of Perse- 
poUs, a cast of which is found in the 
British Museum. The shield, high enough 
to rest on, is exceedingly convex, almost 
hemispherical; the helmet, with ear and 
neck coverings in one single piece, differs 
entirely from the other Assyrian helmets 
known to us from different bas-reliefs. 

Assyrian Weapons. 


Aasyrian hatchet in bronze 
inches), found at Babylon. 

British Mtiseam. 
. ABsyrian double hatchet, probably 
in iron, from a bas-relief. 

, Assyrian single hatchet, probably 
in iron, from a bas-relief. 

10. Assyrian single hatchet, to 

which the quivers of the ■war- 
riors fighting on chariots were 
often fastened. From the cast 
of a bas-relief in the Louvre. 

11. Babylonian dagger in bronze. 

British Museum. 

12. Assyrian dagger in bronze. 
Museums of the Lmivre and, of Berlin. 

13. Assyrian poignard with head of 

hippopotamus, probably in 
bronze, &om the bas-relief of 
Nimrod. b.o. 1000. 

Museum of the Louvre. 

14. Assyrian dagger in bronze. 

Museum of Berlin. 

15. Assyrian sword in bronze, from 

the bas-reliefs of Khorsabad, 
of the reign of king Sargon. 
B.C. 1300. 

16. Assyrian sword, bas-rehef from 

a palace in Nineveh, of the 
reign of Sardanapalus. B.o. 

Museums of Berlin and of the Louvre. 

17 and 18. Persian sword and sheath 
from an antique group, Mithras 
sacrificing a bull* (M. Eom. 
by Do la Chausaee). It is 
very like the ancient " Aki- 

* Mithras, the son of the mountain 
Ulbordi, a Persian mythologio hero, 
of whom the "Zend-Avesta" frag- 
ments of the Works of Zoroaster give 
details. The time of the birth of Zo- 
roaster, the founder of Magianism. or 
more correctly the reformer of j?ar- 
eeeism, floats between B.C. 1300 and 
1100. The Mithras, from whom these 
arms have been copied, belongs to the 
period when the ancient Parsees still 
spoke the Zend language, which is 
now extinct, bat in which the Paraee 
or Grueber priests still repeat prayers, 
the sense of which they do not understand. 


Assyrian Weapons. 


19. Persian sword. Cast from a bas- 
relief of Persepolis. 
British Museum and Louvre. 

20. Assyrian spear-head. Bas-relief 

from a Palace of Nineveh, of 

the reign of Sardanapalus V. 

B.O. 700. 

British Musevm and, Louvre. 

21. Assyrian lance. The shaft ia 
the height of a man, and has 
a coimter-weight at the end. 
From a baa-relief. 

22. Assyrian siclde-shaped weapon 
&om a bas-rehef. A simUai 
weapon in iron has been found 
at PsBstum in Lucania. It is 
preserved in the Mus^e d'Ar- 
tillerie at Paris. See Boman 

23. Median bow, bas-relief. 

24. Median quiver, bas-relief. 

Assyrian Weapons. 

85. Assyrian brouze helmet, the authen- 
ticity of which is established. The 
conical shape of this helmet is to be 
found in the Christian Middle Ages, 
especially among the Nor.ians. See 
also the chapter on Roman arms, and 
the Simmitp helmet. 

British Museum. 

26. Assyrian helmet in iron, said to be from 
Kouyunjik. This piece of armour, 
valuable for history, indicates the use 
of iron in the time which is called the 
Age of Bronze of the ancients. A 
similar helmet, but in bronze and 
attributed to Germany, forms part of 
the Klemm collection at Dresden. 

British Museum. 


27. Helmet, probably in bronze, of Assyrian 
horseman, drawn from a bas-relief of 
Nineveh of the time of Sardanapa- 
lus V. This helmet is interesting on 
account of its cheek-plates. B.C. 700. 
Museum of the Louvre. 

28. Ilehnet, probably in bronze, of an 
Assyrian foot-soldier, from a bas-relief 
of Nineveh, of the time of Sardana- 
palus V. B.O. 700. 

Museum of the Lo'tvre. 


Assyrian Weapons. 

'2'J. Fillet, with cliiii-strap, or cheek- 
plates, probably in metal, or 
leather mounted with metal. 
Headdress of Assyrian archer, 
which protected the top of 
the head, and recalls the head- 
dress of the Frank warriors. 
From bas-reliefs in the British, 
Louvre, and Berlin Museums. 

30. Helmet without chin-strap, pro- 
bably in bronze, worn by the 
Assyrian aichers and auxi- 
haries. From a bas-relief, 
B.C. 1000. 

Museum of the Louvre. 

31. Two Assyrian helmets, probably 
in bronze, from bas-reliefs. 
The one with a double-pointed 
crest has been imitated by the 
Greeks, and appears to come 
from the ancicut civilisation 
of America. 

32. Bronze crest of Assyrian helmet. 
British Museum. 

33. Persian helmet from a group 
representing Mithras sacrific- 
ing a bull. CSee note to page 

Assyrian Weapons. 

84. Helmet or war headdi-ess of Persian 
chief, from a bas-relief now in tlie 
Britisli Museum. This headdress, 
which appears to be of metal, has 
probably been used in war. 

35. Helmet or headdress of Persian archer, 
from a bas-relief of Persepolis, a oast 
of which Is in the British Museum. 
Same observations as for the preceding 
one. (B.C. 560.) 

36. Persian helmet with movable plates, 
probably in bronze, from a Persian 
bas-relief, a cast of which is in the 
British Museum. This piece of 
armour is interesting, inasmuch as it 
prefigures the European Renaissance 
helmet of the sixteenth century, (b.o. 

37. Persian helmet with cheek-plates and 
neck-covering, from a bas-relief, casts 
of which are at the Louvre and 
British Museum. Same observations 
as the preceding one. 

38. Persian helmet of the reign of the 
dynasty of the Sassanides (A.D. 226- 
652). This bronze helmet is in the 
British Museum, 


Assyrian Weapons. 

39. Babylonian buckler of the 
height of a man's shoulder, 
probably in bionze. 

British Museum. 

Assyrian buckler, from a baa- 
relief. It appears to be of a 
convex form, like the preceding 

41. Persian buckler with vizor or 
sight-holes. Bas-relief. 

Pei-sian buckler from the mosaic 
of Pompeii, which represents 
the battle between Alexander 
and Darius. 

Museum of Naples, 

43. Assyrian shield, or Pavois, of 
the height of a man's shoulder. 
Bas-relief of the second Assy- 
rian Empire, reign of Saxdana- 
palus V. B.C. 700. 

Museum of the Louvre, 

44. Assyrian Pavois, breast-high. 
From a bas-relief representing 
the siege of a city by Asshur- 

British Museum. 

Coat of arms of Assyrian horse- 
man, probably of plates of 
metal sewed on leather. It 
covers the loins, and is copied 
from bas-reliefs in the British 
Museum, in which is also to 
be found a fragment of a veri- 
table Assyrian coat of mail, in 
tempered steel, said to come 
from Babylon. 



Notwithstanding the knowledge that we have of the history 
of Egypt, which goes back to the commencement of twenty- 
sis dynasties, that is to say, to the reign of Menes, the first 
king (b.c. 2450), a time when this country formed, as under 
the eighteenth dynasty, several distinct states, each under an 
independent prince, documentary evidence as to the arms of 
the soldiery fails us almost entirely. The first seventeen 
dynasties, beginning from Menes to MoBris (2450 — 1990), 
which comprised in all three hundred and thirty kings, 
who reigned simultaneously in Thebes, This, Elephantine, 
Heraclea, Diospolis, Xois, and Tanis, as well as those of the 
eighteenth dynasty, known as the reign of the Pharaohs 
(Moeris, Uchoreus the founder of Memphis, Osymandias, 
Eamses, Amenophis, Ac), have left us no other evidence 
than a few bas-reKefe. 

It has already been observed in the historical chapter, 
that the civil and funereal monuments of Egypt, on account 
of its being a country where the genius of the nation was 
bent more towards science and agriculture than to war, offer 
fewer military subjects than Assyxiaij monuments. We have 
seen that Denon, in his " Voyages dans la haute et basse 
Egypte," has left a few drawings of offensive and defensive 
weapons ; but they are too slight, even when added to the 
Theban bas-reKefs, to be able to give an exact idea of the 
complete equipment of Egyptian soldiery. 

The few Egyptian tools and weapons in iron, exhibited in 
the museums of London, the Louvre, and Berlin, which 
assuredly belong to most ancient times, can leave no doubts 
as to this metal being used in Egypt as well as in Assyria 
contemporaneously with bronze. All that has been found of 
offensive weapons dating from the age of stone consists, as may 
be seen in the chapter in which these weapons are mentioned, 
of a few arrow-heads, knives, and lance-heads in flint chipped 
by splintering, preserved in the museums of London and 
Berlm. The arrow-blades were found in Babylon itself, 
and cannot date farther back than iho foimdation of this 
city. In addition to this there are in the British Museum a 

102 Egyptian Weapons. 

few flint cMps, destined to the manufacture of starp-bladed 
weapons, found at Sarabut-el-Khadon. 

The most valuable piece, for the reconstituting Egyptian 
armour, is the imbricated coat of mail which M. Prisse 
d' Avenues has represented in his work, for the Biblical in- 
scription engraved on one of the bronze scales enables us to 
fix its date. Several of the ofiensive weapons drawn by this 
same archseologist are of such peculiar shape that it is im- 
possible to explain their use. 

Egijptian Weajoons. 


1. Egyptians flglitiaj, from mural 
paintiags of Thebes. The head- 
dresses ai'e of a strange form, 
and the offensive weapons con- 
sist of only lances and arrows. 

Egyptian soldiers, from Theban 
has-reliefs. In addition to the 
shield with sight-holes these 
men appear to be all armed 
with the " shop " or " khop " 
(see farther ou, No. 19), 

3. Egyptian coat of mail, from 

Denon's work. Among tlie 
designs of M. Prisse d'A\ ennes 
may be remarked an Egyptian 
coat of mail, in scales of bronze, 
each scale being an 'inch and a 
half in length by three-fourths 
of an inch in breadth. Among 
the scales the one which bears 
the Biblical inscription fixes the 
date of the manufacture to the 
Pharaonic dj nasty. 

4. Egyptian coat in crocodile's skin. 
Egyptian Museum of the Belvedere, 


5. Egyptian buckler with sight-hole, 

from Denon's work. The bas- 
relief of Thebes, ah-eady men- 
tioned, shows a similar buckler, 
but of oval shape. 



Egyptian Weapons. 


6. Sword-breaker, from Denon'-swork. 

7. Egyptian quivers, id. 

S. Egyptian hatchet, id. 

'■ ' 



scimitar, id. 



11. „ dart, 




13. Unknown weapon, id. 

14. Unknown weapon, id. 

15. Hatchet, from bas-reliefs of 


16. Scorpion or whip-goad, id. 

The size of these weapons could 
not be given, but they appear 
to be from 25 to 27 inches long. 
They were probably in bronze 
and iron. 

Egyftian Weapons. 

17. Egyptian wedge or hatehet, bronze 
(4 inches). 

Museum of Berlin. 

IS. Egyptian knife or lance-head, Iron 
(6 inches). 

Museum of Berlin, 

19. Shop or khop, an Egyptian iron 

weapon (6 inches). Museum of 
Berlin. It may be seen, a little 
enlarged, on the gr.jup of Seti- 
Menephthah vanquishing Tahen- 
nub, of the I8th dynasty (b.o. 
1990), at the British Museum. 

20. Egyptian lance-head, bronze (lOJ 



21. Egyptian poignard, bronze. The 

handle is iixed upon a wooden 

22. Egyptian hatchet, bronze, of I 

inches, bound with thongs to a 
wooden handle of ISJ inches. 

British Museum. 

23. Egyptian hatchet, bronze (4J 

inches), fixed intoawoodeu handle 
of 16| inches. 


24. Bronze dagger (14 inches). This 

weapon has, however, a Greek 


25. Egyptian poignard, bronze (11 J 

inches), found at Thebes, and 
drawn in M. Prisse d'Avennes' 
work. The handle is in horn. 

26. Egyptian poignard and sheath, 

broiize, 1 foot in length. The 
handle is of ivory, ornamented 
with studs in gilded bronze. 

Mvxeum of Berlin, 






To facilitate research, tliis chapter will contain a summary 
of what has already been said in the historical chapter on 
Greek and Etruscan armour. 

The offensive and defensive weapons of Greece in the time 
of Homer (b.o. 1000) were for the most part in bronze, a 
few for purposes of defence being in leather, though iron was 
as well known in Greece as in Egypt and Assyria. Defen- 
sive armour was composed of a cuirass or corslet (with 
breast and back plates, each made of a single piece or shell), 
of the helmet, of the large round conves shield, and the 
KvrjixiSes, greaves or defensive leggings.* 

The offensive weapons were the cut-and-thrust sword, 
straight-bladed, more or less long, double-edged, with a 
slender point and square sheath, which was worn on the right 
side. The lance was from eleven to fifteen feet long, with a 
broad, long, and pointed head, rounded towards the socket, 
and with a cross-piece bevelled, and strongest towards the 
centre. This weapon served either for thrusting or throwing. 
The javelin with its amentum (a strap fixed to the centre of 
gravity of the javelin) was a kind of long arrow or dart, which 
the warrior threw from his hand, and which we find amongst 
the Germans and Eomans ; and lastly, the bow and arrows. 

The Greeks had at first no cavalry, nor had they even a 
term to indicate the action of mounting on horseback, for 
which, even in French, a proper verb does not exist, for the 
expression " chevaucher " means rather to stroll (Jidner) on 

* The different coverings for the feet among the Greeks were, the 
sandal, worn by the men ; the persica, worn by tlie women, particularly 
by the hetairie; the crepida, the iron-shod shoe of tlie philosophers and 
soldiers, which did not cover the whole of the foot ; and the garhatinc, 
belonging to the peasant. There were also the cothurnus, and the buskin. 
The first was the foot covering of the tragic actors, to appear taller 
when they acted heroes. Ligatures, fastened to the sole, which was 
generally of cork, became narrower, as in the modern skate, and passed 
between the first and second toe. It was also worn by kings and people 
of the higher classes. The buskin was particularly suited to comic 
actors ; it was a kind of boot laced up the front, and generally coming 
up Ijigher than the ankle. An antir[U6 statue of Diana in the Museo 
Pio-Clementino, and many other statues, wear the buskin. 

t This assertion seems hardly admissible, in the face of the words 
iirt^e^rjKiia, mounted [ec. on horseback), and 'nrireiai/, to rido.— 
Teanslatok's Note. 

Greek and Etruscan Armour. 107 

Later, about b.o. 400, bodies of slingers and horsemen 
were added to their armies. 

As to the Etruscan arms, they may be divided into three 
categories : those constructed when Phoenician influences pre- 
vailed (Asiatic weapons), and which appear anterior even to 
Greek civilisation ; those of the epoch of the end of the 
Trojan war, and which are perfectly identical with Greek 
weapons ; and lastly those of the Latin time, a little while 
before the conquest of Etruria by the Eomans. 

Greek weapons have necessarily been classed with Etruscan 
ones, of which few or none of the first period exist ; to class 
them separately would have been impracticable. 

Greelc and Etrusean Armour. 

1. Greek combatants, horn a painted 
vase in the Louvre. The war- 
riors are armed with casques, 
breastplates, and bucklers, but 
wear no leggings. The lance 
and sword constitute the ofleu- 
sive weapons. 

2. Greek casque called "kataityx," 
probably in leather, of the 8th 
century B.a, copied from a 
bronze statuette of Diomed. 
This casque has no crest, but 
has a chin strap, and appears to 
indicate well the primitive form 
of casques. 

Etruscan casque in bronze, said 
to belong to tlie first period, 
C. 1, " Muse'e d'Artillerie de 
Paris." A similar casque has, 
however, been found in the 
German cemetery of Hallstatt, 
whose tombs do not date farther 
than the Christian era. 

Etruscan casque in bronze, pre- 
served in the Louvre. This 
one is also attributed to archaic 
times. Similar examples are 
to be found in the " Muse'e 
d'Artillerie de Paris" (C. 2), 
in tlie Museums of Berlin, 
Turin (No. 310), of Mayenoe 
(No. 380), and in the Tower 
of London Q). 

Greek and Etruscan Armour. 

Bronze casque from tlie Museum 
of St. Germain, attributed to 
the XJmbrians* One similar 
lias been found in the German 
tombs of Hallatatt, and ex- 
liibited in the Cabinet of Anti- 
quities at Vienna, and another 
found at Steingaden, in Ba- 
varia, is in the museum at 

Etruscan casque in bronze with 
long antennee. Fac-similes to 
be seen in the Artillery Museum, 
Paris (0. 12.), in the Museum 
at Mayence, and in the Cabinet 
of Medals at Paris. The Louvre 
possesses a similar specimen, 
but in gold. The antennse 
(from the Latin "ante," before, 
and " fixus," fixed) are so called 
from their shape, which resem- 
bles the yards of ships. 

Archaic Etruscan bronze casque. 
A figured vizor may be re- 
marked, which calls to mind 
the movable vizors of the 
Christian Middle Ages. 

British Museum. 

8. Greek casques in bronze, with 
inscriptions. 8 

British Museum. 

* The XJmbrians or Umbri were' 
of the Gallic race, and were allies of 
the Etruscans, B.C. 311 — 307. Con- 
trary to the opinion of some modem 
liistorians, I believe that this people 
was a less ancient one than the 
Etruscan race. 


Oreelc and Etruscan Armour. 

9. Greek casque of a "hoplites,'' or 
heavy-armed foot-soldier, in bronze, 
copied from a statue of that time. 
Similar examples are to be seen in 
the armouries of Turin (341), Ber- 
lin, Mayence, Goodrich Court, and 
the Artillery Museum, Paris. A 
similar object, in the British 
Muteum, is engra-ped with a Greek 
inscription. The Venetian salades 
of the fifteenth century resemble in 
style this helmet. One hke it in 
every respect has been found at 
Steingaden, near Hohenschwanga, 
in Bavaria : it is now in the 
Augsburg Museum. 

10. Greek casque in bronze. 
Arsenal of Turin. 

No. 342, 

11. Greek casque in bronze. No. 3176, 
Museum of Mayence. It is an 
admirable piece of workmanship, 
the reliefs representing a combat 
of two bulls ; it has antennse, and 
is sui'mounted with a crest-holder. 

12. Greek casque from a painted vase, 
said to be Etruscan, in the Louvre. 
This is the perfect Greek classic 
casque, which we see in so many 
sculptures : not a single specimen, 
however, lias descended to us.* 

* Singularly enough, two New 
Zealand casques of twisted vegetable 
fibre, in the Meyrick Collection, now 
exhibiting at South Kensington, are ot 
this pure Greek type. — Teanslatok's 

GreeJc and Etruscan Armour. 


13. Greek casque from the paintings 
on a vase said to be Etruscan, 
in the Louvre Museum ; it is 
of a rare and artistic shape. 
The crest holder, which re- 
presents a kind of eagle, ap- 
pears to he ornamented witli 

14. Greek casque from an antique 
statue ; the crest is ornamented 
with horsehair out short, and 
the head-piece shows fine em- 
bossed workmanship.. 

J 3. Crest of a Greek casque in 
bronze, found in a tomb. 
0. 13, Museum of Artillery, 
Paris. Observe the likeness 
to Assyrian crest, No. 32, page 

16. Greek casque with neck cover- 
ing, in bronze. 0. 6, Museum 
of Artillery, Paris. This 
helmet appears to have be- 
longed to a horseman of the 
decadence period. 

17. Greek casque with chin-strap 
in bronze. C. 8, Mussum of 
Artillery, Paris. 


Greeh and Etrusoan Armour. 

18. Greek helmet with neck-cover- 
ing and plume-holder, belong- 
ing to a horseman. C. 1, 
Museum of Artillery, Paris; 
this helmet belongs to the 
period of decadence. 

19. Etrusoan breastplate in bronze, 
made in one shell, and showing 
in relief the human shape. 
It comes from an Etruscan 
tomb, and is now in the 
Museum of Carlsruhe. The 
Museum of Artillery at Paris 
possesses a cast of it. 0. 17. 

Greek corslet composed of two 
pieces, back and breast plate, 
in bronze, found in the en- 
virons of Naples. C. 13, Mu- 
seum of Artillery, Paris. 

Greek arm-guard in bronze. 
Collection of M. Bonstellen, 
near Berne, Switzerland. 

22. Greek belt in bronze, belonging 
to a soldier or gladiator (1 foot 
in length), furnished with 
hooks. 0. 15, Museum or 
Artillery, Paris, and No. 372, 
Museum of Mayence. 

Greek, and Etrus an Ay 


23. Etruscan buckler, 3 feet in 
diameter ; found in a tomb. 
The hammered and chased 
work which fills the circles 
is of a remarkable character ; 
the style is Asiatic-Piioenician, 
and indicates that the article 
belonged to the first Etruscan 
period. This shield belongs 
to the British Museum, and 
a cast is to be seen in the 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
No. C. 9. 

24, Etruscan buckler, in bronze, 17 

inches iii~3iametcr. The en- 
graving is of the interior of 
the shield. It was discovered 
in a tomb, and is now in the 
Museum of Mayence. The 
Museum of Artillery at Paris 
possesses a cast of it. No. C. 10. 

25. Boss of Greek shield.* It mea- 

sures 10 J inches, and was found 
in the environs of Mayence, 
in which city it is exhibited. 
The Museum of Artillery at 
Paris possesses a cast of it. 
No. C. 22. 

* The Greek buckler had two 
handles, one in the centre, through 
which the arm passed, and one at 
the edge for the hand. In addition 
to this there was a leathern strap 
to hang the shield round the neck. 

1 4 

Qreeh and Etruscan Armour. 

26. Greave of Greek horseman, 
bronze (ISJ inclies). Museum 
of Artillery at Paris, C. 22. 
The back of the leg is not 

27. Greave of Etruscan horseman, 
bronze (21 inches). It was 
found in a tomb. Museum of 
Carlsruhe. The Museum of 
Mayence possesses a similar 
one, and the Museum of Ar- 
tillery at Paris a oast. No. C. 
16. The knee-cap represents 
the head of a lion. The back 
of the leg ia not protected. 

2S. Etruscan poitrinal ''barde," in 
bronze, to protect the horse's 
breast. Museums of Carlsruhe, 
Mayence, and a cast, No. C. 
15, Museum of Artilleiy, Paris. 

29. Etruscan chamfront, or frontal 
plate for a horse's head, in 
bronze. The numbers 27, 28, 
and 29, appear to have be- 
longed to the same suit of 
horseman's armour. Museums 
of Carlsruhe, Mayence, and a 
cast, No. C. 18, Musemn of 
Artillery, Paris. 

Greeh and Etruscan Armour. 


30. Greek sword, in bronze (19J 

No. 348, Mmeum of Mayence. 

31. Greek sword, in bronze (82 

C. 18, Mmeum of Artillery, Paris. 

32. Greek sword, called Gallo- 

Greek (25 inches), with 
its sheath, both in bronze, 
found in the department 
of TJze's. 
B. 19, Museum, of Artillery, Paris. 

33. Bronze lance-head, probably 1 ? 

Greek, found in a peat moss 
near Abbeville (Somme). 
B. 23, Museum of Artillery, 
Paris. The Museum of 
Mayence possesses a simi- 
lar lance-head. No. 349. 

34. Antique dagger, in bronze, 1 

called '• parazonium," com- 
mon to the Greeks and 
Eomans. 16| inches long. 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

35. Greek (?) hatchet, in bronze. 

Museum of Berlin. 

36. Greek or Etruscan mace- 

head, covered with points, 
found in the ancient king- 
dom of Naples. 
Museums of Berlin, Saint Ger- 
main, and Artillery, Paris. 

37. Greek spur, in bronze, found 

in the ancient kingdom of 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

38. Antique spur, in bronze, 

probably Greek. 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 


Greek, and Etruscan Armour. 

1. "Hoplites." regular soldier, 

armed with the trefoil-shaped 
buckler, from the treatise 
of M. Roflios. 

Athens, 1868. 
This soldier is interesting 
on account of the helmet 
of Etruscan shape, and the 
shield like a thiee-lobed 

2. Coat of mail. It will be seen 

that the sword is worn on 
the right side. 

3. Leaden bolt of Greek cata- 

pult, engraved with the word 
AEHAI, receive. 

4. Hand arbalest, or halista, a 
weapon much like the cross- 
bow of the Middle Ages, 
copied from the work of 
M. Eodios, who constructed 
it after a Byzantine test. 
It is doubtful, however, 
whether such a portable 
balisf a, or arbalest, was really 
used in ancient Greece, 

5. Battering ram with protecting 
cover, on wheels, called a 
" tortoise," from M. Eodios' 



As in the preceding chapter we have treated of the Greek 
equipment, in the present we have given a summary of Eoman 
equipment, which in the earliest epochs was most probably 
the same as that of Etruria, a country where it had been 
established by the combined influence of the Phoenicians 
and Greeks. 

Polybius, who was born in the year 552 after the founda- 
tion of Eome, or 202 b.o. (nearly three hundred years after 
the conquest of Etruria by the Eomans), and who is the 
earliest author who has aescribed the offensive and defensive 
arms of the Eomans, speaks only of those of his own time. 
The description given by this contemporary of Scipio 
Africanus, added to some slight information afforded us by 
sculptures on or in tombs on the borders of the Ehine in 
Germany, and by the columns of Trajan and Antoninus, is 
nearly all that is known on this subject. 

But from the works ascribed to Homer we have much 
fuller information concerning the arms used by the Greeks 
in the tenth and even in the thirteenth century, B.C., the 
epoch of the siege of Troy, than concerning those by the 
aid of which the mighty Eoman people conquered the 

It is very probable that the Eomans, in common with the 
Greeks and Etruscans, at first used only bronze for their 
weapons, but in the time of Polybius this metal was 
restricted to helmets, breastplates, and other portions of 
their armour; all offensive weapons, such as bows, swords, 
and lances, were always either made entirely of or tipped 
with iron, while the Gauls at that time still employed bronze. 

The Eoman army was composed of three divisions of 
soldiers : the velites, or foot-soldiers, who were lightly 
armed ; hastarii, or legionary foot soldiers, and cavalry. 

The first were armed with seven light javelins, the shaft 
of which was about three feet in length, and the iron head 
about nine inches, with a sword, and a small round or 
oval shield, called parma,'^ about three feet in circumference. 

* This was the class of shield worn by gladiators. 

118 Roman, Samnite, 

The helmet, which was usually made with cheek-pieces, 
had neither crest nor horsehair, though it was sometimes 
ornamented with wolf's skin. 

The hastarius, or legionary soldier, was protected by an 
iron or leathern helmet, ornamented with three scarlet and 
black feathers, by greaves or leggings (ocreos),* and by a 
breastplate or cuirass, composed of a corslet and shoulder- 
pieces, the whole made of bronze. He also had a largo 
shield called a scutum, of a rectangular and convex shape, 
made of wood, skin, and iron, about four feet long by two and 
a half feet broad, and covered with plates of iron. For offensive 
weapons he carried an iron Iberian sword, which was always 
worn on the right side, as in Greece ; though the Assyrians, 
the Hindoos, the ancient Americans, the Persians, and the 
Egyptians always wore it on the left side, as at the present 
day. The hastarius, besides the above weapon, had two 
javelins, one of which was the famous legionary pilum, which 
we find later in use among the Franks. The Eoman 
slinger was armed with a sling similar to the one used by 
the Achseans. 

The Koman cavalry in the time of Polybius were equipped 
like the Greek. Before that time they had no defence 
except a round, oval, or hexagonal shield made of ox-hide; 
but subsequently the armour was changed and made stronger 
and better fitted to resist the attacks of barbarians. In 
the time of Trajan and of Septimius Severus, the horseman 
wore a flexible cuirass or squamata, made of scales of iron or 
bronze sewed on linen or leather ; or a Jiamata, made of metal 
chains, being in fact a sort of mail-coat. On the column 
of Trajan are represented many soldiers wearing cuirasses 
made neither of scales nor of chain mail, but of long pieces of 
metal similar to the armour of the Middle Ages ; and the 
bas-reliefs on this monument show that there was as much 
variety in the equipment of their different bodies of troops at 
that time as there is now-a-days. 

The armour of the centurion was more elaborate than that 

* The foot-coverings of the Romans, like those of the Greeks, were 
various. Tlje soUa, or sandal, a sole of wood or leather attached by 
straps ; the calceus, or shoe of civil life ; the ocress mentioned in the 
text, and the soUa lignna, the wooden shoe of the poor. The boot, 
derived from the Keltic hot (foot), was unknowu to all ancient peoples. 

and Dacian Arms. 119 

of the simple hastarius : his corslet had shoulder-pieces 
fixed to it, and was loiig enough to cover his thighs. It was 
very often ornamented with silver phalerse, which served as 
marks of distinction and military rewards at that time. Some 
of these are represented on page 120. 

and Dacian Arms. 121 

1 A Roman soldier, a veles, or auxiliary soldier, from a tombstone found 
in the Rhine, and now in the Jlusieum at Mayenee ; a cast of it is 
in the Museum of Artillery at Paris. Tiiis soldier is armed with 
two long javelins about the same height as liimself, witli a sword 
•worn on the right side, and with a parazonium or dagger on the 
left. The only defensive armour he has is a small apron made of 
straps of leather studded with pieces of metal. 

2. A Eoman legionary soldier (hastarius), back view. This figure is 

taken from the bas-reliefs on the Tiajan column, erected by Trajan 
three years before his death, 114 a.d. On it are represented in 
particular his exploits in the wars against the Dacians (103-104), 
wars which were ended by the conquest of Dacia Trajana (now 
Moldavia, Wallachia, Transylvania, and the north-east of Hungary). 
The cuirass is made of thin plates of metal. 

3. The same, front view. 

4. Eoman horseman, from the Trajan column. He wears the squamata, 

or shirt, made of metal chain armour, a species of coat of mail ; an 
oval shield, a helmet with a ring and chin strap, and a sword on 
the right side. 

5. Bust of a Eoman legionary soldier, from the Trajan column. He 

wears a crested helmet. 

6. Head of a hastarius belonging to another legion, from the Trajan 


7. Head of a hastarius of another legion, from the Trajan column. 

8. Head of a hastarius belonging to another legion, from the Trajan 


9. Cuirass of a Eoman centurion, about 22 inchrs in length. It is 

ornamented with nine silver plialejse, or military distinctions, and is 
in the possession of King William I. of Prussia. There is a cast of 
it in the Museum of Artillery in Paris. A centurion belonging 
to the legion of Varus (who was defeated by the Germans, a.d. 9), 
represented on a tombstone that is now in the Museum at Mayenee, 
has the same kind of cuii ass. 

10. Bronze scales of a squamata, or Eoman cuirass. They are copied 

from those found at Avenche, the ancient Aventicum, cipital of 
Eoman Switzerland, which was known of in the time of Julius 
Csesar, and was subsequently very much improved by Vespasian. 
Some of its remains are in the Museum at Avenche. The author 
has in his own collection several other fragments of Eoman arms 
in bronze, from the ruins of Aventicum. 

11. Eoman helmet, in bronze. It was dug up in the field where the 

battle of Cannae took place, B.C. 216, and given by the Superior of 
an Augustine Convent to Pope Ganganelli. This helmet is now 
in the Castle d'Erbach in Hesse-Darmstadt, but it is not known 
how it came there. No. 379, in the Museum at Mayenee, and 
No. D. ] , in the Museum of Artillery at Paris, are helmets similar 
to the above. 


Boman, Samnite, 

12. Samnite helmet, iu bronze, 
found at Isemia, in an- 
cient Samnium. Tliia 
helmet is in the Erbaeh 
collection, and dates as 
early as the second Samnite 
■war (B.C. 327-324). A 
gilded Japanese helmet of 
similar shape is in the 
Museum of Artillery at 

18 and 14. Two Eoman helmets, 
from the Trajan column. 
No. 14 resembles a helmet 
copied from the Theodo- 
sian column, spoken of 
later, in the chapter on 
the iron age. 

15. Eoman helmet, in iron, about 
1 foot in height. It is orna- 
mented with bronze, and 
dates from the time of the 
decline of the empire. It 
is one of the most curious 
of that age. The face is 
almost entirely covered by 
a sort of mask. It is in 
the Museum of Artillery 
in Paris. D. 29. 


16. Eoman gladiator's helmet. 


from the Pourtales collec- 


tion. The face is entirely 


protected by a fixed vizor, 


^ pierced all over with round 


g\ holes. This sort of helmet 


t. came into use iu the 16th 


century of our era. Now 

in the Museum of St. 



17. Eoman telmet, found at 

Pompeii. Museum of 
Artillery in Paris. 

18. Dacian sword, from the 

Trajan column, erected by 
Trajan three years before 
liis death, in the year 114. 
The Dacians were the 
people who inhabited 
Moldavia, Wallachia, and 
Trausylvania, and the 
north - east of Hungary. 
They fought bareheaded, 
and had only a shield for 
defensive armom-. 

19. Eoman war-hatchet, in iron. 

From the Collegia Romano 
at Rome. 

20. 21. Eoman sword of iron 

worn with belt, called 
parazonium, 10 inches in 
length ; and its sheath 
made of bronze. A cast 
of this wi apon (which was 
found in Germany ) is now 
in the Museum of ArtiUery 
in Paris. D. 20. 

22. Iron head of Roman javelin, 

6 inches long. From the 
Museum at Mayence. 

23. Iron head of Eoman (?) jave- 

lin, 1 1 inches long. From 
the Museum at Mayence. 
236is. IronheiidofEoman;pj7um. 

24. Roman (?) bill, in bronze, 

found iu Ireland. 

^ Tower of London. 

25. Roman bill, in iron, from 

the ruins of Psestum, on 
the coast of Lucania. 0. 2, 
Museum of Artillery iu 
Paris. This weapon, which 
is also found on Assyrian 
sculpture, is not the harpe 
(apiTTi) or scimetar of the 
Greeks, which was a sort 
of sword, with a sharp hook 
projecting from the cutting 
edge of th e weapon — a wea- 
pon with whicli Mercury is 
represented killing Argus, 
Perseus, when cutting off 
Medusa's head, and which 
the gladiators often used. 

and Dacian Arms. 



Roman, Samnite, 

26. Roman sword, in iron, 26 inches in 
*5 length. Tlie hilt is ornamented 

with bronze.* It was found at 
Colleetion of Ihe Burgomaster Sollen. 

27. Eoman sword, in iron, 23 inches 
in length. 

Sollen Collection, 

28. Eoman sword, in iron, 25 inches in 
length. The armourer's mark is 
Sabini. A cast of it is in the 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. D. 13. 

29. Eoman sword, in iron, 22 inches in 
length, found at Bingen. 

Sollen Collection. 

30. Eoman sword-blade, in iron, 19 
inches in length, found at May- 
D. 14, Museum of Artillery, Paris, 

31. Eoman spur, in bronze, found at 
Salburg, near Homburg, by the 
Keeper of the Archives, Habel. 

32. Eoman spur, in iron. 
D. 43, Museum of Artillery, Paris, 

33. Eoman caltrop of iron (Itameus 
ferreus) : it is pointed at both 

Museum of Artillery, Paris, 

34. Eoman horse-shoe, that was fastened 
to the hook of the horse by means 
of a strap passed through the ring 
of the shoe. D. 12, Museum of 
Artillery, Paris; Museums at 
Avenche (Aventicum). These 
horse-shoes have been found in 
Switzerland, and at Lintz, in 

* A scabbard dug up at Mayence, 
now in the British Museum, bears a 
portrait of Augustus, and a group o( 
Thibenius offering to the emperor a 
statue of Victory. 

and Baeiafi Arms. 


35. Signum, or badge, of Roraac 
cohort, in bronze, found in 
Asia Minor. This is a most 
beautiful piece of w irk, and 
must have been designed 
by a Greek artist. 

D. 3, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

36. Poniard, or short sword, in 

bronze, found in a lake 
dwelling at Pesohiera. 
Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna. 

37. Plain war-hatchet, in bronze, 

found in the old kingdom 
of Naples. Its shape shows 
that it was a weapon, and 
not an implement of hus- 
bandly or carpentry. 
B. 36, Museum of Artillery in 

38. Plain war-hatchet, in bronze, 

found at Naples. These 
two last weapons may very 
likely have been of an 
earher date. 
B. 37, Mmeum of Artillery, Paris, 

126 Roman, Samnite, and Dacian Arms. 

With regard to the machines of war that have been already 
mentioned in a former chapter, there is not one existing in 
its original shape ; and the balistas and catapults which have 
been restored from drawings ought not to figure in a work 
which is devoted exclusively to the history of such arms as 
are based upon authentic documentary evidence. 




THE Keltic tribes, who occupied most probably a large 
portion of Central Europe, and also some of the northern 
districts, have left weapons that are not easily distinguished 
from those of contemporary and later races. 

The names of Galatian and Gaul are often confounded 
with that of Kelt, and even of German. Where everything 
is involved in obscurity it is hazardous to attempt to 
establish exact limits and periods for the weapons of the 
bronze age ; it is safer to treat of them under one category, 
as we are often obliged to do when dealing with matters be- 
longing to pre-historio times. 

We should never be able to classify satisfactorily the so- 
called Keltic productions ; the Scandinavian, Germanic, and 
Gallic elements are manifest everywhere, and those who 
have wished to assign the tombs discovered in these different 
countries to races of well-distinguished origin have constantly 
had their arguments disproved by fresh discoveries. 

The author has been careful to separate only the weapons 
coming from different places, and to classify them into 
countries according to the languages there spoken, so that 
weapons of bronze, possibly Keltico-Gallic, Keltico-Germanic, 
Keltico-Britannic, Scandinavian, &c., which are so often 
confounded with the bronze weapons of our era down to what 
is called the age of iron, have been included under one head 
and described seriatim. The iron celt in the national 
Museum at Munich, the stone hatchets and the long iron 
lance-heads similar to the celts found, together with a 
quantity of weapons and of bronze and gold ornaments, in 
the cemetery at HaUstatt, show that it is not possible to 
discriminate exactly between the bronze, stone, and iron 
ages. The excavations that have been made in this cemetery 
not only show that stone was used at the same time as bronze 

128 Weapons of the Bronze A(/e. 

and iron, but even that iron was used for the sword-blades 
and bronze for hilts, just as at the present day. Uallstatt 
is situated near Ischl, in Austria. The cabinet of antiquities 
in Vienna possesses a large quantity of utensils, weapons, and 
ornaments that have been found amongst the ruins of the said 
cemetery ; and M. Az, at Linz, has some very remarkable 
objects from the same place. As these ruins have been per- 
fectly described by M. de Sacken in his Grdbfeld von Mallstatt, 
written in 1868, it would be useless to describe them again. 
There does not exist a single piece of sculpture that 
represents a Germanic warrior thoroughly equipped, but it is 
well known that his equipment varied in different countries. 
The shield used by the Germans of the north was very large, 
covered with thin plates of copper, and without a boss, though 
in the Frankish tombs belonging to the end of the iron age 
(Merovingian) small round shields with projecting bosses were 
discovered. And what is even more remarkable is that these 
same kind of shields were used by the Danes during the 
bronze age, and perhaps also by other Scandinavian nations, 
and by the Britons. Bronze was used in the manufacture of 
weapons by the Scandinavians and the Britons at the same 
time as by the Germans and the Gauls. It will be seen in 
the following chapter, which treats of the weapons of the 
iron age, that the shape of the battle-axes of the Franks 
differed from that adopted by the Saxons. 

Germanic Arms m Bronze. 


1. German helmet in bronze, Ibimd 

iu one of the tomlis at Hallstatt, 
in Austria. This double- 
crested helmet is very like one 
in the Museum at St. Germain, 
■which is said to he either 
Etruscan or Umbriau. 
Cabinet of Antiquities in Vienna. 

2. German helmet in bronze, which 

was also found in Hallstatt 
cemetery. Cabinet of Anti- 
quities in Vienna. These two 
helmets may veiy likely have 
been made in Italy, though 
found iu Germany, for their 
shape is Etruscan. 

3. German helmet in bronze, about 

three andahalf inches inhcight ; 
found at Britsch, near Pforton, 
Saxony, and now in tlie Klemrii 
collection at Dresden. It is an 
unique specimen, and the shape 
is similar to that of the Assyrian 
helmets in the British Museum. 

4. Gci-man arm-guard in bronze, 

found at Winnsbach, near 
Lintz, in Austria; now in the 
Museum at Lintz. Similar 
arm-guards have been found iu 
Denmark. (See No. 261, Mu- 
seum of Copenhagen.) 

5. German arm-guard in bronze, 

found in the principality of 
Hohenzollern, and preserved 
in the Museum at Sigmaringcn. 
A similar specimen in the 
jMaximilian Museum at Augs- 


Germanic Arms in Bronze. 

6. Fragment of a large square Ger- 

man shield in wood covered 
with bronze. Found in a 
tomb at Waldhausen, and 
published by M. C. Eath at 
Tubingen. In the Museum at 
Munich there are fragments of 
a German cuirass, ornamented 
in the same way, with copper, 
as this shield. 

7. German shield. Same as above* 

8. Celt, German, 51 inches long; 
found in the cemetery, Hall- 

M. Az' Collection at Liniz. 

0. Celt, German (said to be Keltic) 
found at Stade. 

Museum at Hanover. 

JO. Celt, German, 4 inches long. 
Found in the principality of 
HohenzoUern, and preserved 
iu the Museum of Sigma- 

11. Celt, German, 6 inches long. 

Museum of Sigmariiigen. 

12. Celt, German, CJ inches long. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

13. Seven German arrow-licads. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

" The size and shape of these 
shields indiciite a period . nterior 
to the Eoman influence, which 
inalces itself felt in the circular 
Prankish bucklers of the Mero- 
vingian epoch. 

Germanic Arms in Bronze. 


14. German hatchet in bronze, lOJ 

inches long. Found in the 
Palatinate, and preseryed in 
National Museum of Munich. 

15. Celt, German, in bronze, 8^ 

inches long. The Abyssiniau 
lances at the present day are 
omarclented witli these chisel- 
edged blades (see chapter on 

Museum of Cassel. 

16. Celt, German. 
Museums of Cassel and ErJiach. 

17. German hatchet in bronze, 12 

inches long. Found in the 
Hallstatt cemetery. This 
weapon resembles in its orna- 
ment those of Denmark. 
Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna. 

18. German war-hammer in bronze 

(about 18 inches), found at 
Thuringen. The handle ia 
ornamented with 9 rings, 
formed of 6 Unes each. The 
ornament of this weapon is ^^ 
also like Danish work. v*^ 

Klemm Collection at Dresden, ' ' 

19 to 22. Four German daggers or 

Musef.m at Sigmaringen. 


Germanic Arms in Bronze. 

23. German sword in bionze, 22 

iuclies long. The pomrael is 
ornamented with an eagle's 
head. This sword is made 
entirely of metal. 

Museum of Casael. 

24. German sword, 27 inches long, 

found near Augsburg. The 
flat part of the hilt is pierced 
with holes, which shows that 
the handle must have been 
mounted in either wood, bone, 
horn, or metal. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

25. German swords in bronze, 31 

inches long. Tlie pommels and 
hilts are of bone and bronze, 
some entirely of bone. Found 
in tlio tombs at Hallstatt. The 
points are not sharp. 
Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna. 

2(;. Short German sword in bronze. 
The shape of these swords 
differs essentially from that of 
the Greek parazoniuvi. 

Museum of Hanover. 

27. Head of German lance iu bronze. 
Found at Hallstatt. 
Cabinet of Antiquities at Vienna. 



It lias already been observed tliat it is not possible to 
classify distinctly the bronze weapons that have been found 
in France. Even the celt, that point of a lance so weU 
known by the rings fastened to it, has been found every- 
where, even in Eussia. As to the Gallic weapons of the 
time of Csesar, they were almost all in bronze. 

It has already been said elsewhere that if one wishes to be 
accurate, and to classify chronologically the western weapons 
of pre-historic times, when the productions of different nations 
were more nearly alike than at any other epoch, and where 
periods of transition, although frequent, are less distinctly in- 
dicated, it is necessary to study the construction and con- 
tents of the various tombs. The high hillocks surrounded 
and surmounted by stones of a more or less colossal size 
(dolmens'), and the caves generally closed with flag-stones, 
containing imburnt bones, and stone weapons, may be con- 
sidered as very ancient tombs. The second category is 
usually signalised by smaller hillocks, by the absence of 
large blocks of stone, by a cave or tomb formed of small 
rough stones built up ^vith little art, and by the urn, which 
indicates the burning of the corpse. These latter sepulchres 
generally contain bronze weapons, which will be described. 
in this chapter. 


GaUic Arms. 

1. Bronze helmet, 11 iuches in 

height, ascribed iu France 
to the Gauls. Museum of 
Eouen. A similar one has 
been found at Posen, and 
another in Bavaria, in the 
river Inn. This last iigures 
in the National Museum of 
"Munich, under the title of 
a Hungarian or Avario 

2. Twobronzehelmeta, attributed 

by the Museum of Saint 
Germain to tlie Gauls. The 
shape is the same as that 
of tlie Assyrian helmets, and 
of a German helmet found 
at Britsch, and preserved 
in tho Kleram collection, at 

3 G allic cuirass in bronze, found 
ill a field near Grenoble. 
B. 16, Museum of Artillery, 
Paris. The Museums of the 
Lon^Te, and of Saint Ger- 
main, possess similar speci- 

i. Framework of boss in bronze : 
the shape is not unlike the 
iron bosses of the Fraukish 
sliields, but it is difiScult to 
explain why the iion bar 
passes under, instead of over, 
the boss.* 
Museum of Sand Germain. 

* The bar, if fixed at both ex- 
tremities to the circumference of 
the buckler, might act as a sword- 
breaker. — Tkanslatok's Note. 

Gallic Arms. 


5. GaUic shield, from a sculpture 

on the sarcophagus foiiud in 
the Vigna Ammendola, 

6. Gallic shield, from a bas-relief 

on the Arch of Orange. 

7. Siijnum or Gallic standard, from 

a bas-relief on the Arch (if 
Prange. A similar stiindard, 
5k inches high, has been found 
in Bohemia, and is preserved 
iu the National Museum of 

8. Gallic sword, from a bas-relief 

fitted into the pedestal of the 
Melpomene of the Louvre. 

9. Gallic sword in bronze. 18J inches 

long, found in the Seine at 
B. 7. Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

10. Kelto-GalUo lance, found in the 


Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

11. Lance head, found in the Seine. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

12. Hatchet. 


13. Arrow head. 


11. Lance head, called ceZi, 3 5 inches 

Auilior's Collection. 

is. Lance head, called cdt, 6 inches 
B. 20. Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Ifi. Hatchet, 5J inches long. 
B. 34. Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

17. Lance blade. 

Louvre Museum. 



These weapons are rare, and it is difficult to fix accurately 
their age and origin. Several specimens, preserved in 
museums in England and described as British, are doubtful. 
The horned helmet, for example, and the buckler by the side 
of it, in the British Museum, and the long shield in the 
Meyrick collection, may very likely have been Danish.* 

The epoch of the bronze age in England, which the 
British Commission on the history of labour for the Uni- 
versal Exhibition in Paris in 1867 has described as " second 
epoch, anterior to the Eoman invasion," cannot be limited in 
this manner, because the use of bronze weapons, at first 
general, did not cease under the Eoman dominion, and even 
continued partially till the time of the Saxon invasion in the 
fifth, and the Danish in the sixth centuries. 

If we compare the Danish shields, the horns, and even the 
swords, the heads of lances, and of hatchets in bronze which 
are in the Museum at Copenhagen with the antiquities of 
the same sort exhibited in England amongst British produc- 
tions, we shall find amongst most of them a similarity in 
taste and manufacture which cannot have been produced by 
chance or imitation alone. It is very probable that the 
greater part of these weapons were made in Scandinavia 
itself, or in the northern part of North Germany, and that 
they were brought into tho British Isles by the Norman 
corsairs (Nordmannen, or Nordmaenner, or Men of the North), 
who did not cease to ravage that country till it had been 
quite conquered by their descendants in a.d. 106G. 

' It will be observed in the introduction to the chapter wliich treats 
of Gerraiinic arms that the author considers the use of bronze foi 
weapons in Scandinavia to correspond witli tliat of ircin in Gi rniany. 

British Weapons in Bronze. 


Bronze helmet, found in the 
Thames, and preserved in the 
British Museum. It is in beaten 
■work, and is ornamented with 
incrustations in coloured cement, 
which resembles enamel. 


Framework of helmet found 
Leckhampton Hill. 

British Mineum, 

3. Bronze shield. 

Meyrick Collectimi. 

i. Plating in gilt bronze and beaten 
work, belonging to a British 
shield called Ysgioyd, similar 
in shape to the Koman Scutum. 
It was found in the river 

Meyrick Collection. 

See in the preceding page the 
observations respecting the great 
similarity in these weapons to those 
found in Denmark, and exhibited 
in the Copenhagen Museum. In 
that part nf the Introduction which 
refers to German bronze weapons, 
mention was made of the fact that 
the use of metal in the manufacture 
of weapons began at a later date in 
Scandinavia than in either Gaul or 


British Weapons in Bronze. 

5. Bronze swonl. It is very like Ger- 
man and Scandinavian weapons, 
and may easily Lave been Danish. 
Tower of London, g'j. Several simi- 
lar ones are in the British Mu- 

6. Sword blade in bronze ; called 

Meyrich Collection. 

7. Sword blade in bronze, found in 

Meyrich Collection. 

8. "War horn, Irish, called Sluic. 

Meyrich Collection. 

9. Bronze hatchet. 

British Museum. 

10, Blade of " franie'e" called a celt, in 
bronze, with a double ring; to it. 
British Museum. 

Scandinavian Weapons in Bronze. 139 

In the London Museums there are a large quantity of 
celts, hatchets, swords, daggers, and lance and arrow- 
heads, whose shape does not vary in the least from that 
of Continental weapons of the same epoch. This fact has 
made me hesitate to class them amongst British weapons. 
(See ohservations on this question in the introduction to this 


The bronze arms of Continental Scandinavia (Denmark) 
are, as well as the stone weapons of this country, superior to 
those of other so-called barbaric nations, and very little 
inferior to those of the Greeks and Eomans ; a fact explicable 
to those who adopt the author's suggestion that the use of 
bronze in Denmark was later than in other countries, and 
coincided with the iron age in Germany and Gaul. (See 
observations on German bronze weapons, in the introduction 
to this chapter.) The specimens exhibited in the Museum 
at Copenhagen, which will be found represented farther on, 
show with what a degree of art they worked in this metal. 
The defensive armour of a Scandinavian warrior seems to 
have consisted in the round or long shield, in the cuirass, 
and in the helmet, though not one single complete or per- 
fect helmet exists in the Copenhagen Museum,* and their 
circles of hair may lead us to suppose that the helmet was 
only worn by the chiefs, as amongst the Franks. In the 
preceding article, which treats of British arms, a horned 
helmet is mentioned that may very probably have been 

The use of stone and bronze weapons seems to have been 
continued much longer in Scandinavia than in the rest of 
Europe ; since M. Worsaae has been obliged in his illus- 
trated catalogue of the Copenhagen Museum to class amongst 
the products of the iron age objects belonging to the middle 
ages, and even to a late period of the middle ages, for he 
introduces even swords of the thirteenth and fourteenth 

* See following page, the crest that is supposed to have belonged to 
a helmet. 


Scandinavian Arms in Bronze. 

1. Crest of helmet (?) Danish, in 
bronze, 9 inches high {Sjelm- 
prydeUe in Danish), preserved 
in the Copenhagen Museum. 
This singular crest is in the 
shape of a candlestick. 

2. Head hand, a sort of helmet, .5 
iuclies high, engraved and ham- 

Copenhagen Museum. 

Bound Danish shield in bronze 
(Bronees-Kjold in Danisli) ; 23 
inches in length, with centi'al 
boss, and three surrounding 

Copenltagen Museum. 

i. Oval Danish shield in bronze, 26 
inches long, inside view, the boss 
serves to receive the handle. 

Copenhagen Museum, 

Scandinavian Arms in Bronze. 


5. Covering of round Danish sljield 
in bronze, ISinelies in diameter ; 
it is richly ornamented, and 
has a pointed boss. 

Copenhagen Museum. 

6. Bound Danish shield in bronze, 
22 inches in diameter, orna- 
mented with n;iil heads, and 
with round boss. 

Copenhagen Museum. 

Danish spring arm guard in 
bronze, 12J inclies long. Copen- 
hagen Museum. (See this same 
Mit of arm-guard in the chapter 
on German arms in bronze.) 

8. Danish arm-guard in bronze, G 
inches long. 

Copenhagen Museum. 

S. Danish arm-guard in bronze, 7^ 
inches long. It is ornamented 
with medals. 

Copenhagen Museum. 


Scandinavian Arms in Bronze. 

10. Danish celt, 3J inolies long. 

Copenhagen Museum. 

1 1 . Danish arrow-head iu bronze, 

21 inches long. 

Copenliagen Museum. 

12. Danish arrow-head in bronze, 

G inches long. 

Copenliagen Museum. 

13. Danish hatchet iu bronze, 

6J inches long. 

Copenhagen Museum. 

14. Danish hatchet iu bronze, 

10 inches long. 

15. Danish hatchet iu bronze, 

18 inches long. 

Copenhagen Museum. 

16. Danish knife iu bronze, 6i 

inches long. 

17. Celt, 11 inches in leugtli, 

and a part of the staff re- 

Cvpenhagen Museum. 

18. Head of lance, Danish, iu 

bronze, 12J inches Icjng. 
Copenhagen Museum 

ISa. Same as above. 

19. Danish dngger in bronze, 14| 

inches iu lengtli. 

Copenhagsn Museum. 

20. Danish dagger in bronze, SJ 

inches in length. 

Copenhagen Museum. 

21. Danish poniard in 1 ronze, 

4 inches long. 

Copenhagen Museum. 

Scandinavian Arms in Bronze. 


22. Danish sword in bronze, 37 
inches in length. The work- 
manship is very remarkable, 
and similar to that found in 
German tombs. 

Copenhagen Museum. 

23. Danish sword in bronze, 35 
inches in length. 

Copenhagen Museum. 

24. War horn in bronze, Danish, 
4 feet 4 inches in length. 

Copenhagen Museum. 

The Museum at Copenliagen pos- 
sesses more than two hundred re- 
markable objects belonging to the 
age of bronze, amongst which, be- 
sides those here represented, should 
be mentioned a sword with its 
leathern slieath, poniards and knives 
of unusual shapes, rings of hair 
worn as head-dresses, and some 
keramic ware, amongst which are 
domestic urns of great value in fixing 
their respective epochs, according 
to the methods of interment or of 



1. Bronze ce?i, found in Switzerland, 

and preserved in tlie Museum 
of Geneva. 

2. Bronze celt, found in Switzerland, 

and preserved in the Museum 
of Geneva. 

3. Swiss hatchet in bronze. 

Museum of Geneva. 

i. Hatchet or lance iiead in bronze, 
7 inches long. 

MuseuTn of Lausanne. 

5. Bronze hatchet found at Lieli 
near Oberwyl, not far from 
Bremgarten in Switzerland. 
Preserved in the Zurich Mu- 

C. Bronze hatchet, found in Russia. 
A cast of it is in the Museum 
of Saint Germain. 

7. Knife with ram's head, in bronze, 

10 inches long, found in Siberia. 

Klemm Collection, Dresden. 

8 and 9. Two hatchets in bronze, 
called celts, found in Eussia. 
Casts of them in the Saint 
Germain Museum. 

Oziersky Collection. 

Excavations made in the pro- 
vinces of Minsk and Vladimir, and 
also in Siberia, have brought to light 
a largo quantity of arms and tools 
of tlie stone age, some rough, and 
Some pohshed, or rather smoothed. 
Many of the specimens are preserved 
in tiie Oziersky collection at St. 

10. Bronze axe, found in Hungary. 

Museum of Saint Germain. 

11. Head of lance, in bronze, GJ inches loug, found in Bohemia. 

National Museum of Prague. 

A cast of the same is in the 


THE epoch in England called the iron age, which the British 
commission for the history of labour at the Universal 
Exhibition of 1867, in Paris, has designated as the " third 
epoch- — that of the Eoman reign," — does not begin till a 
hundred years before the Saxon invasion ; for the knowledge 
of iron weapons does not imply their prevalence. The use of 
bronze for offensive weapons was continued much longer in. 
the British Isles than on the Continent, to which fact was 
mainly due the easy subjugation of the country at that epoch. 
The iron weapons of the Eomans, the Saxons, the Franks^ 
the Burgundians, and also of other German tribes, had con- 
tributed greatly to their victories over people whose cutting 
weapons were still formed of copper. The badly armed 
Gauls were entirely conquered by the Eomans, though the 
latter were never able to subdue Germany, where their 
legions constantly met with reverses. 

The periods that it has been decided to include under the 
title of the iron age ought logically to terminate at the end 
of the fifth century, that is, after the decline of the Eastern 
Empire ; they have, however, been brought down to a much 
later date, even to the end of the Carlovingian race (987), a 
system which though not correct had better be accepted in 
part, for fear of bringing disorder among chronologic classifi- 
cation, and thus aggravating the difficulty of researches, as so- 
many museums have classed a large quantity of arms belonging 
to the middle ages amongst the products of the iron age. 

We have seen in the introduction that iron was known 
everywhere and in all ages, but that its universal employment 
for the fabrication of offensive and defensive weapons was- 
preceded by that of bronze. The Eomans very soon found' 
out the superiority of iron for offensive weapons to bronze,, 
which metal was thenceforth restricted by them to defensive 
armour. In the year 202 B.C. the Eoman soldier had no 
longer any offensive weapon of bronze, and it may be admitted 
that in the second Punic war the iron arms contributed greatly 


146 Arms of the Iron Age 

to the Roman victories over tlie Carthaginians. The few iron 
weapons that have heen found in the Gallic tomhs, where they 
were mingled with those of bronze, such as the specimens that 
are preserved in the Museum of Saint Germain, and those found 
in the Gallic cemetery of Catalaunum (in the department of 
Marne), seem to be of German origin, because they resemble 
greatly the swords found at Tiefenau and at ISTeufchatel in 
Switzerland, which will be found represented farther on, and 
which I attribute to the Burgundians, who were so celebrated 
for working in iron. Helvetia, which in the year 450 was almost 
depopulated by the systematic massacres of the Eomans, was 
repeopled about 550 by the Burgundians, bands of which people 
had possessed themselves of the west ; by the Almains, who 
occupied all the districts where German is now spoken ; and 
by the Ostrogoths, who established themselves in the south, 
where the French, Italian, and Eomansch tongues now prevail. 

The Burgundians were a strong and tall race, and from 
the large hilts of their swords must have had very large 
hands. The axe and two lance-heads in iron that were 
found near the village of Onswala in Switzerland (see illus- 
tration farther on) show by their different shape that they 
must have belonged to a nation which was not Frank, and 
was probably Burgundian. 

The swords of the Britons at a later period were of a very great 
length, longer even than those of the Kimbri and Marcomanni. 

The form and character of the greater part of the Danish 
or Scandinavian arms classed in the Copenhagen Museum 
amongst those of the so-called age of iron show that they 
belonged to the middle ages, and there is nothing to authorise 
their being carried back to the iron age, which ought to termi- 
nate at the end of the fifth century, after the fall of the Eastern 
Empire. As in England, so in Denmark, the use of iron began 
but a little while before the middle ages, the eminently Germanic 
character of which was stamped on their arms and monuments. 

The equipment of the warriors varied but slightly amongst 
the numerous branches of the great German race. Every- 
where the Saxe (Sacks) or Scramasax,* a sort of Eoman 
Gladius with a grooved blade, sharp only on one side, and 
the long sword, spata, or ensis, that was so formidable, ac- 
cording to Guglielmus Apuliensis and Nicetas Choniates, 
in the Teutonic hand,| were their favourite offensive 

* See the etymology of this Vford, p. 35. 

t The swords foimd in Germany measui-e generally 36 to 3S inches in 

Belonging to Northern Nations. 147 

weapons. The long swori, renowned for its temper, and 
tearing often the name of its owner engraved in Eunic 
letters, played an important part in the lives of these people, 
and was frequently known by a proper name. Such were 
the Mimung of Wieland, the Bcdmung of Sigfried, the 
Burndart or Dumadal of Eoland, the poisoned Hrunting of 
Beowulf, the Damleif of Hagen the father of Gudrun, the 
Tryfing, the weapon of Svafrlamis, the Mistehtein, that ex- 
terminated two thousand four hundred men, the Skeop 
lAusingi and Swittingi of Danish history, written by Saxo 
Grammaticus, the Joiuse of Charlemagne, the Almace of 
Turpin, the Alteclre of Olivier, the Ghlaritel of Englir, the 
Preciosa of King Poligan, the Sahoyeuse of Orange, the Mai 
of Eother, the Caltbarn of King Artus, and the English 
Querstewheis of Hakon, which, as its name shows, by a 
single stroke split in two an enormous mill-stone. 

It is curious to remark that among Northern races the sword 
is everywhere recognized as male ; in the South, as female. 

It is with this weapon (much shorter among the Mero- 
vingians than in the days of knighthood) that Clotaire II. 
according to history committed the dreadful crime of mas- 
sacring all the Saxons that he had vanquished, men, women, 
and children, that were taller than his sword. The sara- 
masax, though bearing a Saxon name, is rarely met with in 
Saxon tombs, nor in those of Northern Germany. It is by 
the Burgundian, the Almain, and the Frank branches that 
the weapon was familiarly used. 

The axes, which varied in form according to the races to 
which they belonged, and amongst which the francisque of 
the latest conquerors of Gaul was one of the most celebrated, 
were, however, the most characteristic weapon of the German 
nation ; these battle-axes are found in Scandinavia as well as 
in Great Britain, into which country they had been brought 
by the Saxons and the Danes. For the study of the equip- 
ment of these so-called barbarian peoples, there exist very 
few documents, and these few relating only to the Franks. 
All that remaiu in the way of arms belonging to the end of 
the Merovingian reigns, are the sword and the francisque of 
Childeric I., preserved in the Louvre. The sword and spurs 
attributed to Charlemagne constitute probably the sole re- 

leugth, witli a rounded blade, whilst the Frank swords found ia Gaul 
are 28 to 30 inches long, and have tlie blade more pointed. 

148 Amis of the Iron Age. 

maining arms of the commencement of the Carlovingian 
epoch. For written and painted documents in this matter 
we must have recourse to the Bible of Charles le Chauve 
(840 — 877), though the miniatures seem not very exact, and 
are certainly influenced by the imagination of the artist, for 
in them the king is represented seated on his throne smrounded 
by guards, whose costumes may be considered Roman, the 
leathern fringes and other portions of the dress seeming almost 
prsetorian. The Codex Aureus of St. Gall, the cover of the 
Antiphonarium of St. Gregory, the Leges Longobardorum of the 
Stuttgart Library, the Wessobrunn of a.d. 810, in the Munich 
Library, the bas-relief of the Church of St. Julien at Brioude (?) 
and other documents all contradict the illustrator of this Bible 
of Charles le Chauve. 

After this there is no other historical nor archasological 
trace for a hundred years, when, in the Mnrtyrologiiiiu of the 
tenth century, a manuscript preserved in the Library of 
Stuttgart, are represented, as likewise in the bas-relief of the 
reliquary of the treasury of St. Moritz of the ninth century, 
warriors already armed in the same manner as in the Bayeus 
tapestry of the end of the eleventh century. 

Thanks to the descriptions given by several authors 
(Sidonius ApoUinarius, writing in a.d. 450 ; Prooopius 
Agathios, Gregory of Tours, and others), and to the exca- 
vations made in the Merovingian cemeteries, we are able to 
reconstruct nearly the whole of the equipment of the last 
conquerors of Gaul. As with most other Germanic races, 
the defensive armour of the Frank consisted only in the 
smaU round convex shield, 20 inches in diameter, made of 
wood covered with skin. As yet no casques nor cuirasses 
have been found, but we have written evidence that the chiefs 
wore them. The common soldier had part of his head 
shaved like a Chinese, the remainder of the hair was dyed 
a bright red, plaited and matted together on the front part 
of the head, which was a kind of protection, to serve as 
a casque, and was usually confined by a leathern band. 
His offensive armour consisted in the angon or Tpilum, barbed 
at the point, the lance (framee), with a long blade of iron, the 
battle-axe, single-edged and called francisqiie, the swcrd and 
the scramasax, a long dagger or rather cutlass with r. single 
edge. The bow and arrosv he used only in hunting, for the 
angon, and even the francisque, served him occasionally as 
missiles. See pp. 35 to 39. 

Chrmanio Jjwi Weapons. 

I. Blade of Germauio lance in iron, 
cnlled celt, 74 iiiohos lonj?. 
National Museum of Munich. 

-. Blndo of Geimanio liuice in iron, 
with n socket, llj inches long; 
nnd ft portion of tlio stnfl" iv- 
niniuiiig, about 6 inches in 
U'ngth. Found in one of the 
tombs of the Hallst»tt cemetery, 
iu Austria. 

CiiUicdon of M. Ai, at LinI:. 

3. Germanic liuicc-bUnio in iron, 11 J 

inches loui;. 

CoHeotioii of M. A:, at Lint: 

4. Gormiiuio lanco-blade iu iron, 11 J 

iuolies long, iitem. A similar 
s[^mon is in the Cubinet of 
Antiquities iu Vienna, and a 
thiiil, found at Lfiueburg, in 
the Jluseum nt Hanover. 

5. Germanic lance - blade, with 

six;ket in iron. Length 11 J 
inches. Found iu the Hallstiitt 

Colltiction of M. A:, Lint:. 

6. Germojiio livnce-blade in iron, 

with socket, and a ring similar 
to the rings on the lances calle>l 
eellf. It mensxires lo inclies, 
and wos found in the Hallstatt 
Cabiiut if AMquitifS in Vicnnn . 

7. Small Germauio sword, length 

ItJJ inches. The blade is iron, 
tl>o hilt bronze. Found in the 
oemeterv at Hallstatt. 
Cabinet of AiUiquUies, Virtin.i. 

8. Germanic poniard iu iron, lengtli 

1 5 inches. Found iu a tomb in 

Musfuin of Sigmaringcn. 

9. GcTmonio war - knife in iron, 

length 14 inches. Found ot 

Jlfu«f utn of Sigmaringii). 

10. Germanic war -knife iu imn, 

length 11 J inches. 
Aii<ii'iiii/ Museum of Munirl. 


Germanie Iron Wea^pons. 


11. Dagger or gemispata in iron 
(Frankish), called a scramasax. 
It has a single edge, and several 
gi'ooves ou the back of the blade. 
Its length, including the haft, 
is about 24 inches ; it was found 
near Chalons. N. E. 19, Museum 
of Artillery, Paris. 

Tlie great length of the hafts of the 
sciumasaxes found in Switzerland (they 
vaiy between 6 and 10 inches) 1ms led 
Dr. Keller of Zurich to suppose that 
they were not weapons, but hatchets 
intended to be used with both hands 
for cleaving wood. I believe tliera, 
liowevcr, to be the scramasax of the 
Franks, and of other Germanic nations, 
for they are often found in the tombs 
of warriors side by side with their long 

12. Scramasax in iron, length 18 inches, 
found in Switzerland. Autlior's 
Collection. One of these scrama- 
saxcs found at Mannheim is in 
the Tower of London (^l^). The 
Museum at Geneva also has one 
(if these weapons that was found 
in a tomb at Bellecan (Canton of 
Vaud). The Museum at Lausanne 
possesses others, whose hilts are 
about 6 inches in length, and 
whicli seem to have belonged to 
tlie Burgundians. A scramasax 
in the Avenches Museum, found 
in that town, may date as far 
back as the third century, for it 
was in 264 that the AUemanni 
jjenetrated that country, and de- 
stroyed Aventicum entirely. One 
of these weapons has also been 
found at Gruningen, Windisoh. 
It is preserved in the Zuricli 
Museum; the haft measures 
about 8J inches. There is also 
one in the Sigmaringeu Museum,' 
which was found at HohenzoUern. 
The liandle, which is about 10 
inches in length, is of copper, 

mounted \nih. a wooden casing, which is covered with linen and 
leather thongs. The blade is about IG inches in length, the 
whole weapon therefore measuring about 26 inches. 
Scramasax in ii-on, length of blade, 15 inches, and of haft, 8 inches; 

Germanic Iron Weajpons. 

found at Wulflingen and pre- 
servfid in the Museum of 8ig- 
inaringen. This weapon is 
distinct from others of its kind 
by liaving a small kiiife at- 
tached on the outsid* of the 

14. Germanic sword in iron, length 

37 inches. The point of the 
blade is rounded; found at 
Langeneslingen. Sigmaringen 
Museum. Similar swords 
have been found of more than 
a mebe in length, at the ceme- 
tery of Selzen, near Nierstein, 
where by excavating 28 tombs 
have been discovered, all con- 
taining skeletons, several of 
which have these long swords 
and battle-axes of the Saxon 
and Frankish shape by their 

We recognise the same sort 
of sword in the illuminations 
of the Codex Aureus of Saint 
Gall, written in the eighth 
century, as well as iu tliose of 
many other Anglo-Saxon MSS. 
of the ninth and eleventh cen- 

15. Frankish sword of the Mero- 

vingian epoch, about 30 inches 
in length, with a sharp point. 
Found at Moselle. E. 14, 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
Similar swords have been 
found in touibs at Fronstet^ 

16. Sword with sheath, found in the 

tomb of Childeric I. (457-481), 
preserved in the Museum of 
the Louvre, Paris. There is 
an eiTor in the mounting of 
this sword. The armourer 
who was intrusted to restore 
it has placed the pommel close 
to the blade, and not at the 
end of the hilt, as represented 
in thfi illustration (No. 17) 
and in the MSS. The same 
mistake has been made with 
regard to a Frankish spata. 


152 Germanic Iron Weapons. 

la the Cabinet de Medailles, in Paris, there is the cast of a similar 
sword to the above, most probably of the same date; it is about 
36 inches in length, and was found on the battle-field of Pouau, 
department of Aube. The guard of this sword scarcely projects 
beyond the blade, which is wide and pointed. 

17. Haft of Merovingian sword, after MSS. 

18. Ponnncl of sword, attributed to Childeric. 

19. Haft of Germanic sword, found at Pelting in Bavaria. 

20. Germanic or Slavonic sword, square at the point, belonging to tlie 

sixth century. Copied from the bas-relief of a diptych that is in the 
treasury of the Cathedral of Halberstadt. The great length of 
the handle resembles the Burgundian swords found in Switzerland 
(see No. 21, later on). 

I must repeat here what I have already observed in the 
historical chapter about the etymology of the word Scrama- 
sax. Sax means knife, and Scrama may be derived from tha 
word scamata, a line traced on the sand between two Greek 
combatants; or from scaran to shear, from which the 
German Schere, scissors, is derived. The scramasax is thus a 
weapon used in duels or a cutting knife. 

Germanic Iron Weajpons, 


21. BurgunJian sword in iron, 

about 3 feet 3 inches in 
length, including the haft, 
which is very long, and 
proves that it must have been 
used by a robust and large- 
handed race. The Museum of 
Artillery in Paris possesses 
oasts of the 11 swords found at 
Tiefenau in Switzerland, on a 
field of battle. They have 
been alluded to in a work of 
Troyon, but in it they should 
not have been placed amongst 
lacustrine arms. The Museum 
of St. Germain possesses simi- 
lar swords that were found in 
the lake of Neucliatel. 

22. Germanic dagger of the Mero- 

vingian epoch, length 17 
inches. Found in a tomb at 
Hettingen, and preserved in 
the Siginaringen Museum. 

23. Germanic dagger of the Mero- 

vingian epoch, found at 
Botlienlachen, and preserved 
in the Museum of Sigmarin- 
gen. Length 8^ inches. This 
shape was used for more than 
800 years, for it is to be found 
in the fifteenth century. 

24. Germanic sword in iron, 34 

inches in length. Found in a 
tombiu the Hallstaltcemeterj'. 
Cabinet of Antiquities, Vienna 
(for shape of blade, see bronze 

25. Germanic dagger-knife (length 

13 J inches) of the Merovingian 
epoch, found in a tomb near 
Sigmaringen, in the museum 
of which city it is preserved. 
It is a rare specimen, on ac- 
count of its shape; there is 
a similar one in the National 
Museum of Munich. 


G-ermanic Iron Weapons. 

26. Six Germanic arrow-heads of 
different shapes, belonging to 
the Merovingian epocli. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

Two poisoned arrow - heads, 
actual size. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

Two heads of darts, Germanio 
origin, found in the princi- 
pality of Hohenzollern, and 
preserved in the Museum of 
29. Blade of Frankish anjon or dart 
(Merovingian epoch). E. 23, 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Hi ad of frame'e (a kind of lanee, 
in German P/riem), length 15 
inches. Found in tlie Mero- 
vingian cemetery of Londi- 
nieres. E. 7, Museum of 
Artillery, Paris. 

Head of framee, 16 inches in 
length, found at Selzen 
(Hesse) in a tomb. 

Head of Burgundian spear, 
length 14 inches, found in the 
village of Onswala (Bara 
Schonen) in Switzerland, and 
preserved in the Museum of 
Lund in Sweden. A similar 
one, but somewhat shorter, has 
been found in the tomb of 
Childeric I. (457—487), and is 
in the Louvre. 
33. Fragment of Germanic bow 
(Almaiu ?) of wood, found in a^ 
lake dwelling in Switzerland. 
This piece measures 3 feet 5 
inches, which would make the 
bow 7 feet 6 inches. 

Germanio bow of Merovingian 
reign, found in a tomb near 
Lupfen. It is of oak, and 6 
feet in length. 


Germanic Iron Weajpons. 


83*, Gennanio battle - axe of the 

Saxon shape, found in the 

Franldsh cemetery of Selzen . 

(Hesse). M. Lindenschmidt 

in 1848 visited 28 tomhs, and I 

has published the result of his ' 


Museum of Mayence. 
34*. Germanic battle - axe of the 

Saxon shape (6 J inches), found 

in the department of the 

Moselle. E. 5, Museum of 

Artillery, Paris. 

35. Grermanic battle - axe, Saxon 

shape, 91 inches. 
Museums of St. Germain and Sig- 

36. Almarn battle - axe, Saxon 

shape ; found in Switzerland. 
Cabinet of Antiquities, Zurich. 

37. Anglo-Saxon battle-axe, found 

in the Thames. 

^ Tow^ of London. 
38 and 39. Germanic battle-axes, ' 
belonging to the end of the 
Merovingian epoch. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

40. Germanic battle-axe (6 J inches). 

Museum, of Munich. 

41. Germanic battle-axe found at 

Sclieben, in Saxony. 

Klemm Collection, Dresden. 

42. Battle - aze, probably British 

(pole - axe). Found in the 

^ Tower of London. 

43. Burgundian axe (9 inches), 

found at Onswala (Bara 
Schonen) in Switzerland. 
Museum at Lund, Sweden. 

44. Frank hatchet (called francis- 

que), found at Enversmen, 

near Augsburg. Museum of 

Artillery in Paris; Museum 

of Augsburg. Another, found 

at Selzen, in Hesse, is in the 

Museum of Mayence ; another, 

at HohenzoHem, in the Mu- 
seum of Sigmaringen. One of 
these axes is in the Tower of London, and is there called Taper axe. 
The Louvre Museum possesses the francisque of Childerie I. 


Germanic Iron Weapons. 


45. Frame-work of the iron bosa of 
a Frank sliield, found at Ton- 
dinieres, and described by the 
Abbe Cochet. Similar frame- 
works, wliich have been ex- 
cavated in the principality of 
Hohenzollern, aie preserved iu 
the Museum of Sigmiiringen. 

Frankish shield, convex and 
round, 21 inches in diameter, 
of wood covered with leather, 
with iron boss, 7 inches in 
diameter. Designed from the 
shield reconstructed for the 
Museum of Artillery in Paris. 

Boss of Anglo-Saxon shield, 
found in Lincolnshire, and 
preserved in the Meyrick Col- 
lection subsequently. The 
shape of these bosses was 
changed to a spherio;il form 
eudhig in a point. 

48. Germanic boss (Frankish) iu 
iron, found at Selzen (Hesse). 

41) iiud 50. Germanic bosses in iron 
found in Bavari;i, and preserved 
in the Maximilian Museum at 
Augsburg. Severiil bosses 
fimilar to the above have been 
found in tombs of as early a 
date as the sixth century, and 
are now in the Bavarian Mu- 
seum at Munich. 

Germanic Iron Weapons 


50*. Boss in iron, belonging to an 
Anglo-Saxon shield. 

51. Boss in iron, belonging to a 

Germanic sliield, found at 
Grosclinowitz (Oppeln), and 
preserved in the Museum of 
Berlin. A similar boss, found 
at Liineburg, is in the 
Hanover Museum. No. 492 
iu the Museum of Copenhageu 
is also a similar boss. 

52. Germanic bosses in iron, pre- 

served in the Museum of Sig- 

53. Fragment of cuirass, found in 
Switzerland, probably made by 
the Allemauni who invaded 
Switzerland in the fourth cen- 
tury. Cabinet of Antiquities, 
Zurich. This valuable speci- 
men is made of long plates 
of iron riveted to eacli 

54. Germanic spur of the Mero- 

vingian epoch. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

55. Gernianicbit(Tre7»8einGermau) 

iu iron, of Meroviugiau epoch. 
Museum of Sigmaringen. 

56. Germanic bit in iron, of the 

Merovingian epoch. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 


Scandinavian Iron Arms. 

catalogue, as belonging to flie iron age. 

1. Danish sword in iron, one-edged, 
k-ngtli 3 feet. The shape is 
very like that of the scramasax. 
496,' Museum of Copenhagen. 

2. Danish sword, iron, one-edged, 
length 44 inches. The handle 
in the shape of the hilt and 
pommel resembles the Prankish 
swords of the Merovingian 
epoch. No. 493, Museum of 

3. Danish two-edged sword, length 
43| inches. The blade is deeply 
grooved, and is not pointed, in 
fact, almost as rounded as the 
Germanic swords. 494, Mu- 
seum of Copenhagen. 

4. Danish sword in iron, length 43J 
iuches. The handle is three- 
lobed, like tlie swords in the 
Anglo-Saxon MSS. of Aelfric, 
written in the eleventh century, 
now in the British Museum. 
In the collection of M. Nieu- 
werkerke there is a similar 
one. When the handle is five- 
lobed and not three-lobed, and 
when the two extremities of the 
guard are slightly bent towards 
the blade, it belongs to the 
thirteenth century. (See the 
one in the Munich Museum in 
the chapter on swords of the 
Middle Ages.) The sword in 
the Nieuwerkerke Collection is 
flve-lobed, but the ends of the 
guard are not bent. 

5. Danish spur in bronze. 

Museum of CopenJmgen. 
Ci. Danish stirrup in bronze (Si- 

Museum of Copenliagen. 

7. Danish stirrap in bronze, inlaid 
with silver (12 inches). 

Museum of Copenhagen. 

8. Danish stirrup in bronze (15J 

Museum of Copenhagen. 
P.S. Almost all these obiects be- 
long to the Christian Middle Ages, 
but have been classed erroneously, 
in the museum and in M. Worsaae's 

Scandinavian Iron Arms. 


9. Casque and coat of arms, pro- 
bably in leather and iron, copied 
fi'om the colunm of Theodosiua 
at Constantinople.* As these 
arms display no Eoman cha- 
racteristics, we may suppose 
that they belonged to allies or 
to barbarian mercenaries. 

This coat has nothing of the 
ancient classic character, and 
its singular shape makes one 
hesitate about ita origin. 

* Constantinople, already the 
residence of the Emperor Constan- 
tine, became in 330, on the partition 
of the Eoman Empire, the capital of 
the East. In the year 557 the city 
suffered from an earthquake, and in 
1207 it was taken by the Turks. 
The Emperor Theodosius was bom 
in 346, and died in 398. 




IMLEi historical introduction has shown the gradual pro- 
gress that was made in the improvement of p.rms from 
the earliest ages ; and though the description of tlie equip- 
ment of the ancients and even of pre-historic nations has 
been sometimes based on supposition, the liistory of the 
two later stages of the Christian middle ages may be 
established from existing specimens. Starting from the 
tenth century, we are already able to follow step by step the 
gradual change in defensive armour, the alterations in which 
are always more apparent than those of offensive weapons, 
whether missile or for close combat. The mail-shirt re- 
mained in use for more than iive hundred years, and was 
replaced by complete plate armour only after a transition 
period in xvliich coats of mail, partly composed of plates of 
iron or of leather, were used. This chapter, after having 
passed in review the complete equipment of the different 
epochs, will give a separate history of each weapon, accom- 
panied by illustrations of the objects, however small, which, 
it is hoped, will greatly facilitate the comprehension of the 
text. As to the more general historical development, the 
reader is referred to the chapter on the abridged history of 
cnoient arms, pages 37 to 59. 

Complete Equipments of the Middle Ages. 161 

Combatants from the ivory cover of the Antiphonary of Saint Gregory, 
a manuscript of the eighth century, preserved in the library of Saini 
Gall, in Switzerland. This sculpture has much of the Soman and even 
Byzantine character about it ; it may very likely have come from a. 
diptych. The shape of the shields, however, is not Eoman, and the 
sort of Moses-like horns on the heads of the warriors remind one of 
the defensive head-gear of the northern nations. The two combatants 
do not wear beards, and their only weapon of defence is the shield, 
which shows a single loop for the arm. 


Gompleie Equipments 

Merovingian knight, from a bas-relief in the church of Saint Julian at 
Rri oude (Haute Loire), attributed to the eighth century. This warrior is 
equipped in the short hauberk or jacket of scales called Jazerans or 
Korazins (see explanation in the chapter on mail coats and cuirasses), 
without hose or leggings, but with sleeves that reached to the ■\vrist. 
The conical casque resembles those of the eleventh century, called in 
France Norman, though without nose-guard. The chin-piece seems to 
be made by p portion of the hood that appears from under the casque. 
The general character of this equipment indicates rather the tenth or 
eleventh century, on which account the author hesitates about giving it 
this place 

of the Middle Ages. 


, Grennan man-at-arms, of the beguming of the niath century, ^om 
a miniature in Wessobrunn MSS. (810), preserved in the Munich 
library. It is worthy of notice that this warrior wears no beard, 
and that he carries a round shield with boss, and has a rounded 

Lombard Mng from Legea Jjongdbardorum, of the ninth century, in 
the Stuttgart library. This miniature is interesting on accotmt of 
the elongated square and convex shape of the shield ; which is 
also seen in the long targe of Germany, of the fourteenth century. 
The king wears his beard, but with the chin bare. 


Complete Equipments 

3. Horseman and foot-soldiers from the miniatui-ea of the Codes Aureus, 
of the eighth or ninth century, now at St. Gall. The horseman 
and one of the foot-soldiers wears the beard and moustache. 

of the Mid'dle Ages. 


1. German warrior of the tenth century, with conical- 

shaped helmet and nose-piece, and hauberk of 
mail, remarkable by its long sleeves. From the 
" Martyrologie," a manuscript of the tenth cen- 
tury, in the library of Stuttgard. 

2. Warrior in large hauberk of mail, with short sleeves 

and hood, but without casque ; from the bas-reliefs 
of a reliquary in beaten silver, of the end of the 
ninth century. Treasury of the Convent of Saint 
Maurice, in the Canton of the Valais, Switzerland. 
The warriors have no beards. 

3. Man-at-arms of the tenth century, from a statuette 

on a cover of yellow leather, of that time ; in the 
collection of M. the Count of Nieuwerkerke. This 
valuable example is 3 inches high. The conical 
helmet is remarkable by the shape of the nose-piece, which is very broad 
at the base. The sword i^ pointed. The coat of mail is long, but has not 
the close-fitting leggings of the Norman armour of the eleventh cen- 
tury. The shield is long, pointed, and with a boss. 


Com^leie Equipments 

1. Anglo-Saxon men-at-arma; from the Prudentius Psychomacliia, 

etc., Anglo-Saxon manuscript of the tenth century, in the library 
of the British Museum. The whole of the defensive armour con- 
sists of the round shield with boss, and the casque with rounded 
shell, which may be seen on the seal of Kiohard Cceur-de-Lion 

2. Warrior of the tenth (?) century ; from a manuscript of that time, 

the Biblia Sacra, in the Imperial Library of Paris. This minia- 
ture is remarkable on account of the shape of the sword-handle, 
which is trilobed, as in the Aelfric, an Anglo-Saxon manuscript, in 
the library of the British Museum, and by the small buckler, 
which was used hkewise in the reign of Saint Louis (1226 — 1270). 
The same kind of saddle is found on the Bayeux tapestries of the 
snd of the eleventh centui)'. 

of the Middle Ages. 


1. The Duke. BoTirekhard of Swabia (965) ; bas-relief in the BasUioa 
of Zurich, Switzerland, which was biiilt towards the end of the 
eleventh century, in place of the chnrch burnt in 1078. Helmet 
and sword recalling those of the tenth century, in the Martyrology 
(already mentioned), ia the Library of Stuttgard. 

8. Anglo-Saxon man-at-arms, from the miniatures of an Anglo-Saxon 
manuscript, the Adfric, of the end of the eleventh century, ia the 
library of the British Museum. The shield has no resemblance to 
the Norman shield, which was long and very pointed at the base ; 
the helmet, also, differs entirely &om those we are acquainted 
with. The sword-handle is trilobed, or trefoil-shaped, and the 
hauberk with long sleeves does not resemble the Norman hauberks. 
These men-at-arms are both represented without beards. 


Complete Equipments 

1. Anglo-Saxon wan-ior frona the Aelfric manuscript, of the beginning 

of the eleventh century, mentioned on preceding page. Same 
kind of trilobed sword-haudle, same round shield, but the hauberk 
here is ringed, without leggings, but -with olose-iitting breeches. It 
may be noticed that the Anglo-Saxon is represented with a beard. 

2. French warrior, from a bas-relief in the cloister of Saint Aubin at 

Angers. He wears the conical helmet with nose-piece, the heart- 
shaped buckler, the Germanic "framee" (lance), and the large 
hauberk of trellised maU, with long sleeves and hood. The shield 
is adorned with paintings, which probably represent personal 
armorial bearings. 

of the Middle Ages. 


1. Gennan equipment of the eleventh century, from the statue of one 

of the founders of the Cathedral of Naumburg. Thecasque issimilar 
to that in the Codex Aureus of Saint GaU. Strangely enough, the 
right leg is without armour. A beard is seen on the chin. 

2, German warrior of the eleventh century, in a hauberk with long 

sleeves, hood, and breeches and leggings in mail. From the 
Jeremias Apocalypgis, in the library at Darmstadt. 


Complete Equipments 

1. German man-at-arms of the end of the twelfth eentury, from the 

embroideries on the mitre in the Convent of Seligenthal at Lands- 
hut, in Bavaria, on which are represented the martyrdoms of Saint 
Etienne (997), and of the Archbishop Thomas Becket of Canter- 
bury (Saint Thomas died a.d. 1170). 

National Museum of Munich. 

2. German warrior ; from a stone sculpture of the twelfth century, at 

the gate of Heimburg, in Austria. The hauberk, with long tight 
sleeves and hood, appears to he of thongs covered with iron, and of 
a kind unknown. The rounded shell of the helmet shows the 
radical difference which existed between this piece of German 
defensive armour and that of the Normans. The arm-guards, with 
shoulder-pieces and elbows, to protect the back of the arms, are 
also very characteristic of the time. The sword-blade appears to 
be broken in the hands of the statue, so that the shape of it cannot 
be rightly conjectured, but it resembles that of the Daoian sabie. 

of the Middle Ages. 



I. Norman warrior of the eleventh century, in large ringed or trellised 
hauterk, with sleeves, close-fitting breeches, and hood. The legs 
are bound round with thongs. The conical helmet has a nose- 
piece, and the shield reaches to the height of a man's shoxilder. 

2. Anglo-Saxon warrior, recognisable by his round shield with boss, 
and whose defensive armour does not differ in other things &om 
the !Iforman. The sword is veiy long in the blade, emd has a 
simple pommel. 

Bayeux Tapestry, 


Gomjplete Equipments 

1. Norman warrior of the eleventh century in large ringed or trellised 

hauberk, with sleeves, breeches, and leggings, and hood in one 
piece. This figure is probably meant for William the Conqueror, 
because it alone has the legs armed like the rest of the body. The 
conical casque with nose-piece does not differ from that of the 
other warriors. 

Bayeux Tapestry. 

2. Norman warrior lighting without helmet, and wearing the hood 

alone. The defensive armour is the same, but this warrior is in- 
teresting on account of the form of his saddle, bridle, and the pen- 
nant on his lance. 

Bayeux Tapestry. 

of the Middle Ages. 



1. Scandinavian warrior; end of the eleventli or beginning of the 

twelfth century, from a sculpture in wood on the door of a church 
in Iceland, preserved in the Museum of Copenhagen. The equip- 
ment is remarkable by the conical casque with nose-piece and 
neck-covering, and by the curved sword or glaive which the warrior 
bears along with the buckler on his right shoulder. 

2. Count of Barcelona, Don Eamon Berenger IV. (1140) ; from an en- 

graved seal. The conical helmet has a nose-piece, and the rest of 
the armour seems to consist of a hauberk with hood, and breeches 
and leggings of mail, all in one piece. The long shield hag a coat 
of aims on one of his seals, and stripes en the other. The lance 
has a pennant. 


Complete Equipments 

1. Louis VII. the young (1137 — 1180), from his seal. The coat of mail 
has a hood, cloae-fitting sleeves, breeches, and leggings. The 
helmet has a rounded shell without a nose-piece, a cross as a crest, 
and the buckler differs greatly from the Norman one. 

of the Middle Ages. 175 

2. Qennan warrior from the mural paintings on the cathedral of Bnma- 
wick, executed in the reign of Henry the Lion, who died iu 1195. 
The equipment is interesting on account of the coat of scale- 
armoui, which resembles the Boman squamata, the large shield, 
the pommel of the sword, which is double-lobed, and the metal 
rings which encircle the knees. 

(See at page 180 the equipment of Eichard Ooeur-de-Lion (1189— 
1199), which, according to chronological order, should follow here.) 


Complete Equipments 

of (he Middle Ages. Ill 

The engraving on the preceding page represents Bohemian or Ger- 
man warriors, from the manuscript of Volenlav of Bohemia, in the thir- 
teenth century; preserved in the library of Prince Lobkowitz, at 
Baudnitz, in Bohemia. 

The second group on the page is headed by a chieftain whose equip- 
ment differs in no respect from that of the other warriors, many of 
whom already wear the large bassinet, generally si^pposed to belong to 
the fourteenth century, and which, worn with the hood, reaches to the 

The hauberks with long, close-fitting sleeves, and breeches with 
leggings, are evidently of the kind called " ringed" (see the explanation 
in the chapter on corslets and coats). 

The bassinets do not appear to be made of a single shell, judging 
from the line riveted with nail-heads, which divides the pointed shell 
of the helmet into two halves. 

The swords are not yet pointed, but the saddles have raised cantles, 
while the chiefs wear beards and have sharp-pointed shoes a la povZaine, 
The most remarkable feature in this elaborate illumination, as far as the 
history of defensive armour is concerned, is the broad-brimmed iron hat 
with pointed crown like that of the bassinet. There is no existing 
specimen of this kind of hat, for the iron hats of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, which are sometimes to be met with in ooUectious 
of armour, have not the crown thus pointed. 

It may be remarked that only the two chiefs wear beards, and that 
the shields with armorial devices resemble in shape the shield of Louis 
Vn. (1137—1180), represented on page 174. 


Complete Equipments 


of the Middle Ages. 179 

Grennan armourer forging a helm, copied from a miniature of the 
German ^neid of Henry of Waldeck, thirteenth century, preserved 
in the library of Berlin. The coat of mail at the foot of the anvil, 
inaccurately copied, appears, in the original design, to be treUised 
and studded with nail-heads, if it be not ringed. The helm 
{Topfhelm in German, and Tieawme in French) which the armourer 
is forging has a fixed vizor and is flat-crowned. 

German warrior, from the same manuscript. The helm has a crest ; 
the buckler is heart-shaped, like the small shield which was uni- 
versally worn in the time of Saint Louis. The armour already 
appears to be in plates, probably of leather, judging from the arm- 
guards, the cuisses, leggings, and pointed shoes, which are all 
evidently laminated. The armour of the horse, which is completely 
trellised, and studded with heads of nails, or ringed like the coat 
lying at the foot of the anvil in the first engraving, shows a great 
progress in equipment. The " Waffenrock " or frock which the 
warrior wears above his armour is grotesque enough with its long 
skirts like the overcoats of the present day ; it is also to be seen on 
the Dutch statue of the same period, represented at page 181. 


Complete Equipments 

Eiohard I. Cceur-de-Lion (1189—1199),* from a seal. The coat of 
mail has tight-fittiDg sleeves, and hood, but without hose. The '' jamhs" 
or leggings are also of mail, reaching to the knee, while the buckler 
seems to be the forerunner of the small shield of the thirteenth century. 
The helmet with rounded top of Northern Germanic origin has re- 
placed the Franco-Norman conical helmet ; its shape is much higher, 
and recalls the helmets of the embroideries of Seligenthal, which 
also belong to the second half of the twelfth ceatury. 

* This woodcut, which, according to the chronologic order followed 
in this book, should have been placed to follow p. 17i, has been obliged 
to be inserted on this page for typographical reasons. 

of the Middle Ages. 


1, German warriora, wearing plate-armonr, arm-guarda, "jambs " or 

leggings of plate armour, and plated ahoea a la povilaine. They 
wear tilting helms (Stechhelm in German, heavmes de joute in 
French), and the Waffenrook or suicoat above their armour. From 
a German manuscript, Tristan and Isolde, written in the thirteenth 
century by Godfrey of Strasburg, and preserved in the library of 

2. Equestrian statue in bronze, of the end of the thirteenth century, 

front and back view ; in the collection of M. Six at Amsterdam. 
The Dutch warrior in coat of mail with tight-fitting sleeves, the 
hose jambs in plates, probably of leather, has a grotesque appear- 
ance, on account of the long-sMrted coat worn over the armonr, 
and the singularly disproportiouate size of the crest of his helm. 


Complete Equipments 

French warrior of the thir- 
teenth century, from a 
champlevd' enamel on cop- 
per, in high relief, 4 
inches in height, in the 
collection of M. le Comte 
de Nieuwerkerke. It is 
alternately enamelled in 
bine and gilt, in shades of 
citron and orange, and dates 
from the thhteenth century. 
The sword-guard has the 
two ends turned towards' 
the point of the eword, the 
helm is crested, the armour 
covered with the Waffen- 
rock, or frock with long 
skirts, and the horse is 

2. French warrior of the thir- 
teenth century, from a 
champUve' enamel candle- 
stick of that period, in the 
collection of M. le Comte 
de Nieuwerkerke. 

3. French warrior of the four- 
teenth century, from the 
ornaments on a stamped 
and engraved leathern coffer 
of that period in the collec- 
tion of M. le Comte de Nieu- 
werkerke. The French in- 
scriptions in Gothic letters 
indicate a time posterior to 
1360. Above the figure 
are the words, Chaeles le 
Grand. The armour is all 
plate, the shoes are a la 
poulaine, and the gauntlets 
have separate fingers. 

of tlie Middle Ages. 


Italian warriors of the fourteenth centniy, from a canvas printed by 
hand by means of engraved wood blocks in oil colours,* red and 
black, belonging to M. Odet, at Sitten. The chiefs wear helms, while 
the other warriors have the fluted bassinet of which no specimen is 
now known. All wear the fluted " jambs," but their body armour is 
still the hauberk, which had fallen into disuse in Germany. 

* Dr. Keller, who has published the fao-simile, confounds this manner 
of hand-printing, already known among the Mexicans, with the real 
wood-engiaving, which necessitates the use of the printing-press. 


Complete Equipments 

Italian warriors of the fourteenth century, from the same canvas as 
the preceding engraving. The plain bassinet is noticeable, on account 
of the frontlet, a kind of vizor which resembles the shade or peak on 
modern caps, and which seems to be the precursor of the peak on the 
burgonet of the fifteenth century. The Gothic capitals in use from 
1200 to 1360 show that the canvas cannot date later than the four- 
teenth century. 

of the Middle Ages. 


Danish warrior of the fourteenth century, whose armour is curious 
because of the hracormiere or apron and loinguards in trellised work 
which partly cover the mailed hauberk. The helm is still of the shape 
of the " Topfhehn " of the Germans, thirteenth century. From an 
ecclesiastical bowl in the Museum of Copenhagen. 


Com^plete Equipments 

German warrior ; beginning of the fourteenth century ; he is already 
armed with plated jambs and mailed shoes a la poulaine. The helm 
has a plume, and the shield is larger than the buckler of the thirteenth 
oentu^. Manuscript 2576 of the Imperial library at Vienna : Sistoria 
sacra et pro/ana, etc. 

of the Middle Ages. 


1, Knight of Neufchatel of the year 1372. This is the date of the 

completion of the funereal monument in the Upper Chuieh of 
Nexifchatel. It represents Eodolph II., who died in 1196. 

2. Armour of a Neufchatel knight. This armour is drawn from on 

exact fao-simile of the monument to the Count of Berthold, who 
died in 1258, at the time when this sculpture was carved. We 
notice the greaves orjamis of plate-armour, but the buckler is still 


Complete Equipments 

^^a |]J:i;gfl^'^*p^ - 

i. ^< 'i -^ 

Spanish ■warrior ; end of the fourteenth or heginning of the fifteenth 
century, but still armed with the hooded hauberk, without helmet ; 
&om a fragment of sculpture in the Alhambra. This bas-reUef is 
gnrrounded with an inscription in small Gothic letters, which were not 
used earlier than 1360. 

of the Middle Ages. 


1. Buigraidiaii warrior, from the illtmiinations of a manuscript in the 

Library of the Arsenal at Paris, a Eoman history, which appears to 
have been written for the Dnke of Bnrgnndy, " Jean sans penr " 
(1404 — 1419). It will be seen that the armonr still consists of the 
mailed hanberk, and the salads Mnd of helmet. The small 
bnckler, also of the thirteenth centory, is seen on the back of the 

2, Uan-at-arms firing a small hand-cannon, from a manuscript of the 

fifteenth centniy. 


Complete Equipments 

of the Middle Ages. 191 

Spanish men-at-arms ; from a mural paintinp; dating about the end 
of the fourteenth century, in the Cathedral of Mondoneda, representing 
the massacre of the Innocents. 

The soldiers carry swords with the " pas d'toe "* guard, and wear 
faellised coats, partly covered by a breastplate. 

The inscription on the large pavois of one of the soldiers is in Gothic 
capitals, while that underneath the engraving is in small letters, which 
were not in use anterior to 1360. 

The legs of the soldiers, as well as the lower part of their arms, are 
without protection. The coats are very short, and do not even reach to 
the knee ; the feet also are without solerets or armed shoes. 

All the armour of these warriors is on the whole very defective, con- 
sidering the time (second half or end of the fourteenth centuryj, and 
inferior to English, French, and German equipments of the same 

* " Pas d'ane " is the name of the ring-shaped sword-guard below the 
cross-piece, on each side of the blade ; it is not generally met with until 
the second half of the sixteenth century. 


Complete Equipments 


1. Italiaa armonr of the 

end -of the fourteenth 
cetitury, from the 
tomb of Jacopo Ca- 
valli at Venice, who 
died in 138i, the 
sculpture of whose 
tomb was executed 
by Paolo di Jaco- 
mello of Massegna. 

2. Italian armour of the 

end of the fifteenth 
century, &om the 
equestrian statue of 
Bartolommeo Col- 
leoni, at Venice, 
executed in 1496 by 
Andrea Verrocchio 
and Alessandro Leo- 
pard!. This war 
harness is interesting 
on account of Its 
enormous shoulder- 
pieces, which are 
not fastened either to 
the arm-guards, to 
the back, or to the 
breastplate, for be- 
tween them may be 
seen a large surface 
of coat of mail. The 
body armour, as well 
as the salade without 
a Tizor, forms a very 
insufficient- protec- 
tion, and is much 
inferior to the Eng- 
lish, French, and 
German equipment* 
of that period. 


q/" tlw Middle Ages. 


Dutcli annour, front and back view, of the fifteenth century, from a 
bronze statuette of William "VI. (1404 — 1417), formerly on the balustrade 
of the old Townhall of Amsterdam, where the tribunal sat, and now 
preserved in the collection of antiquities of this city. The armour is 
■Wijthy of notice on account of its enoimous knee-pieces, " genouilli^rcs,'' 
and of the back-plate, composed of two pieces, 


Complete Uquipnents 

Gothic armour of jioliahed 
steel, of the fifteenth century, 
the casque, a kind of heaume, 
has a rounded crown, and 
hinged vizor ; it is attributed 
to Frederick I., Count Pala- 
tine of the Ehine, who died 
in 1476. 

Amhras CoUection, Vienna. 

A similar suit, in the same 
collection, is attributed to 
Frederick tlie Catholic. 

This war harness, as is 
obvious at first sight, be- 
longs to the middle of the 
fifteenth century, from the 
singular form of the tassetsi 
the gauntlets, and the ends 
of the solerets, one of 
which is represented in full, 
by the side of the left leg. 
The casque already partakes 
of the character of the armet, 
and seems to be more modem 
than the rest of the armour. 

of tlie Middle Ages. 


1. German Gothic armour of the fifteenth century, attributed to Sigis- 

mund of Tyrol. 

Amhras Collection at Vienna. 
This suit of armoTir with its salade is incomplete, as the tassets are 

2. Fine Gothic armour of the first half of the fifteenth century, in 

polished ateeL It forms a part of the collection in the Museum of 
Sigmaringen, and is erroneously attributed to the Count of Hohen- 
zollem-Eitel, Frederick I., of the thirteenth century. The suit of 
armour of the Ambras collection (drawn above), attributed to Sigis- 
mund of Tyrol, is almost the same as this one of the Sigmaringen 

196 Complete Equipments of the Middle Ages. 

Armour of man and horse, attributed to Maximilian I., bom in 1459, 
died in 1519. The cuisses, greaves, solerets, and arm-guarda, do not 
properly belong to the suit, but are of the sixteenth century. The 
s(dade has a movable vizor, and a -laminated chin piece. Amhras 
CoUeotion. M. the Count of Nieuwerktrlfe. possesses a similar suit of 
MmouT for a warrior and horse, purchased in Nuremberg. 

Equipments of the leginning of the Renaissance. 197 

German Gothic tilting armour of the second half of the fifteenth 
century, in polished steel. It is remarkable on account of the large size 
of the palettes, the tilting large, and tlie heaume. Ambras Collection 
at Vienna. The Emperor Napoleon III. possesses three similar suits of 
armour, and M. le Comte de Nieuwerlcerke has one. No. G. 115 in the 
Musfe d'Artillerie is another suit of armour of the same kind, of tha 
first years of the sixteenth century. 



Equipments of the heginning 

German tilting armour of the end of the fifteenth, or beginning of 
the sixteenth century, in polished steel, and weighing 82 lbs. (French). It 
is worthy of note on account of the beautiful salade, the flutings of which 
indicate the end of the fifteenth century, its large placcate or tilting 
guard, with chin piece, and the huge lance rest. Ambras Collection. 
The laminated tassets are long, and joined to the breastplate. N. G. 
116, Muse'e d'Artillerie, Paris, is a similar suit of armour. 

qfilie lienaissanee. 


German Gothic tilting ar- 
mour of the second half of 
the fifteenth century, in po- 
lished steel. The most notice- 
able features are the heanme, 
the gauntleted arm-guard of 
the left hand, and the leg- 
guard ; this last was to pre- 
vent the left foot from being 
crushed against the barrier. 

The suit, which is attributed 
to Maximilian I., who died 
in 1493, was made at Augs- 
burg, and is to be found 
in the Imperial Arsenal of 

The elbow pieces have a 
distinct Gothic character 
abont them, and the large 
tassets are surmounted by a 
plated breastplate, partly 

This is a fine and elegant 
8nit of armour, belonging to 
the best period. 


Equipments of the leginmng 

Fine Gothic armour of the second half of the fifteenth century, back 
view; the front view is engraved on the following page; here the 
tilting heaume is seen fixed to the back-plate by a strong hinga The 
lance rest and shoulder pieces are very large, but the loin guard is 
defective, and rendered a coat of mail an indispensable addition. 

of {he Henaissanee. 


German armour, end of tlie 
fifteenth, or beginning of the 
sixteenth century, with "vo- 
L-mt " piece, two large tassets, 
and the breastplate of the 
cuirass with a tapvl, or ridge. 

The sword is of the middle 
of the sixteenth century. The 
crested helmet with movable 
•rizor, lowered by means of 
a piTOt on the top of the 
crown, is not yet the proper 
"armet," but a transition 
helmet between it and the 

The armed shoes, "bee de 
cane" shaped, the elbow and 
knee-pieces being of a small 
size, the shape of the shoulder 
pieces and gauntlets, indicate 
exactly the time of the con- 
struction of this suit of 

Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 


Coynplete Equipments 

German fluted armour, 
called " Maximilienne " and 
" Milanaise," of the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century 
{Oeri'pte Bustung in Ger- 
man). The cuirass is round- 
ed, the breastplate does not 
possess the central ridge or 
" tapul," and the shoulder- 
pieces large, and with passe 
gardes {Mdnder in Ger- 
man). The cuishes and upper 
arm pieces are fluted like the 
rest of the armour, but the 
lower arm pieces and the 
greaves are plain. The sole- 
rets, or armed shoes, paw- 
shaped, indicate the time to 
which this armour belongs, 
the sixteenth century. 

A similar suit in the 
author's collection, the shape 
of whose soleret indicates the 
second half of the fifteenth 
century, has a helmet, where 
the vizor, not following the 
lines of the human face, 
allows the wearer to see and 
breathe througli eleven small 
holes. The gauntlet is ar- 
ticulated only for the first 
division of the hand. 
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 

of tlie Renaissance. 


Gennan armoui' in po- 
lished steel, cut in facets, 
for fighting on foot, of 
1515, the date of the coro- 
nation of Francis I., which 
is engraved on the right 

The catalogue (G. 117), 
mentions it as coming 
from the gallery of Sedan, 
whDe at Vienna it is sup- 
posed to have belonged 
to the Ambras Collection. 
Musee d'Artillerie de 
Paris. The "bouillonee," 
or puffed suit of armour 
(see next page), of the 
Ambras Collection, orna- 
mented with the same 
facet cutting, was pro- 
bably wrought by the 
same artist. 

This harness covers the 
whole body, leaving no 
part unprotected; it is 
everywhere laminated, 
and thus does not need 
the coat of mail to protect 
weaknesses which do not 
exist it is also worthy 
of note on account of the 
shape of the " brayette," 
which resembles the one 
engraved at No. 16, p. 229. 


Complete Equipmetits 

German puffed armour, in steel cut in facets, of the first half of the 
sixteenth century. It belonged to 'William of Eogendorf, one of the 
captains who defended Vienna against the Turks in 1529, and who died 
In 1541. This fine war harness, with the exception of the cuishes and 
greaves, indicates a suit to be worn for fighting on foot ; it also shows 
that it proceeds from the same hand which constructed the suit in the 
Museirai of Artillery in Paris, the engraving of which is found on tlic 
preceding page. Ambras Collection. There is a similar suit in the 
Tower of London. 

of the Renaissance. 


Back view of the suit of armour deacribed ou the preceding page. 
It will be seen that the plated loin guard is exactly similar to the one 
belonging to the suit of armour erroneously called Italian, the en- 
graving of which is given at page 203. 

Ambrai Collection, 


Complete Equipments 

German armour in steel, 
polished and facetted, of 
1526. The cuirass is 
rather rounded in shape, 
and bears in the cenU'e 
of it the initials S. L. as 
a monogram. Thetassets 
and waist-piece are join- 
ed, and the shoulder 
pieces have passe-gardes. 
The armet is very pecu- 
liar, having a double 
movable vizor. The sole- 
rets are club or paw- 
shaped, and the greaves 
not being ornamented, 
may possibly have be- 
longed to another suit. 
The deficiency between 
the ■waist-piece and the 
tasseta is here supplied 
by a piece of mail which 
reaches to the loin-guard. 
Imperial Arsenal of 

of the Renaissance. 


Italian armour of the first half of the sixteenth century, m the style 
of the brigantine jacket, which was -worn in Italy during the fifteenth 
century. It is attributed to the Duke of Urbino (1538). 

Amhrae Collection at Vienna. 


Complete Equipments 

RicLly damascened or inlaid nrmour (tanchirt in German), of the 
second half of the sixteenth century ; it is of Nuremberg workmanBhip, 
and is now in the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. The armet being joined 
to tlie cuirass by the gorget and collar, formed one solid piece, which, 
closing hermetically, left no hold for the enemy's swoxd. 

of the Renaissance. 


Eichly inlaid armour, manufactured at Nuremberg in the second half 
of the sixteenth century. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. The left arm 
is provided with an arm-guard called large tilting guard; the armet 
closing everywher hermetically, and being joined io the cuirass by the 
gorget and coUar, offered no place of vantage for the point of the 
enemy's sword. 


Complete Equipments 

German suit of steel ar- 
mour, richly ornamented 
with engraving and in- 
laying, of the second half 
of the sixteenth century. 
The cuirass is already 
lengthening, and the tas- 
sets are, on that account, 
becoming smaller. The 
volant-piece {Vorhelm in 
German) has " passe- 
gardes," and is screwed 
on to the hreastplate, 
which is tabulated, or 
gradually rising towards 
the centre until it termi- 
nates in a ridge. The 
gauntlets are entirely ar- 
ticulated, and the elbow- 
pieces small. 

The tassets and cuishes 
are very short, and the 
absence of a waist in plate 
armour necessitates the 
use of one in mail, to 
protect the waist and 

Imperial Arsenal 0/ 

of Uie Renaissance. 


German skirted 
armour, of the 
second half of the 
sixteenth century, 
attributed to the 
Archduke Ferdi- 
nand, Count of 
Tyrol. The small 
engraved orna- 
ments represent 
eagles. This ar- 
mour was intended 
to be worn when 
fighting on foot, 
but the skirt was 
divisible so as to 
allow it to be worn 
on horseback. The 
armet, the ridge 
on the cuirass, its 
gi'eat length, the 
large palettes, and 
the bear's-foot so- 
lerets, indicate ex- 
actly the period of 
ATiibraa Collection. 


Compltte Equipmenis 

Suit of armour, Augsburg manufacture, of the second half of the 
sixteenth century. It is entirely covered with rich " repouss^," or em- 
bossed ornament, ■which recalls the designs by the paiaters Schwarz 
Van Aohen, Brockberger, and Milich, in the Cabinet of Engravings 
at Munich. 

, Museum of Imperial Artillery at Vienna. 

of the Renaissance, 


German plate armour in polished steel ; second half of the sixteenth 
centmry. On the breastplate is the name of the knight to whom it 
belonged, Adam (JaU, who died in 1574. 

Imperial Arsenal qf Viernia. 

This kind of armour was worn in Spain more generally than in 
Germany, The profusion of buttons, and tlie absence of the lance-rest, 
cause it to resemble the war harness of the seventeenth century, when 
the tassets were joined with the cuishes, forming wliat viaa called the 


Complete Equipments of 

Spanish plate armour, attributed to the Duke of Alva, the stem ruler 
of the Low Countries (1508—1582). The armet, a kind of burgonet, 
is deficient, as it leaves too large a space between the chin-piece and 
eye-shade of the helmet. On the breastplate is engraved a knight in 
prayer before a crucifix. Ambras Collection. Same observation as for 
the armour on the preceding page. 

ihe End of the Henaissance, 


Italian armour in steel, inlaid with silver, end of the sixteenth cen- 
tnry, and which is believed to have belonged to Alessandro Famese. 
This suit is of splendid workmanship, as well as of great fineness. The 
breastplate rises into a ridge, and lias a lance-rest. The space between 
the tassets, and the absence of the large brayette, necessitate the use ol 

Imperial Artenal of Vienna. 

Complete Equipments of the 

Cfennan armour of the 
end of the sixteenth 
century, richly emtossed 
{Oetrieben in German), 
and whose work indicates 
the school of Munich or 
Augsburg. It is con- 
sidered to have belonged 
to the Emperor Eodolph 
II. (1572—1612). The 
sword indicates by the 
shape of the hilt and the 
" pas d'ane " the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth 
century. The large 
shoulder and elbow 
pieces, the shape of the 
armet, the "bee de 
cane " solerets, and the 
absence of the large 
brayette, as well as the 
shape of the breastplate 
without lance-rest, point 
out the time of the manu- 
facture of this fine ar- 

Anibras Collection at 

End of the Sixteenth Century. 

. 217 

Complete equipment of Persian horseman. The man wears a cjat ot 
mail, and the horse is covered with an armour composed of plates of 
iron joined together with small chain links. From a manuscript in the 
library of Munich, illustrated with 215 beautiful miniatures, illuminated 
about the year 1580 to 1600. It is a copy of the Schah Nameh or Royal 
Book, a poem composed hy Ferdusi, in the reign of Mahmoud the 
Saznevide (999). 


Gorriflete Equipments 

Dutch warrior; time of the "War of Independence," during the 
Stadtholdership of Henry Frederick (1C25— 1B47), from a. pictuij of 
that time, painted on earthenware, by Ter tlimpelen of Delft, and whicli 
represents the celebrated battle before Bols le Due, on the heath of 
Lekkerbeetze, between the Dutch, under the Norman captain, Breautc, 
and the Spaniards, under the command of Lieutenant Abrahami. Tie 
armour is still an entire covering, and the loin-guard is worn, and, 
what ifl somewhat remarkable, we find already flint-lock guns and 
pistols. Author's Collection. For fuller detail, see p. 631, 3rd edition, 
of the " Encyclopedic cernmique m->nogrammique," of the author. 

of the Seventeenth Oentmry. 


German armour of the 
Beventeenth century, at- 
tributed to the Arch- 
duke Leopold, who be- 
came Emperor in 1658, 
and died in 1705. Am- 
bras Collection at Vienna. 
A similar suit in the 
Louvre is attributed to 
Louis Xin. (.1610— 
1643), and several other 
suits in the Artillery 
Museum at Paris are 
said to be of the reign of 
Louis XIV. (1643— 
1715). The date of the 
construction of these in- 
ferior suits of harness 
may he seen, by the huge 
shoulder-pieces, the di- 
minution of the breast- 
plate, and the long " lob- 
ster - tails," which re- 
placed the waist -piece 
and the tassets. 


Complete Eqiiipmenis 

Hungarian armour, ef 
the end of the sixteenth 
or beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, composed 
of chain and plate. The 
round shield is orna- 
mented with a painting 
representing a cross-bow. 
The whole equipment 
has an oriental character 
about it, especially the 
cuishes and knee-pieces, 
composed of plates joined 
by rings, such as are 
used in Persia. The 
casque is made with a 
low crown, and covered 
with a mail hood, the 
front part of which pro- 
tects the forehead and 

The whole appears 
graceful, and very pic- 

Imperial Arsenal o] 

of the Seventeenth Century. 


Hungarian war - har- 
ness, in steel, richly 
damascened, of German 
manufactnre of the 
seventeenth century. It is 
characterised by the pe- 
culiar form of the casque 
and shield. The mace 
in the right hand of the 
man is a weapon of the 
sixteenth century, and 
was not in nse at the 
time to which this ar- 
mour belongs. It ap- 
pears that this half-suit 
was worn over the buiF 
coat, similar to tliose of 
the Swedes in the Thirty 
Years' War. The sabre 
is of Eastern shape. 

Imperial Arsenal of 


Armour of the Eigliteeath Century. 

Cuirass with ridged breastplate, and 
helmet with nose-piece, cheek and 
neck guards, a kind of burgonet. 
Arms of the end of the seventeenth or 
beginning of the eighteenth century, 
riolily damascened and engraved. 

Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 


We have seen in the historical chapter, and in the intro- 
duction to the present one, in what wa.j a soldier's equipment 
underwent continual changes from the commencement of the 
Middle Ages. The perfected plate armour, which will here 
be described in detail, belongs to the end of the fifteenth or 
beginning of the sixteenth century. It comprises, besides 
the casque (which at this time was always considered a thing 
apart), the following pieces : 

The neck collar {Halsberge in German), which supported 
the whole of the rest of the harness, must not be confounded 
ivith the gorget {Kelilstiiek, Ger.), underneath which it was 
placed, and which, like it, was formed of several plates. 

The cuirass {Kiirass in German) was composed of the 
breastplate [Brust platte), which protected the chest and was 
often made with a salient ridge called iaptd dovm the 
centre (Graete), and of the back plate (Jtiickenplatie). 

Armour in Detail. 223 

The lanoe rest (Busthacken), which was placed on the right 
of the breastplate, and was used to fix the lance. 

The small plates (Eleine Sehienea), to protect the armpits. 

The shoulder-plates (Achsdstiicke), with or without passe- 
gardes {Bander). 

The palettes {AchselhoMscTieiben), which protected the 
armpits, and whose use does not date farther back than the 
middle of the fifteenth century, and disappears at the end of 
the sixteenth. 

The large brayette (VorderscMrz), that part of the armour 
which covered the abdomen. It was composed of steel plates, 
and ended in the tassets. 

The small brayette, which English taste has eliminated 
from the armour preserved in the Tower of London. 

The tassets, or tuiles (Krebse), destined to protect the 
upper part of the thighs, and strapped with thongs on to the 
large brayette or waist-piece. Some German authors, how- 
ever, give the name "Krebs" to a complete suit of armour 
composed of imbricated plates, and " halber Krebs " to the 
lower part of the armour in plates and the long cuishes of 
the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth 
centuries. Fouchet also, who wrote about the end of the 
sixteenth century, says that armour entirely composed of 
imbricated plates was called " ecrevisses " in France, and 
" a suit of splints " in England. 

The loin guard [HinierscMrz) was composed of imbricated 
plates, like the waist-piece. 

The arm guards (Armzeug and ArmscMenen), composed of 
front and back pieces (vor and Mnter Armzeug), joined 
together by the elbow-pieces (Meuseln or Ellemhogen 

The cuishes (Dielinge, DicMinge, or SchenhelscMenen), which 
before 1500 protected only the front of the thigh. 

The knee-plates (Kniestuche). 

The greaves, or double leggings with hinges (Beinschiemn), 
which before 1500 generally covered only the front of the 

The armed shoes, or solerets {Bust- or Eisenschuhe). The 
many varieties of foot-armour being designated by French 
titles to which no recognised English synonyms exist, it 
has been thought better to give in this instance the terms 

224 Armour in Detail. 

employed by M. Demmin rather than attempt to translate 
them. Fii'st, Solerets o crochet, in the eleventh century ; 
a la poulaine, from early twelfth to middle fourteenth 
century; ogivale lancette, or demi-poulaine, from 1350 to 
1470, and return to a la poulaine in the iifteenth century ; 
arcs tiers-points from 1440 to 1470 ; a demi-sabots, or demi- 
pieds d'ours, about 1485 ; a sabots, or pieds d'ours, from 1490 
to 1560 ; and a bee de cane about 1585. 

The gauntlets (Kampfhandscluihe) had in the fourteenth 
century articulated fingers (Fingerhandschuhe, or Gefingerte 
Tatze) ; in the fifteenth century they were without joints ; 
and in the sixteenth century they were again made with 
separate fingers. The gauntlets of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, in doeskin and armed with plated scales, were called 
in German SchappenJiandschuhe. 

The large shoulder-guard (Kleines BrusiscJiild) was used 
from the end of the fifteenth century. 

The shoulder-plate with passe-garde {SchulterscTiild mit 

The large tilting breast-shield (^Grosses Brustsehild and 
ScJiarfrenntartsche) was sometimes simple ; sometimes with the 
chin-piece, with or without sight-holes; with volant-piece, 
or with the arm-guard, but all these were used only for 

The large tilting cuishes (Turnier Lendenplatte). 

The vam-plate {Schweber Scheibe). 

The different pieces belonging to the helmet, which will 
all be found in the following chapter, were : 

The volant-piece (^Vorhelm). 

The movable chin-piece, or half mentonniere (Kinnlielm). 

The great mentonniere (Kinnlielm'). 

The armour of the sixteenth century is remarkable by its 
beautiful flutings ; such was the armour called ' ' Maxi- 
milian " or "Milanaise:" that of the second half of this 
same century is adorned with artistic engravings, done with 
the tool and with aquafortis. 

When, towards the end of the sixteenth century, armour 
had attained its highest degree of perfection, but notwith- 
standing could no longer offer a sufficient protection against 
fire- arms, it declined, and ended by disappearing entirely in 
the second half of the seventeenth century. After the 

Armour in Detail. 225 

tassets had been replaced by the ungraceful cuishes, annour 
was reduced to its latest change, in which there were neither 
greaves nor cuishes, and very soon no more arm-guards ; the 
cuirass alone being worn to the end, and even this only as a 
special arm by the cuirassiers. The buff coat or jerkin 
(Koller), on which was worn a light collar, then took the 
place of armour, while greaves and solerets were discarded for 
the heavy riding boots of Louis XIV. and WiUiam III. 

Before the introduction of half armour ungraceful breast- 
plates, imitating the fashion of doublets, had already been the 
precursors of decadence in armour ; these breastplates, which 
resembled the Punch's hump of the reign of Henry III., 
and afterwards the flat forms of costume imder Louis XIII., 
were followed, lastly, by the long lobster-taUs of Louis XTV.'s 

Eespecting armours ornamented with aquafortis engraving, 
a style of art probably invented by Wohlgemuth (1434— 
1519), if not by his pupil Diirer (1471—1528), these are 
very rare in the fifteenth century : as for the supposition 
that engraving by aquafortis was in use among the Arabs 
from the eleventh century, it has not been confirmed by any 
existing object. Engraving by the tool was used for the 
ornamenting of swords from the second half of the Christian 
Middle Ages, but everything which dat-es farther back than 
the fifteenth century is very unartistic. 


Detached Pieces 

]. Neck collar (flofafterge). This piece 
Bupported the whole of the harness. 

lA. Ditto, ditto. 

2. Breastplate {Brustplatte), or &ont 
part of the cuirass. The saUent 
ridge in the centre is sometimes 
called tapul {Graeie). The lance- 
rest is seen on the right of the 
breastplate (BmtJiacken). 

3. Back-plate of the cuirass {BSeken- 

Anihras Collection. 

i. Shonlder-plate, or pauldron (Ached- 
etttdc), of a fluted suit of armour ; 
second half of the fifteenth cen- 

Author's CoUeetion. 

of Flaie Armour, 

5. Palette (^Aeliselhohlseheibe) of a 
fluted suit ; end of the fiftoouth. 

6. Palette of a Gothic suit ; fifteenth 

7. Palette, larger than the piecedrng 

ones, of a suit belonging to the 
middle of the sixteenth cen- 

8, Palette, 10 inches in diameter, 

studded with copper nail-heads ; 
belonging to a suit of the end of 
the sixteenth century, in the 
Ambras Collection. A few 
suits of tilting armour of the 
end of the fifteenth and begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century 
have, nevertheless, similarly 
large palettes. 

Gorget with pauldrons attached ; 
end of the sixteenth century. 
In England a piece of armour 
so composed was called •' aUe- 
cret." A similar gorget and 
shoulder-piece may be seen in 
No. G. 256, Museum of Artil- 
lery, Paris. 


Detached Pieces 

10. Waist-piece, or great brayette (yor- 
derschmrz), belonging to a Gtothio 
suit of the fifteenth century, in 
the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 
This waist-piece was always com- 
pleted by the two large tassete, or 
tuiles, which protected the ouishes. 

11. Waist-piece of an engraved and 
embossed suit, end of the fifteenth 
or beginning of the sixteenth 
century, for fighting on foot. Its 
shape renders the tassets unneces- 

12. Tasaot* {Kreht), tuile-shaped, of a 
fifteenth-century suit. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

13. Small taaset, in plates, end of the 
fifteenth century ; used also in the 
sixteenth century. 

* During the fifteenth centuiy the 
tassets were generally composed of one 
piece, like No. 12. After that they 
assumed a rounded shape, and were for 
the most part smaller, during the six- 
teenth century, and with movable plates. 

of Plate Armour. 


14. Tasset and waist-piece in one, 
of an unusual size, and almost 
entirely covering the cuishes, 
like a Freemason's apron; it 
is part of a suit attributed to 
Francis I. (died in 1547). 

15. Small brayette (GliedscMrm) of 
a sixteentli-centuiy suit. 

16. Small brayette, sirfeenth cen- 
No. G. 119, Museum of ArtiUery, 

17. Loin -guard, or gaide -reins 
{BiiOerschmz), of a suit be- 
longing to the end of the 
fifteenth century. 


Detached Pieces 

18. Garde-reins, or loin-guard, of a 
Gothic suit of armour, one of 
tiie most graceful pieces of 
fifteenth-century work known. 

19. Garde-reins of a fluted suit 
called " Maximilienne ;" end 
of the fifteenth or beginning 
of the sixteenth century. 

20. Two garde-reins of the seven- 

teenth century. The smaller 
one belongs to a suit of tht 
reign of Louis XIV., preserved 
in the Museum of Artillery, 

21. Complete arm -guard {Games 

Armzemg). It is composed of 
an upper and lower arm-plate, 
called vambrace and rear- 
brace {Vor- and Sinterarm), 
and these two pieces are joined 
together by the elbow-piece 
(Meusel, or Mletibogen- 
kachel). The shape of the 
elbow - piece varies greatly. 
Sometimes it is more rounded, 
as at the end of the fifteeu'Ji 
century ; sometimes with 
jointed plates ; and during the 
sixteenth century it was of 
small dimensions. 

of Plate Armouy. 


22. Guish (Dieling or Schenkel- 
ichiene), or thigh-plate, with 
knee - cap (^KmestSclt), and 
greave (^Beiiachieae). It is 
double or hinged, which shows 
its manufacture to be later 
than 1500. 




Greave with soleret 
echuhe). The soleret is of the 
shape called "beo de cane;" 
end of the sixteenth century. 

Gauntlet {Kampfhandschuhe or 
gejingerte Handtatze), with 
separately articulated fingers, 
belonging to a Gothic suit ; 
middle of the fifteenth century. 

Shoulder-plate, or grand guard 
{kleines SchuUersehUd), used in 
tilting towards the end of the 
fifteenth century. 


26. Pauldron with passe-garde {Schiller- 
gchild mit Band). 

27. Great tilting ahoulder-guaid {Turmer 

27 bit. Blbow-pieoe belonging to a left arm- 
guard; German, beginning of the 
sixteenth century. 

G. 10, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

28. Tilting breastplate, in iron, richly 
engraved ; German work on a tilting 
suit, beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. This piece of armour is called in 
German Grosses Bmstechild, and also 

29. Tilting breastplate with mentonniere 
{BrustsehUd mit Schimbart), from the 
" Book of Tom-neys " of Duke Wil- 
liam IV. of Bavaria (1510—1545). 

of Plate Armour. 


30. Tilting breastplate with mentonnifere and 
helmet, same description as No. 29. 

31. Ditto, ditto. 

32. Tilting breastplate with mentonuifere, 
belonging to a suit of the beginning of 
the sixteenth century. It is composed of 
thick wood, and covered with canvas, 
painted black. 

Ambraa Collection. 

83. Tilting breastplate with mentonniere 
and sight-holes. This protection to tUt- 
ing armour, which covers nearly the 
whole of the helmet, and forms a sort of 
vizor, is older than the preceding tUting 
shields, and has been copied &om the 
engraving of the "Triumph of Maxi- 
milian," executed about 1517. 




Detached Pieces 

34. Largo German tilting guard, with 
volant-piece and a screw lance- 
rest. The helmet, already pro- 
tected hy the chin-guard, to which 
it is screwed, is also fastened tn 
the back-plate of the cuirass by 
the crest or comb, called in 
GermaD Bennhuischraube. The 
screw lance-rest was used to keep 
in its place and support the tilting 
shield, to hold the prizes won at 
tournaments, and to rest the 
lance. It is also believed that 
the kniglit sometimes placed a 
ball there to serve as a target for 
his adversary. 

Museum of Dresden. G. 124, facsimile, 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

35. Ditto, ditto, but without the hel- 
met and crest fastened to the 


36. Large tilting cuishe (Tuiiiier- 
Lendenplatte), belonging to a 
suit of armour called Maxi- 
milienne ; beginning of the six- 
teenth century. 
G. Hi, Musewm of Artillery, Varit. 

of Plate Armour. 


37. I«rge euisse, or thigh-piece, for 

tilting, of Maximilian armour, of 

the beguming of the sixteenth 


G. 115, Museum of Artillery, Farts. 

German leg-piece, for toumamenta. 
End of the iifteenth century. 
This was worn over the greaves of 
the armour, so as to shield the 
leg from collision with the bar- 

39. Large cuisse for tilting ; beguming 
of the sixteenth century. 
Collection of M. le Comte de Nieuwer- 

40. Vamplate of lance (^Schwebetcke^e 
in German .. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris, 


Detached Pieces 


41. Vamplate of lance of the six- 
teenth century. 

Musema of Dresden, 

42. Vamplate of lance of the six- , 
teenth century. 

Meyrick Collection. 

43. Vamplate of lance of the six- 
teenth century. 

MeyricTi Collection. 

44. Lance-rest (Biisthaeken in Ger- 
man) of the middle of the 
fiixteenth century. 

Mueeum of Dresden. 

45. Two sorts of lance-rests of the 
end of the sixteenth century. 
Mtiseum of Dresden, 

of Plate Armour. 


46. Or&te-^chelle (BennhuUchratibe in 

Museum of Dresden, see No. 34. 

47. Screwed lance-rest. 

Museum of Dresden, Bee No. 34, 

48. High placcate, or volant - piece 
{Vorhdm in German). 

Museum of Dresden. 

49. Volant-piece with placcate, paul- 

drons, and elbow-pieces, from a 

set of tilting armour belonging to 

the end of the fifteenth centmy. 

Benn^ CoUection at Constance. 

50. Great chin-gnard (Grosse Barthaiibe 
in German). 

NieuwerTserke CoUedion. 

238 Detached 

of Plate Armour. 

51. Volant-piece. 

Meyrick Collection. 

52. Plated chin-guard and gor- 

get {Oeschobene Barthavie 
in German) of German 
workmanship. Used in 
the end of the fifteenth 
century, when it was worn 
with the salade. 

Nieawerkerlte Collection, 

53. Half chin-guard (HaZieJBart- 

haube in German) of the 
end of the fifteenth cen- 

54. Ailette, or plate, used dur- 

ing the transition period, 
and worn between the coat 
and the leathern annonx. 
It was in use for about 30 
years. One is to be seen 
on the statue of Rodolph 
de Hierstein (who died in 
1318) at Bahl. 

55. Breastplate of tilting armour, 

German, of the first part of 
the sixteenth century. 
This is of very peculiar 
make, and there exist oiJy 
two specimens (one in the 
Ambras Collection, and 
one in the Museum of 
Artillery in Paris). When 
the centre part of the 
breastplate was touched by 
the lance, the whole opened 
with a spring. The place 
to be touched was marked 
by a pierced heart. 



The word casque (German, Selm) is derived from the 
Keltic words cos, box or sheath, and hed, from cead, head. 

We have seen what were the shapes of the ancient casques, 
and of those worn by such people as were called barbarians 
during the iron and bronze ages. Only two sorts exist : the 
horned casque, attributed by the British Museum to the 
Britons, but which appears to have been more probably 
Scandinavian, and the conical casques, similar to the As- 
syrian ones of the earliest times : in the Museums of Eouen 
and Saint Germain they are attributed to the Gauls, and in 
the Munich Museum to the Avars. The casques of the 
chiefe of the Germanic races, though not a single specimen 
has been found as yet, were most probably of the same 
conical shape amongst the people of Southern Germany, 
inasmuch as the Franco-Norman casque of the eleventh 
century still preserved that shape unchanged. 

This last has a fixed nose-piece (Naseriberge or ScJidribart 
in German), several inches in width, which was fixed to the 
helmet and came just beyond the nose, so as to protect it. 
This casque was worn over the hood (Binghavbe in German), 
which was usually of small chains or mail, and was often a 
continuation of the hauberk, or mail-shirt. 

The casque of the people of Northern Germany had 
also a fixed nose-piece, and, according to MS8. of the time, 
a round crown, and later on, movable earplates and neck- 
guard, as represented in page 248, No. 20, from the specimen 
in the Museum of Artillery in Paris ; this casque some- 
times was of a disproportionate height, as may be seen in the 
SeKgenthal embroidery, represented in page 170. 

The first helms appear towards the end of the twelfth 
century. (In German they are called Topfformhelm.) The 
Museum of Artillery in Paris possesses a specimen marked 
No. H. 1, which is represented in page 250. This is really 
a casque of the transition period which has preserved its 

The real helm (Topfhelm) dates no earlier than the end of 
the thirteenth or the beginning of the fourteenth century, 
and the crested helm is of about the same period, for in the 

240 The Casque. 

<jerinan ^neid of Henry of Waldeck several knights are re- 
presented witli crested helms of fantastic shapes. This 
helm (word derived from the German Selm, helmet) was 
the large flat-crowned helmet usually fastened to the saddle, 
and seldom worn except at tilting matches, and during 

A canvas, printed by hand and not by wood blocks, of the 
middle of the fourteenth century, belonging to M. Odet at 
Sitten, shows that in Italy the helm was used in battle as 
well as at tournaments. It was worn over the mail hood, 
which in its turn was worn over the quilted cap. Sometimes 
also the small bassinet (from the Keltic word hac, boat, and the 
Latin hacinalum) was worn over the cap above mentioned. 

Sometimes the mail capuchin or the bassinet alone was 
used, but generally the two were both worn under the huge 
helm. The small bassinet, which was a pointed helmet of 
an oriental shape, close-fitting like a skull cap, must not be 
confounded with the large bassinet of the fourteenth century, 
which was of a similar shape, but which covered the cheeks 
and neck as well, and often had a movable vizor, that was 
hinged at the left side and fastened at the point of the 
helmet. In a MS. of the thirteenth century knights are 
represented as wearing the large bassinet. In the fourteenth 
century the great tilting helmet (Stechtopfhelm in German) 
was more used in tournaments than in battle ; it weighed 
between twenty and twenty-three pounds, while the one used 
in battle weighed from six and a half to nine pounds, and 
the great bassinet, under which the mail capuchin was often 
worn, was also adopted. This headgear (Grosse Kesselhauhe), 
as we have already mentioned, was ovoid and pointed. At 
the beginning of the fifteenth century the great bassinet 
went out of fashion, and the salade came into use ; the latter 
was of German origin, as its name implies ; the ancient 
■German authors called it Schallern, from the word schale, a 
bowl. This salade, which some authors think is derived from 
the Spanish celada, hidden, had a neck-guard to it, and was 
at first made with fixed vizor, but subsequently movable 
vizors were adopted. These, however, were so short that 
they came no lower than the end of the nose, and necessitated 
the employment of the heaver, to protect the chin, neck, and 

The Casque. 241 

The iron hat (Eisenhut in German), a helmet without vizor 
or neck-guard, but with a rim to it, and the skull-cap 
(Eisenkappe in German), are first seen in the twelfth, and 
remained in use until the seventeenth century. 

The Oriental and Russian helmets of these times, like 
those of modern times, varied very little, and preserved the 
oval form, with movable nose-pieces. 

The burgonet {Burgunder Helm) is a helmet that dates 
from the end of the fifteenth century. It has a rounded 
crown with a crest, and is distinguished by a shade over 
the eyes, cheek-pieces, and a neck-guard. The president 
Faucher, who wrote about the end of the sixteenth century, 
confounds the burgonet with the armet when he says, " Ces 
heaumes ont mieux represents la teste d'un homme, ils 
furent nommes bourguinotes, possible a cause des Bourguig- 
nons inventeurs." {Gloch, in German, is crown ; Kamm, crest ; 
Augenschirm, helmet-shade ; WangenMappen, cheek-pieces ; 
Nackenschutz, neck-guard.) 

The armet, helmet {Visierhelm in German), which the 
president Faucher mistakes for the burgonet, is the most per- 
fect helmet ; it dates only from the second half of the fifteenth 
century, and was still in use in the middle of the seventeenth. 
All the front part of this helmet was called meznil. The 
crown (timbre) was rounded; the vizor (Visier in German), 
the nose-piece, and the ventail (fan), were all movable, and 
could be raised up to the crest by means of a pivot. 

The mentonniere, chin-piece, or beaver {Kinnstuck in 
German), and the gorget (Halsberge in German), both of 
which protected the lower part of the face, were made of 
thin plates of metal and were fastened to the helmet. 

Besides the above helmets, that were in use almost every- 
where, and may be said to be types of the diflferent epochs of 
chivalry, there existed many others used by archers and 
foot-soldiers, some of which are here described. 

The morion (Morian m German) was originally a Spanish 
iielmet, and the word is derived from the Spanish word 
morro, round. It had neither vizor, nose-piece, gorget, nor 
neck-guard, but was surmounted by a high crest sometimes 
half the height of the helmet ; and its edge turned up in a 
point in front and behind, so as to form a crescent when seen 
in profile 

242 The Casque. 

The eabasset, or pear helmet (Birnhelm in German), derived 
its name from the gourd-like or calabash form, was without 
vizor, gorget, neck -guard, or crest, but was pointed like a 
pear, of which the stalk made a little crest. This helmet, 
like the morion, was worn by both horse and foot soldiers, 
particularly in France and Italy, till about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. The morion, ornamented with an 
enormous embossed fleur-de-lys, is to be seen in many 
arsenals of Germany, especially those of Austria and 
Bavaria, where it was part of the municipal equipment in 
the middle ages. This fleur-de-lys has nothing to do with 
the arms of the kings of France, being simply the emblem 
of the Virgin, whose image many bodies of crossbowmen 
and halberdiers had adopted for the sign of their civic 

The ordinary burgonet (PickelhauJie in German) was 
widely spread throughout Germany, and was the usual 
helmet of Knappen, or men-at-arms of the feudal castellans, 
and sometimes of the lansquenets, or lightly armed 

The iron hat (Msenhutli in German), which dates as far back 
as the thirteenth century, as may be seen from the Bohemian 
manuscript Voleslav in the library of Prince Lobkowitz at 
Eaudnitz, had neither vizor nor crest. There were some in 
the seventeenth century resembling in form a cap with a 
vizor, and sometimes with a movable nose-piece : the iron 
hat, twenty pounds in weight (No. 101), worn in battle by 
Augustus the Strong (1670 — 1733), which is to be seen 
in the Museum at Dresden, is of this kind ; but the iron 
hat, weighing twenty-five pounds (No. 100), worn by the 
Elector at the battle of Fehrbellin in 1677, has a rounded 
crown and wide brim, like a shepherd's hat. The helmet 
worn by the foot-soldiers of the household of King Louis XIV. 
(1643 — 1743) was flat-crowned, and with a movable nose- 
piece (No. 114). 

The real pot-helmet (Eisenhappe in German), a sort of 
skull-cap of thick iron, and very heavy, was used, particularly 
in sieges, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (see No. 97). 
The word pot-helmet is also used for iron hats much lighter 
in weight, that were worn by Cromwell's foot-soldiers. 

The calottes, or caps, and iron frameworks of the seven- 

The Casque. 243 

teenth and eighteentli centuries were only used inside other 
hats. In the Historical Museum of the Monbijou Palace at 
Berlin there is a triangular framework that must have served 
as lining to a three-cornered hat (No. 111.) 

As to the casques of ancient shapes of the sixteenth 
century, mostly of Italian, German, and Spanish workman- 
ship, which enrich the collections of amateurs, they are 
principally helmets for pride and pomp rather than for war 
or tournaments. They are of no archreological value, as they 
are all of the Eenaissance period, and are only reminiscences 
of ancient days, which do not reflect the habits and customs 
of their time. 


Different Casques hefore the 

1. Germanic casque, eitlier of iron or 
bronze, belonging to the eighth and 
ninth centuries, from the Codex 
Aureus, a MS. of that time pre- 
served in the Saint Gall Library. 

Carlovingian casque, either in bronze 
or iron, of the ninth century, from 
the Ademari-Cronicon in the Im- 
perial Library of Paris. 

Carlovingian casque of the ninth 
century, either in bronze or iron, 
&om the Bible of Charles the Bald 
in the Louvre. 

4. German casque in iron, of the tenth 
century, from the Fsalterium, a 
MS. in the Stuttgaidt lihrai-y. 
(See this shape among the Greek 
and Japanese casquea) 

5. German casque, half conical, and 
■with nazal, called in France Nor- 
man casque, from the Martyrdh- 
giwm, a MS. of the tenth century, 
in the library at Stuttgaidt. 

Introduction of the Seaume. 


6. Conical casque, with uose-pieoe 
broader at the bottom, from a 
statuette of the tenth century. 

Collection, of the Count of Nieawerkerke. 

7. (jasque of ancient form, with crest 
and cheek-pieces, ftom a bust in 
silver, life size, in embossed work of 
the tenth century. 
Convent of Saint Mawrice, Canton 
Valais, Smtzerland. 

8. Casque in iron, inlaid with silver, 

with fixed nose-piece, belonging to 

Saiut WenceslauB, who died in 935. 

Cathedral of Prague. 

9. German casque with rounded crown 
in iron, from an illumination in the 
BiUia Sacra of the tenth century, 
in the Imperial Library of Paris, 
and also copied from the Fmdentiits 
of the same date in the Britisli 


Different Casques before the 


German casque in iron, with fixed nose- 
piece, from a MS. of the eleventh century, 
belonging to M. de Hefner-Alteneck. 
This same Mnd of casque is represented 
in some Ulmninations in the Jeremias 
MS. of the same century, in the library 
at Darmstadt. 

Anglo-Saxon casque with neck-guard, from 
the Aelfric MS. of the eleventh century 
in the library of the British Museum. 

12. Conic Norman casque with nose-piece and 
neck-guard. WiUiam the Conqueror is 
represented in the Bayeux tapestry wear- 
ing one. This shape is also to be seen 
in the Aelfric MS. already mentioned. 

13. German conic casque with nose-piece, from 
a bronze bas-relief in the baptistery of 
the Cathedral at Hildesheim ; the work 
of Saint Bernard in the eleventh century. 
This same sort of casque is also to be 
seen in the mural paintings in the 
Cathedral of Brunswick, executed in the 
reign of Henry the Lion, who died in 

Introduction of the Heaume. 

14. Anglo-Saxon casque with nose-pi.%ee, of 

the end of the twelfth century. From 
an illumination in the Harleian MS. 
in the library of the British Museum 

15. Eussian casque with small nose-piece and 

long neck-guard, made of iron imbri- 
cated or curved scales. Attributed in 
Saint Petersburg to the eleventh cen- 

16. Small conic casque iu ircn, with fixed 

nose-piece, of the eleventh century, found 
in Moravia. 

Ambras Collection. 

17. German casque with neck guard, of the 

eleventh century, from the embroidery 
on the mitre belonging to the convent of 
Seligenthal. National Museum of Munich. 
Louis VII. (1137-1180), and Eichard 
Cceur de Lion (1157-1183), are repre- 
sented on their seals with this sort of 

17 'bis. Casque in iron of the twelfth century, 
attributed to Henry the Lion, Duke of 
Brunswick, who died in 1195. The crown 
is of iron, ornamented with a crest and 
sis bands in gilt and engraved copper, 
and with an embossed band in fiont of 
the same material, the principal orna- 
ment of which is a lion, such as is repre- 
sented in the duke's aims. CoUeotion of 
the Baron de Zu-Bhein at Wurzhurg, 
and previously in that of the Duchesse 
de Berry. ^: _ , ^^ ^ > 

.i:L '■■■ ;--i,V' \ 



Different Casques before the 

18. Casque in red copper of the eleventh 
century, with Greek cross and three 
pierced holes. It was found in the 
Saone, and is now in the Museum 
of Artillery in Paris. 

IS. German casque with neck-guard, of the 
twelfth century. From a mural paints 
ing in the Cathedral of Brunswick, 
executed in the reign of Henry the 
Lion, who died in 1195. 

German casque with movable neck- 
guard and cheek-plates, but with the 
nose-piece fixed. It is of the twelfth 
century, and was found in the Somme. 
Museum of Artillery, Paris, 

Bronze casque with neck-guard, of either 
the tenth or twelfth century ; more 
probably the latter; for it was dis- 
covered in the river Lech, near the 
field of battle where Saint Ulrich, 
at the head of his flock, contributed 
to the defeat of Attila. 

Maximilian Museum af Augsburg, 

Introduction of the Heaume. 


22. German casque with ohin-pieoe and 
gorget affixed, and with open mezail, 
of the thirteenth century, from the 
German MS. of Tristan and Isolde, 
by Gottfried of Strasburg. 

Library of Miimioh. 

23. Small cap of mail riveted a grains 

d'orge, of the thirteenth century, found 

in a tomb at Epemelle (Cote d'Or). 

H. 7, Mitseum of Artillery, Paris. 

24. SmaU German bassinet, or skull-cap, 
of the thirteenth century. It was 
worn over the camail and under the 

2d. Small bassinet, probably French, of the 
thirteenth century. It has a neck- 
guard of mail, and a fixed nose-piece, 
which has been broken, and which 
appears to be the last trace of the 
Tiasal of the tenth and eleventh 

H. 18, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 


Heaumes without Crests. 

26. German heaume {Toppielm in German) 
of the twelfth century. From the 
mural paintings in the Cathedral at 
Brunswick, executed in the reign of 
Henri le Lion, who died in 1195. 



Id. as above. These are, so far as the 
author knows, the earliest specimens 
of lieaumes, casques of German origin, 
intended to be worn above the bas- 


Primitive English heaume, with nose- 
piece, of the end of the twelfth century. 
It is of blackened iron, about seventeen 
inches in height. 

H. 1, Mugeum of Artillery, Paris. 


29. Early English heaume, also with nose- 
piece, of the end of the twelfth century 
5 Tower of London. 

Heaumes without Crests. 


30. Heaume worn by arcners on foot and 
on horseback, of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, from the Grnnicon Colma/rieriae, 
of 1298. 

31. English heanme of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. This is probably the new sort 
of helmet spoken of by the writers 
contemporary with the battle of Bou- 
vines (1214). The German heaume, 
however, of the same date, represented 
on the frescoes in the Cathedral of 
Brunswick, is a much more perfect 
piece of armour. 

Musewm of Artillery, Paris. 

32. Enghsh heaume, or high helmet, marked 
in the Parham Collection as belonging 
to the twelfth century. But the author 
believes it to be a counterfeit, as not 
a single one of the same shape is to 
he found in any manuscript 

33. Germauheaumeof thebegumingof the 
thirteenth century, from the Tristan 
and Isolde MS. in the library of 

Heaumes without Crests. 

34. Heaume of the thirteenth century, in 
iron, decorated with polychrome de- 

Nieuwerkerke Collection. 

German heaume of the end of the 
thirteenth century, from an illumina- 
tion in the JKare&ssi's manuscript, pre- 
served in the Imperial Library of 
Paris, which represents the death of 
Albert of Heigerlocb, tlie Minne- 
singer of the lineage of HobenzoUern, 
in 1298. 

Heaume, preserved in the Museum of 
Prague, said to be of the thirteenth 
century. But the helmet is altogether 
so light that it looks like a counter- 

German heaume of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. It was found, together with 
some bassinets, represented farther 
on, under the ruins of the Castle of 
Tannenburg, which was destroyed in 
the fourteenth century. The helmet 
marked No. 570 in the Museum of 
Copenhagen is very like this one, and 
another in the Museum Francisco- 
Oarolinum at Lintz also closely re- 
sembles it. 

Heaumes with Crests. 


38 English heaume with hinged flap , 
beginning of the fourteenth cen- 

^ Tmoer of London. 

39. German heaume ; ena oi the four- 
teenth century. 
H. 5, Mitseum of Artillery. Paris. 

40. German heaume with crest, of the 
tliirteenth century. From t^ 
German iEneid of Henry of Wal- 

tl. Same as above. These two are 
the earliest crested helmets which 
the author has been able to find. 
Till lately it was believed that 
the crest had been added to the 
heaumes about the middle of the 
fourteenth century, and that the 
earliest defences of this character 
could not date sooner than the 
end of the thirteenth century. 
But the Nos. 26 and 27, copied 
from the frescoes in the Cathedra] 
of Brunswick, and the ones here 
represented, appear to militate 
against this opinion. 



Heaumes with Crests. 

42. Large heaume with crest, from the 
cenotaph of the King of the Eomans, 
Gunther of Schwarzburg, who was 
poisoned at Franlifort in 1349. The 
monument is of red stone, and was 
erected in the Cathedral of Frank- 
tort in 1352. 

43. Large heaume {ex tilting, in polishea 
iron, and with the remains of a crest, 
of the fourteenth century. The 
lower part of the crest is of plates of 
metal imbricated or curved, and the 
mezail is fixed. It is probable that 
the crest is not complete, and that 
there was a heraldic badge or some 
other emblem on the top. 

H. 3, Museu/m of Artillery, Paris. 

44. Large tilting heaume, EngUsh, in 
black iron, with crest, of the begin- 
ning of the fifteenth century. Tho 
crest is of wood, and seems to bo 

H. 4, Miiseum of Artillery, Farig. 

Tilting Heaumes. 

45. Large tUting heaume of the fifteentli 
eentniy, either English or German. 
It has a hinged flap or ventilator, and 
a small collar, that was meant to be 
riveted on to the cuirass. 



46. Laige tilting helmet, English, of the 

end of the fifteenth century. It is of 

polished iron, and has a small coUar. 

Ibwer of London, 

47. Large Grerman tilting heamne ; end of 

the fifteenth century. It is in polished 

iron, and with a small collar, similai 

to the one in the Munich Museum. 

H. 6, Musefwm of Artillery, Paris. 

48. Large tilting heaume, supposed to have 
belonged to Maximilian I., who died 
in 1519. Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 
A similar helm, found at Klingen- 
berg in Bohemia, is in the Prague 
Museum, and another in the Arsenal 
at Berlin. This shape continued in 
fashion, though somewhat modified, 
tiU the middle of the sixteenth cen- 


War and Tilting Heaumes. 

Heaume for war in polished iron. 
It has a round crown and 
hinged vizor ; the gorget and 
collar are fixed. It is part of 
a complete suit of armour in 
the Arsenal of Berlin. 

German heaume used in tourna- 
ments with massettes* (Kol- 
hentournier in German), of the 
fifteenth century. It is twenty 
inches in height, and the fi:ame- 
work is of wrought iron, while 
the back part is covered over 
with linen, on which can be 
distinguished the painted arms 
of the barons of Spaeth ; part 
of the gilding still remains. 
Museum at Sigmaringen, 

German heaume, used in tourna- 
ments with maces, of the fif- 
teenth century. It belonged 
to the Count of Esendorf, who 
was killed at Biberach. 
Sceter Collection in the Maxi- 
milian Museum at Augsburg, 

* The mace, massette, and sword 
were equally used in military exer- 
cises and in tournaments. 

Large Bassinets without Vizors. 


52. Bohemian bassinet, from the Voleslav 

MS. of the thirteenth century, in the 
library of Prince Lobkowitz at Eaud- 
njtz, in Bohemia. 

53. German bassinet of the thirteenth cen- 

tury. It is eleven by eight and a 
half inches, and is in the Museum at 

54. German bassinet, of the end of the 

thirteenth century, found amongst 
the ruins of the Castle of Tannenburg, 
which was burnt in the fourteenth 
century. It has been copied and 
described by M. de Hefner-Alteneck. 

55. Bassinet, either French or Italian,* of 

the fourteenth century, ornamented 
with twelve large screw-rings, with 
square holes for holding the rod on 
which the piece of mail was strung. 
This helmet was in the collection of 
the Count of Thun, at Val di Non ; 
M. Spengel, of Munich, has since dis- 
posed of it to the Count de Nieuwer- 

The great bassinet appears in the 
second half of the thirteenth century. 
It was of an oval-pointed shape, at 
first without either nose-piece or 
vizor, but with buttons, to which the 
mail shirt, used for a neck-guard, 
was fastened. 

♦ More likely Italian, for the neck-guard 
is like that of the Venetian celata of the 
fifteenth century. 


Large Bassinets with hinged Vizors. 

flt. Largfi German bassinet of the 
fourteenth century, m black 
iron, with movable mezail; 
the upper part of the vizor 
lifts up by means of a hinge. 
The 20 large screw - rings, 
which fitted into the square 
holes shown in the engraving, 
held the rod on which the 
piece of mail used as a neck- 
guard was strung. 

Collection of M. de Befner-Alteneck, 

57. Large English bassinet of the 
middle of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. The vizor lifts up by 
means of a pivot, like those of 
the armeis of the sixteenth 
century. There is still a 
piece of the mail gorget left, 
which is fastened to the coUai. 
Warwick Castle. 

58. Large bassinet with hinged 
vizor. Tower of London, 
Museum of Artillery, Paris, 
and in the collection of M. le 
Comte de Nieuwerkerke. 
These helmets are of polished 
steel, the crown is of pointed 
oval shape, and in one piece. 
The vizor comes very forward, 
so as to leave a large spaoa 
for the wearer to breathe 

Bassinets with Vizors and Neck-guards. 259 

59. Large English bassinet of tlie 

middle of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, with hinged vizor and 
fixed collar. Tower of Lon- 
don, and collection of M. de 
Benne at Constance. This 
helmet ie in some respects 
very like the preceding one. 

The salades (in German 
Schale, Schdllem, and Sche- 
lerri), which took the place of 
the bassinets in the fifteenth 
century, were distinguished 
particularly by their neck- 
guards, and by other cha- 
racteristics in which they are 
not imlike the iron hats. The 
salade was generally worn 
with the chin-piece, that was 
usually part of the high 
collar. It was worn sideways, 
so that the slit for the sight 
came before the eyes. 

60. German salade-heaume of the 

fourteenth century, used in 
tournaments. It had a fixed 
vizoi, aod was worn straight. 
Miteeum of Artillery, Paris. 

61. German salade of the fifteenth 
century in a single piece, and 
with a chin-piece. 
Collection of the King of Sweden, 
Charles XV. 

2. German salade with nose-piece, 
of the fifteenth century. 

Collection of M. de Benne at 


63. Gennan salade in blackened 
iron, with movable vizor on a 
pivot, of the end of the fif- 
teenth century. It comes 
from the Chateaux d'Ort in 
Bavaria, and must have been 
worn sideways and with a 
chin-piece. Tower of London. 
A similar one in the Spengel 
Collection at Munich, that was 
originally in the coUectiou of 
the Comte de Thun at Val di 

Salade with sight-piece in shape 
of a shell, with chin-piece of a 
peculiar form, and witli a high 
collar. Of the fifteenth cen- 

Salade of the fifteenth century, 
with vizor and neck-guard ; it 
must have been worn sideways 
like the preceding one. The 
neck-guard is of the same 
piece, and is small. 

Museum at Prague. 

66. Salade with crest, of the fif- 
teenth century, from the Isle 
of Ehodes. This helmet has 
an ornamented vizor, and the 
neck-guard is of the same 
piece as the helmet. It did 
not protect the face, and 
formed but an imperfect de- 
fence. The workmaiiship 
looks like early Italian. 


67. German salade to be used 

in battle, copied from the 
statue of Duke William 
the younger, of Brunswick, 
a work completed in 1494. 
It has a iixed vizor, but 
movable chin-plate and 
Munden-Sanoverien, near Cassel. 

68. German salade to be used 

in battle, of the fifteenth 
century. The crown is 
pointed, a very uncommon 
and perhaps unique shape. 
The vizor is hinged, and 
the neck-guard in plates of 
metal. The small print 
gives a front view. 
Mus^e historique of the Monbijou 
Falace at Berlin. 

69. Same as above, but with 

elongated mentonniere or 
chin-piece, which forms a 
sort of gorget or high 

70. Fluted salade with front 

brim, which, according to 
the author, is of the six- 
teenth century, and comes 
from the Isle of Rhodes. 
Museum of Artillery in 
Paris, where it is said to 
be of the fifteenth century. 
The shape of the brim and 
the fluting would fix it in 
the first half of the six- 
teenth century, when 
these sorts of vizor were 
very generally in use. 
(See No. 125, Burgonet.) 


71. English salade, from the Tower of London, 
where it is marked as being of fifteenth- 
century date; but from the singular 
shape I believe it to be counterfeit. 

72. Venetian salade (celata Veneziana) and 
nose-piece, of the first half of the fif- 
teenth century. 

Meyrick Collection,, Renng' Collection at Con- 
stance, Nieuwerkerke Collection in Paris, and 
in the Tower of London. 

73. Venetian salade with crest, but without 
nose-piece, of the second half of the 
fifteenth century.* The neck-guard of 
this helmet is larger than that of the 
preceding one. 

Meyrick Collection. 

74. Venetian salade for archers, with crest, 
but without nose-piece. The neck-guard 

is smaller than that of the preceding one. 
H. 22, Museum of Artillery in Paris, and also 
in (he Tower of London. 

74 A. Italian salade of the second half of the 
fifteenth century, from the bas-reliefs in 
white marble on the triumphal arch of 
Alphonso v.. King of Arragon, at 
•^i , Naples, which represent his triumphal 

entry into that city in 1443. 

74 B. Italian 

salade with vizor, same aa 

* This helmet is not unlike the Greek 
.r,hoplite casque (see No. 9, page 110), but it 
has a neck-guard, which the other had not 
The point in the front forms a nose-piece, 
which is also to be seen in the celata Vene- 
ziana of the second half of the fifteenth cen- 

Skull-caps and War-hats. 

75. War-hat in iron (EUmhut in 

German) of the twelfth century, 
from the frescoes in the Cathedral 
of Brunswick, done in the reign of 
Henry the Lion, who died in 

76. War-hat in iron, from the Bohemian 

MS. Voleslav, of the thirteenth 

77. Skull-cap {Eiserikappe in German), 

from the German Mneid of Henry 
of Waldeok, a MS. of the thir- 
teenth century, in the library of 

78. War-hat, from an illumination in 

the MaTKSsis manuscript, of the 
end of the thirteenth century, 
which represents the death of 
Albrecht of Heigerloch, the Min- 
nesinger of the race of Hoheuzol- 

Imperial Library, Paris. 

79. War-hat in iron of the end of the 

fourteenth century, from a paint- 
ing at Saint-Michel in Schwae- 
bisoh Hall, copied by M. de Hefaer- 


80. Same as above. 



81. War-hat of the end of the four- 
teenth century, from a painting 
at Saint-Michel, at Sehwae- 
bisch Hall. 

82. War-hat in iron, from a MB. at 
Constance, date li35, preserved 
in the Library of Prague. 

83. War-hat in iron, of the fifteenth 

Museum of Copenhagen and Collec- 
tion of M. de Hefner-AUenecli at 

84. War-hat in iron, of the fifteenth 

century. From a MS. in the 
collection of M. le Chevalier 
von Hauslaub at Vienna. 

85. Skull-cap of the fourteenth and 

fifteenth centuries ; slightly 
oval shape, with chin-piece. 
From a MS. in the collection of 
M. le Chevalier von Hauslaub 
at Vienna, and from frescoes 
in the Cathedral of Mondo- 
neda, in Spain. The under 
view of these helmets, as seen 
in the pictures, leads one to 
suppose that the back part was 
rendered movable by means of 
a hinge or pivot, so as to allow 
the head to be inserted. 

ShuU-eajps and War-hats. 


86. Skull-cap (Msenkappe in Ger- 

man) witli ear-plates, from a 
manuscript of the fifteenth 
century in the collection of M. 
le Chevalier von Hauslaub at 

87. War-hat with vizor, from the 

water - colour paintings of 
Glockenthon of the year 1505, 
which represent the arms in 
the Arsenals of Maximilian I. 
Anibras Collection. 

88. Same as ahove. 

89. Frame-work of pot-helmet. This 

helmet was used most probably 
in sieges, and was worn, like 
the heaume, over the ordinary 

90. Wax-hat, German, of the end of 

the fifteenth century, from a 
cast in the Germanic Museum 
at Nuremberg. Its shape is 
almost identical with that of 
the iron hat, No. 83, copied 
from one in the collection of 
M. de Hefiier - Alteneck at 
Munich. Like it, the crown 
is made in a single piece. 


War-hais and Pot-hdmets. 

92. War-hat belonging to the Reformer 
Zwinglius, who was killed at the 
battle of Capel in 1531. 

Arsenal of Zurich, 
"y 93. War-hat of the end of the fifteenth 
— centmy. The principal ornament 

is in the shape of the Burgundy 
cross, and made of pierced copper. 
Eenne Collection at Constance. 
A similar one, with the exception 
of the cross, is in the Spengel 
Collection, Munich. 

94. War-hat from the Theuerdanck, 
published at Augsburg at the 
commeucement of the sixteenth 

'X>. German war-hat of the sixteenth 
centmy, surmounted by three 
large twisted ridges, and with 
movable ear-plates. This helmet 
is covered with red velvet, and 
was used principally for hunting. 
From the Spengel and Hefoer- 
Alteneok Collections at Munich. 
In the Arsenal of that city there 
is a similar casque, covered with 
black and yellow cloth, which 
are the colours of Munich. There 
are others in the Ambras Collec- 
tion, and in the castle of Laxem- 
burg. One in the Mazis Collec- 
tion, in the Museum of Artillery 
at Paris, is attributed to Henri IV. 
(1559 — 1610), whose initials it 
bears. The twists are richly orna- 
mented with trophies and other 
subjects, engraved and embossed. 

96. Pot-helmet with ear-plates, of the 
sixteenth century. 

Arsenal of Munich. 

97. Pot-helmet used in sieges, of the 
seventeenth century. 

H. 154, Musevm of Artillery, Pari*. 

SMI-caps and War-hats. 


War-hat in iron, belonging to 
Charles I. of England (1625— 
1649). It bears the mark of 

the armourer ] A. B. O. I 

Warwick Caetle. 

99. War-hat in iron, of the seven- 

teenth century. 

Az Collection at Lintz. 

100. War-hat in iron, with a socket 

for plume. It weighs about 
27 lbs., and measures 12 
inches by 16, and belonged 
to the Great Elector of Bran- 
denburg, who wore it at the 
battle of Fehrbellin in 1677. 
Berlin Museum. 

101. Iron skull-cap with vizor. The 

outer part is perforated, and 
weighs 20 lbs. It belonged 
to Augustus the Strong 

Museum of Dresden. 

102. German skull-cap in iron, with 
vizor and nose-piece, of the 
seventeenth century. The 
neck-guard is of mail, and is 
covered on the outside with 
grey linen. 

Dresden Museum 


Iron ShuU-cajps. 

103. Skull-cap of the seventeenth 
century in thict iron, and 
the upper part open-work. 

Berlin Arsenal, 

J04. Skull-cap of imbricated scales, 
from a drawing by Holbein 
of the sixteenth century. 
Industrial Museum of Vienna. 

105. Skull-cap of imbricated scales, 
in polished steel, with mova- 
ble nose-piece, cheek-plates, 
and neck-guard. The socket 
for the feather and several 
other parts are in gilt copper. 
It was worn by John Sobieski, 
King of Poland, before 
Vienna, in 1683. 

Museura of Dresden. 

106. Frame-work of skull-cap in 
iron, of the seventeenth cen- 

Museum of Prague. 

107. Same as above. 

108. Frame-work of skull-cap in 
iron, worn by French carabi 
neers inside their war-hats in 

Mu.seum of Artillery, Paris. 

109. Frame-work of skull-cap in 
iron, for lining the interior of 
the war-hats. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 
All these perforated or open- 
work skull-caps belong to 
the time when the helmet 
had been superseded by the 
war-hat, the latter forming 
an outer covering. 

Iron SkuU-eajas and War liafs. 

110. German skull-cap iu iron, in- 

tended to be worn inside the 

iron hats, of the seventeenth 


Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 

111. Frame - work for lining the 

three-cornered hat of the 
eighteenth century. 
Historical Museum of the Monbijou 
Falace at Berlin. 

112. War-hat, probably Italian, of 

the seventeenth century. It 
is in iron, has a chin-strap, 
and is studded with nail- 
heads in copper. 
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 

113. German war-hat, which, ac- 

cording to the description 
given in Arsenal of Vienna, 
where it is preserved, was 
used in besieging castles and 
towns. The large brim pro- 
tected the face from the 
boiling Hquids that the be- 
sieged used in defence. The 
author, however, thinks that 
this sort of hat was only used 
at ceremonies, entries of 
princes, etc. 

114. Iron hat with nose-piece, worn 

by the household foot-soldiers 
of King Louis XIV. (1643— 
H. 152, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 



115. Buigonet (Burgander helm 

in German) of the six- 
teenth century. This 
sort of helmet is known 
by the crest, shade, cheek- 
pieces, and neck-guard. 

116. Burgonet of the sixteenth 

century, with gorget and 
menk>nni€re,or chin-piece, 
which make it very like 
the " armet." (See later.) 
H. 53, Museum of Artillery, 

117. Burgonet of the end of the 

sixteenth century. (Same 
remarks as for the pre- 
ceding one.) 

Arsenal of Soleure. 

118. Burgonet of the sixteenth 

century, formerly in the 
collection of the Castle of 
Imperial Arsenal, Vienna. 

119. Burgonet of the sixteenth 

century, with gorget, 
merdonniere, and movable 
vizor, which make it re- 
semble the armet. The 
workmanship is German, 
in engraved iron, and 
very beautiful. 

Ambras Collection. 

121. German burgonet, from the 

" JDescriptions des Noces 
PriTieieres," etc., of Wir- 
zig, a work printed in 
Vienna in 1571. 
Industrial Museum of Vienna. 

122. German burgonet-bassinet 

of the sixteenth century. 
It is chiefly noticeable on 
account of its pointed 
shape, and being without 
a crest. 

An Collection at Lintt, 



120. Burgonet, splendid Italian work, in beaten iron, of the sixteenth 
century. In the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna, formerly in the 
Castle of LazembuTg. It is the finest specimen that exists of 
this sort, and has been satisfactorily photographed at the 
Industrial Museum of Vienna. 



123. Burgonet of the seventeenth 

Tower of London. 

J 24. Burgonet-cabasset of the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth 
century, in blackened iron. 
It has a peak, cheek-pieces, 
neck-guard, but no crest. 
The crown is pointed, like 
that of the cabasset. 

Arsenal of Geneva, 

125. Burgonet used at sieges, of the 
end of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. It is of very thick iron, 
and has a flat neck - guard 
and peak. 
H. 76, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

126. Burgonet-skull-cap, German, 
of the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century. It is covered 
with red velvet. 

Gudf Museum at Banover. 

126 his. Burgonet-skull-cap of the 
seventeenth century. A sort 
of vizor, in the shape of a 
trident, is fastened on to the 
peak, and the neck-guard is 
of metal plates. 

Tower of Londwi. 


127. BnTgonetskuU-capof the seven- 
teenth centuiy, mth nose- 
piece, Polish. These casques, 
on account of the kind of fan 
on each side of the crown, 
resemble those of the winged 
cavalry (Jazala ShrzycUaid) 
of Sobieski. 

Mvseiim of Dresden. 

128. Burgonet skuU-cap in iron, with 
movable nose-piece and plated 
nedk-guaid, called zticchetto. 
It is of Hungarian origin, and 
was called dschycJcso. 
No. 366, Boyal Arsenal of Turin. 

129. Burgonet skuU-cap, with cheek- 
pieces, nasal-vizoT, and plated 
neok-gnard, of the middle of 
the seventeenth century. This 
helmet, which is in the Ar- 
senal of Soleure, is wrongly 
said to have belonged to 
Vengi (1540). It is in en- 
graved iron, and studded with 
copper nail-heads. 

130. Burgonet skull-cap, with cheek- 
pieces, and long plated neck- 
guaid. It is said to have 
belonged to Charles de Tyrol, 
who died in 1662. 

ATribras CdUection. 



131. German burgonet of the seven- 
teenth century. It has a 
fixed nose-piece, and the front 
part is like that of the aimets. 
H. 56, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

132. Buigonet of the seventeenth 

century, with plated neck- 
guard, in the Meyiick CoUec- 
leotion, where it is said to he 
of the fifteenth century. The 
front and back of this speci- 
men have been engraved, in 
order to show the double line 
of ornaments on the back, 
resembling flutings. 

133. English burgonet of the seven- 

teenth century,in the Dresden 
Museum, where it is errone- 
ously attributed to Edward 
IV. (1461-1483). According 
to common tradition it was 
originally in the collection of 
the Tower of London, and 
was given by William III, 
to John George I. The peak, 
the plated neck-guard riveted 
with gilt nail-heads, as well 
as the tinsel ornaments of the 
crest and the plume-clasp, 
show at first sight that we 
must assign this piece of 
workmanship to the latter 
half of the seventeenth cen- 

134. Morion {Morian in German). 

This ia an Italian casque for 
a foot-soldier of the sixteenth 
century, from the Arsenal of 
Geneva, and formerly be- 
longed to the Savoyard cap- 
tain ChaffardiQ Branaulien, 
who was killed before the 
walls of Geneva, during a 
night attack. It is richly 
engraved in a very artistic 

Autlior's Collection. 

135. French morion of foot-soldier, 

of the end of the sixteenth 

century. It is also engraved. 

Tower of London. 

136. German morion of the end of 

the sixteenth century. The 
fleur-de-lys in embossed work 
on the front of the helmet 
was the badge of the civic 
regiment of the city of Munich, 
and is the symbol of the 
Virgin, having nothing to do 
with the arms of the kings of 
Arsenal of the town of Municli, and 
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 

137. German morion, from the "De- 

scriptions des Noces Prin- 
cieres" of Wirzig, published 
at Vienna in 1571. 
Industrial Museum of Vienna. 
The morion of the suit attri- 
buted in the Louvre to King 
Henry IV. of France (1559- 
1610). It is rather higher, and 
the rims narrower and van- 
dycked. (See p. 266, No. 95). 

137 A. Same as above. 


Morions and Oalassets. 

138. German morion of the sixteenth 

century. This shape is rare. 

Arsenal of Munich. 

139. German morion of the end of 
the sixteenth century. In the 
National Museum of Bruns- 
wick, where it is described as 
being of the twelfth century. 
The large screw on the top 
distinguishes it &om the 
usual morions. 

140. Cabasset, or pear-shaped casque 
(JBimenir'helm in German), of 
the sixteenth century ; richly 
engraved iron, with socket 
for plume. 
Collection of M, le Comte de Nieur 

141, German cabasset with cheek- 
pieces, in engraved iron, of the 
sixteenth century. This same 
shape, but with a slightly 
different rim, was very much 
in use in France and Italy. 
Ariemal of Mimidk, 

142. Italian cabasset for foot-soldier, 
of the sixteenth century, in 
iron, beaten, chased, and da- 
mascened in gold. The sub- 
ject represents Perseus and 
Andromeda. It is a very fine 

H. 100, Museum of Artillery, Fans. 

143. Italian cabasset for foot-soldier, 

of the sixteenth century. It is 

richly engraved, and pointed. 

Tower of London, 

144. German cabasset ia blackened 
iron, with socket for plume, 
of the sixteenth century. The 
only ornaments on this helmet 
are copper nail-heads. 
Collection of M. le Gomte de Nieu- 

145. Italian cabasset in embossed 
iron, of the sixteenth century. 
It is a very beautiful specimen 
of workmanship. 



146. Aimet (Visier-helm* in Ger- 
man) of the second half of the 
fifteenth century. The armet 
is the most perfect form of 
helmet. It is composed of 
the crown with crest, the 
vizor, nose-piece and ventoyle 
(these latter three forming 
altogether the mezaiV), and 
the gorget. 
H. 28, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

147. Armet of the sixteenth century, 

in iron, with real ram's horns. 

'^ It formed part of the armour 

of the jester of Heniy VIII. 


Tower of London, 

148. Armet with small plumes, of 
the sixteenth century, from 
the Weisskmdg. 

149. Armet of the sixteenth century, 
in tooled leather. The 
lower part of the mezail is 
wanting, as also the vizor. 
Arsenal of Geneva. It is the 
only helmet of this kind 
known to the author. 

* From this word the English 
helmet is presumably derived. 



150. Aimet with fluted crown, and 

vrith Tizor moving on a pivot, 
part of a suit of Maximiiian's 
time, of German workman- 
ship, of the first half of the 
sixteenth century. Imperial 
Arsenal of Vienna. A similar 
one is in the author's col- 

151. German armet of the sixteenth 

century, from the Triomphe 
de MaximMien, by Burck- 
mayer, lq 1517. The vizor 
turns on a pivot, and the 
lower part is in the shape of 
an eagle's beak. 

152. Aimet with vizor on pivot, and 
high mentonniere (Sarthaube). 
German work of the second 
half of the sixteenth century. 
It is richly engraved and 
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 

153. Armet with vizor on pivot, and 
high mentonniere. German 
work of the second half of 
the sixteenth century. This 
helmet is richly engraved. 
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 


Armets and 

154. Arinet of the end of the six- 
teenth century. The dome is 
in embossed work, and repre- 
sents a maritime subject, and 
the vizor is latticed. 

Boyal Armoury at Mad/rid. 

155. Italian armet of the end of the 
sixteenth century. It is richly 
chased in all parts. 
Museum of ArtUlery, Paris. 

156. Italian casque, copied from tho 
antique, called caschetto, of tho 
sixteenth century, in iron 
beaten work, chased and 
damascened. It is a splendid 

H. 131, Mmewn of Artillery, Paris. 

157. Italian casque, of a shape called 
antique, but much resembling 
the burgonets of the middle 
of the sixteenth century. For- 
merly in the Imperial Library, 
now in the Museum of Ar- 
tillery, Paris, marked H, 129. 

Antique Casques. 

158, Casque, called antique Eussian, /si 
but whose workmansliip appears 
thorougbly Italian. 
Museum of Tsarskoe-Selo at St. Peters- 

159. Swiss armet, of the beginning of 

the seventeenth century, in po- 
lished iron, belonging to the 
cavalry regiment of the city of 
Geneva. fj) 

Arsenal of Geneva. 

160. German armet of the first half of 

the sixteenth century. The vizor 
represents a man's face with 
moustaches. '60 

Meyrich CoUeotion. 

161 . Turkish casque with movable nose- 
piece, in iron damascened with 
gold, of the fifteenth century. 
It belonged to Bajazet II. 
H. 173, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

162. Turkish casque of the fifteenth 
century, found at Ehodes. 
H. 180, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

163. Albanian casque, attributed to 
Prince George Castriota (Scan- 
derbeg), who died in 1467. The 
goat's head and the other orna- 
ments are in copper. 



Different Casques. 

164. Turkish casque of the sixteenth century, 
formerly belonging to *^" ao™oi^u, 
Soliman. This helmet 

X uiii.iaii utiaque oi ni« isi- 
formerly belonging to the 
golilpfiTi TTiia hplnn 



has a nose- 

.man. This helmet has a nose- 
le, cheek-pieces, and neck-guard. 

Meyrick CoUecHon. 

165. Iron casque with copper studs, worn by 
Jean Ziska * (1420), in a picture now iu 
the library of Geneva. It is uncertain 
whether the painter copied this helmet 
from one of the time, or drew it from 

166. Persian casque, from a MS. of about 
1600, a copy of the Schah Nameh, or 
Eoyal Book, a poem composed by Per- 
dusi, in the reign of Mahmoud (999- 

1 67. Mongolian casque, probably of the fifteenth 


G. 138, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

168. Indian casque from Delhi. The nose- 

piece is movable, and the neck-guard 
is composed of small metal plates. 

* Ziska (one-eyed), the chief of the Hussites, 
or Taborites, was born in 1360, died in 1424 ; 
he lost his remaining eye in 1421. The 
hinged plate on the side concealed the cavity 
of the left eye, which he had already lost 
before the death of Huss. 

Bifferent Casques. 

169. Mongolian casque in iron, damascened 

with gold, with movable nose-piece and V 
neck-guard. Fomid in tlie battle-field 
of Koulikowo (1380). 
Tsarskoe-Selo Mueeum at St. Peterebu/rg. 

170. Eussian casque with movable nose-piece 

and neck-guard, of the fifteenth century, 
richly ornamented in gilt copper. 

H. 176, Musewn of AriiUery, Paris. 

171. Eussian casque with cheek-pieces and "' 

movable nose-piece, and large neck- 
Tsarskoe-Selo Musenim at St. Petersburg. 


172. Hungarian casque of the sixteenth cen- 

tury, with cheek-pieces, neok-guard, and 
nose-piece. This helmet belonged to 
the hero Nicolao Zrinyi, who was buried 
under the ruins of Sigeth, in 1566. 

Ambras Collection. 

173. Italian casque, or burgonet, belonging 

formerly to Asoanier Sforza Pallavicino, 
who took an important part in the naval 
battle of Lepanto, in 1571.* 
Tsarskoe-Selo Museiim at St. Peterebwrg. 



174. Pot-helmet with cheek-pieces, neck-guard, 
and movable nose-piece, in thick iron, 
engraved, gUt, and ornamented with 
shell-like moimtings and gilt studs. It 
belongs to the seventeenth century, and 
the screw of the nose-piece is in the 
shape of a fleur-de-lis. 

Arsenal of Soleure. 

* There is a celebrated tragedy on this subject 
by the German, Komer. /J^ 

Different Casques. 

175. Savoyard armet in blackened iion, 0/ 
the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. It was taken from the 
troop of Branauhen Chaifardin, who 
was killed in 1602 before the walls 
of Geneva, which city he attempted 
to surprise. 

Arsenal of Soleure, and Author's Collection. 

176. PoUsh casque, with winglets, of the 
seventeenth century, worn by the 
troops under Sobieski, who were 
called winged cavalry (Jazala 
Skrzydlata). (See No. 127 in pre- 
ceding pages.) 
Taarskoe-Selo Museum at St. Petersburg. 


Casque of French soldier under Henri 
IV., known as a Spider helmet. It 
has a peak or flat vizor, with iron 
strips or ribbons all round. 

Tower of London, 

178. German tilting casque of the begin- 

ning of the seventeenth century. 
This helmet has a crest and neck- 
guard, and is provided with a screw 
for festening to the placcate in &ont. 
It is rather like the salade of the 
fifteenth century. 
H. 135, Museum of Artillery, Parit. 

179. Armet of the beginning of the seven- 

teenth century. This helmet is veiy 
Hke the Savoyard helmet, STo. 175. 
Tower of London,, 

Different Casques. 


180. Indian casque with neck - guard, 
cheek-pieces, and movable nose- 
piece. It is ornamented with pre- 
cious stones, and the work is very 
Tsarskoe-Selo Mttseum at St. Petersburg. 

181. Polygar casque of Central India, with 

fixed nose-piece, cheek-pieces, and 

very long neck-guard, or mail hood. 

Meyrick Collection. 

182. Mahratta casque (Indian). Thi6 
helmet has a long movable nose- 
piece of a singular shape, a large 
mail hood, which protects all the 
head, and a neck-guard like a tail, 
which descends to the loins. 

Meyrick Collection. 

183. Mongolian casque, with peak crest 

and socket for plume. It is very 

beautiful, and richly ornamented 

with damascened work. 

Tsarshoe-Selo Museum at St, Peterslurg. 



Different Casques. 


184. Japanese casque with neok-guard; 
from the Imperial Library, now in 
Museum of Artillery, Paris, No. 183. 
A bronze Samnite helmet in the 
Museum of Erbach is very like it in 
(See p. 122.) 

185. Japanese helmet in lacquered iron, of 
a shape actually in use at the pre- 
sent day. It has a fixed nose-piece 
and neck-guard ; the mask protects 
the entire face. 
G. 140, Museum of Artillery, Paris.* 

186. Conical Chinese helmet with peak. 

Tower of LoncUm. 

187. Casque in gold and precious stones. 
It belonged to the Emperor of China, 
and was taken at Peldn in 1860. 
G. 142, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

* A similar object of modern date is in 
the South Kensington Museum. 

The Shield. 287 

It should be remarked that the Chinese and Japanese 
hehnets have remained unchanged during several centuries, 
so that these arms have not the same interest as attaches to 
European arms of different historical periods. 


This portion of the armour, which derives its name from 
the old German word Buckel, boss, and leder, leather, and not 
from the Celtic word bwa, to cover, an etymology often as- 
signed to it, was origiually called seilt in German, but at 
the present day scMld. 

We have already noticed what were the shapes of the 
ancient bucklers, and we have seen that they underwent very 
little variation. 

The most ancient shields of the nations of the Germanic 
race (Franks, Saxons, Alemanni, and Burgundians) were 
large, square-shaped, and made sometimes of wood, but more 
often of osier branches covered with bronze plates. During 
the iron age the bucklers were circular, and usually with 
a boss in the centre, called ia French ombilie d'uTribo, in 
Gterman schildnahel or schildbucJcel. 

The cover of the Antiphonary of Saint Gregory, which was 
made iu the eighth century and is preserved at Saint Gall, 
represents combatants armed with small square shields with 
pointed bosses ; but the character of this piece of carving ia 
certainly of earlier date ; it is probably taken fcom a dip- 

The Leges Longobardorum, a MS. of the ninth century, 
represents the king carrying a long German targe, which we 
meet with again in the fourteenth century ; whilst the Codex 
Awreus Evangelicus of the ninth century, as also the Wesso- 
brunn MS. of the same date, show us the rondache with a 
boss to it, a shield that is also to be seen in the Prudenthis 
and Psalterium MSS. of the tenth century, in the Libraries 
of London and Stuttgardt, as likewise in the Bayeux tapestry 
of the eleventh century, where the pear-shaped buckler, 
slightly tapering towards the base, and sometimes as high as 
a man, seems to have been the shield of the Norman, and the 
rondache, or round buckler, that of the Anglo-Saxon warrior. 

One may also see in the Prudentms PsycliomacMa, a MS. of 

288 The Shield. 

the tenth century, in the Library of the British Museum, 
Anglo-Saxon warriors armed with circular bossed targets; 
but a knight in the Biblia Sacra, of the tenth century, carries 
already a small targe, a shield that was not in general use 
till the reign of St. Louis (1226-1270V 

The Duke of Bom-chard of Swabia (965) is represented in 
the basilica of Zurich with a shield not unlike the Norman 
ones in the Bayeux tapestry mentioned above ; and this same 
sort of shield is borne by a horseman in a bas-relief in the 
cloister of Saint Aubin at Angers, and by one of the foimders 
of the Cathedral of Naumbourg of the eleventh century. 
The Count of Barcelona, Don Eamon Berenger IV. (1140), 
is represented on his seal bearing the same sort of shield 
that is to be seen in the frescoes in the Cathedral of Bruns- 
wick, painted in the reign of Henry the Lion, who died in 
1195. These large shields always had two armlets (Hand- 
griffe in German), whilst the ancient shields, and more 
especially the Greek, had only one. The long shields had 
besides a guige, or strap {Hanghand in German), by which to 
suspend them from the left shoulder, the point of the shield 
towards the rear. 

The earliest Germanic shields were large and square, 
but not a single uninjured specimen has reached us. They 
appear to have been padded inside ; the framework was usually 
made of wood covered with leather, and painted with gro- 
tesque figm-es, while the whole shield was bound round with 
iron. These shields gave rise to the use of the first armorial 
bearings, as we have seen in pages 47 and 48 of the his- 
torical chapter. Several remains of these shields are repre- 
sented in the chapter on arms of the iron age, and also the 
little round buckler of the Franks. The small targe or 
triangular buckler seldom appears before the thirteenth 
century in France ; that is to say, before the reign of Saint 
Louis : this shield was as wide as it was long. The buckler 
used in Germany at this period was larger, as may be seen 
on the statue of Henri II. on his funereal monument in the 
Church of Saint Vincent at Breslau. The English buckler 
of the fourteenth century was very like the small targe, and 
was only two feet in length. After this the small rondelle, 
or round shield, appears ; it was only a foot and a quarter in 
length, and remained in use till the sixteenth century. 

The Shield. 289 

The BtLrgundian shields of the heginning of the fifteenth 
century (see p. 291, No. 13) were usually triangular, and 
reached to the shoulder. The pavois, of German origin, in 
which may be recognised the primitive form of the most ancient 
Germanic shields, was slightly rounded at the top and square 
at the bottom, and appears about the fourteenth century. 

The long targe,* in wood and skin, of the same epoch, is 
easily distinguished from the little targe of the fifteenth 
century, which was hollowed out at the edge. 

In the sixteenth century, when in Germany, as well as 
elsewhere, the shield was almost out of use, may be seen 
some heart-shaped, but with three points at the top. It was 
also about this same time, that is, about the end of the 
fifteenth century, that the placcates, the rondaches, the 
rondelles, and iargettes with a hook, were used. Many of 
these were finished with great care, and bear evidence of 
master hands having been employed on them. The greater 
part of the Italian rondaches that were chased and orna- 
mented in embossed work were not meant to be used in com- 
bat, but were rather part of the pride, pomp, and circumstance 
of war. 

* Targe is derived from the Arab word dardy and tarcha. At the 
present day, at Toulon and MaraeilleB, the shield that the saUora use in 
naval sports is called a targe. 


Different Shields. 

1. Shield, Oriental, (?;* from the 

Theodosian column erected to 
the Emperor Theodosius, sur- 
named the Great, born in 346, 
died in 396, the year of the 
commencement of the Eastern 

2. Square and convex shield with 

boss, from the Antiphonarivm 
of Saint-Gall of the eighth 

3. Shield or rondache with boss, in 

use from the eighth to the 
eleventh centuries, represented 
in the MSS. of Wessoh-unn, a.d. 
810 ; the Aureus Evangelicus of 
St. Emeran, 870; the Codex 
Aureus, ninth century ; the Pru- 
dentius Psycliomachia of tlie 
tenth century ; the Aelfric and 
the Bayeux tapestry, etc. 

4. Lombard-German targe of the 

ninth centiory, from the Leges 

5. Buckler of the tenth century, 

called in France " Norman " 
buckler, from a statuette in 
the collection of M. le Comte de 

6. German shield of the eleventh 

century, from the Jeremiaa 


1. Norman shield, from the Bayeux 

8. Norman shield, back view, show- 
ing the armlets and the strap, 
used for suspending it from the 
left shoulder. 

* The crescents do not prove that 
this shield is of Mussulman origin, 
for Mahomet was not bom till AX. 

Different Shields. 


9. Small German targe of the 

twelfth century, 18 inches long, 
from a coin of the time of 
Henry the Lion, who died in 

10. German convex shield, about 

32 inches in length, from the 
frescoes in the Cathedral of 
Brunswick, painted in the 
reign of Henry the Lion, who 

11. German shield, about 2 feet in 

length, from the frescoes in 
the Cathedral of Brunswick. 

12. Shield of the twelfth century, 

about 21 inches by 30, from a 
tombstone found in the con- 
vent of Steinbach, now in the 
chapel of the Castle of Erbach. 

13. Triangular shield, from the MS. 

of Tristan and Isolde of the 
thirteenth century. It was 
also used in the Burgundian 
equipment of the fifteenth 
century, as will be seen on 
reference to the MS. in the 
library of the Arsenal of Paris. 

14. Small targe used in the reign 

of Saint Louis (1226-1270). 

15. Semi - cylindrical targe with 

round boss, of the thirteentli 
century, from an illumination 
of the period in the British 
Museum. A similar targe, 
but without the boss, existed 
in the equipment of the 
fifteenth century, as a speci- 
men in the same museum 
proves. (See also No. 4, Lom- 
bard targe of the ninth cen- 
tury, preceding page.) 


Different Shields. 

15 E. German targe with sight- 
holes, of the end of the foii> 
teenth century, from a picture 
in the cliurch of Saint-Michel 
at SehwaebiBoh-Hall. 

16. German targe with sight-holea, 

of the end of the fourteenth 

CaihedraZ of Bamberg. 

17. Same as above. 

18. Spanish targe of the end of 

the fourteenth century, from a 
mural painting in the Cathe- 
dral of Mondoneda, represent- 
ing the massacre of the Inno- 

19. German shield, about the height 

of a man, from the picture of 
a single combat called the 
Judgment of God in the Codex 
of the maitre d'armes of 
Tolhofer, of the fifteenth cen- 

20. Spanish shield, from an illumi- 

nation of 1480. 

23. Shield from a woodcut of the 
fifteenth century. 
Cabinet of Engravings at Munich. 

22, Hispano-Mussulman shield of 
the fifteenth century. The 
Museum of Artillery in Paris 
possesses a similar targe in 
leather. (See p. 296, No. 45.; 

Shields (Pavois). 


23. German shield, from the Tlieur- 

danck published at the com- 
mencement of the sixteenth 
century at Augsburg. 

24. Shield in steel of the sixteenth 

century, about 2 feet high, 
ornamented with two coats of 
arms engraved, and studded all 
romid with large screw-heads. 
Historical Mmeum of the Palace 
of Monbijou at Berlin. 

25. German shield, termed pavoie 

d'assaut (SetzscMld or Sturm- 
wand in German), 51 inches 
by 76, of the fifteenth century. 
It is of wood covered over with 
leather, painted red and yellow. 
The points and the inside 
mountings are of ii'on. 

Mmeum of Sigmaringen. 

26. German pavois d'assaut of the 

fifteenth century, 44 inches by 
72, of wood covered over with 
leather. The painting, which 
is in black and white, repre- 
sents the arms of the city of 

Arsenal of Berlin. 

27. German pavois d'assaut of the 

fifteenth century. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 


Shields and Targes. 

28. Swiss pavois d'assaut. 72 inches 
in height, of the end of the 
fifteenth century. 

Arsenal of Berne. 

29 and 30. German pavois d'assaut, 
26 inches by 45 inches, of the 
fifteenth century, from the 
ancient arsenal of Ens, in 
Austria. The painting is a 
representation of St. George. 
Az Collection at Lintz. It is 
a valuable specimen on account 
of the beauty of the painting, 
and its capital preservation. 

31. Swiss or German targe (rorfeo/ie 

in German), 19 inches by 40, 
of wood covered over with 
leather. It is smaller than the 
pavois d'assaut, is rounded at 
the bottom, and has only one 
iron point. It was probably 
the buckler of an archer. 

Arsenal of Berlin. 

32, German targe, with three longi- 

tudinal bosses of wood, covered 
with hide. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

Shields and Targes. 


33. German tilting targe of the end 

of the fifteenth century ; side, 
rear, and &out views. It is of 
wood and skin, and orna- 
mented with painted decora- 
tions, and belonged to the 
Ijandgrave of Thuringia. 

CatJiaiTtdrSj' Marbwg. 

34. German targe of the fifteenth 

century, in wood and iron, 
ornamented with painted de- 

Tmoer of London. 

35. German fluted targe of the 

fifteenth century, 26 iuches in 
length, in wood and leather. 
Museum of Artillery, Fans. 

36. German tilting targe of the 

fifteenth century, wood and 
leather, 14 inches by 16. 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

37. German tilting targe of the 

fifteenth century, in wood and 
leather, with an inscription, 
and painted in polychrome, 
with the representation of a 
tournament, which is very re- 
markable in an archseological 
point of view, on account of 
the helmets worn by the 

Museum of ArtMery, Paris. 


38. German targe in wood and 

leather, painted and silvered , 
copied from the water-colour 
drawings painted by Gloek- 
enthon in the first part of 
the sixteenth century, illus- 
trative of the arms and suits 
of armour in the Arsenals of 
Maximilian I. 

Ambras Collection, Vienna. 

39. Targe, silvered. 

Am^as Collection, Vienna. 

40. Targe, painted and silvered. 

Amhras Collection, Vienna. 

41. Targe, painted and gUt. 

Ambras Collection, Vienna. 

42. Small targe, convex, of the six- 

teenth century ; probably 

Armerial of Madrid. 

43. German targe of the sixteenth 

century, 32 inches by 36. It 
is of wood and cloth, decorated 
with painted designs. 

Museum of Cluny. 

44. Moorish targe. 

Armerial of Madrid. 

45. Spanish-Moorish targe (adarga), 

of the end of the sixteenth 
century, entirely of supple 
leather, 30 inches by 38. (See 
No. 22, preceding pp.) 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 


46. Gierman target, termed Rondache, 

with gauntlet and lantern, of the 
fifteenth century. It was used for 
night comhats. I. 35, Museum of 
Artillery, Paris. In the Arsenal 
at Hamburg there is a similar 
target, with a lantern but no 
gauntlet. (See also at page 301, 
No. 61.) 

47. Italian target of the fifteenth cen- 

tury, in wood and leather, orna- 
mented with polychrome paintings. 
The Arsenal of Lucerne possesses 
twenty-one of these shields, taken 
by Frischhaus Thelig of Lucerne, 
in the battle of Jornico (Gomis), 
in 1478. On it are painted the 
arms of the first Duke of Milan, 
Giovanni GaleazzoTisconti, whose 
initials, surmounted by a crown, 
are visible. 

48. German target of the end of the 

fifteenth century, from the water- 
colour drawings of Glockenthon, 
mentioned aboye. 

Ambraa Collection, 

49. English iarget of the beginning of 

the sixteenth century. In the 
centre of this shield there is a 
small hand-caunon, with sliding 
chamber and match, something 
like a veugkdre. The Tower of 
London possesses twenty-five of 
these targets, mention of which 
is made in the inventory made in 
the reign of Edward VI. (1547). 



SO. Small target with sword-breaker 
and arm-guard, in one piece of 
Mueeam of Artillery, Paris, and 
Imperial Araenal of Vienna. 

51. Italian target of the sixteenth 
century; it seems only for 
show. It is in high-relief 
embossed work, and in one 
single piece. 

Museum of Turin. 

52. Target of foot - soldier in 
blackened steel, size 2 feet by 
li, of the seventeenth century. 
This shield, which weighs 
12 lbs., has a sight-hole and a 
slit for the sword. 

Meyrick Collection. 
[Engraved in reverse.] 

Shields and Targes. 

53, Italian ehield of the sixteenth 
century, 28 inches in length, 
with a sword, 20 inches in 
length. The engraving re- 
presents the back view. 

Museum of Dresden, 

54. German shield of the sixteenth 
century in blackened iron, 
about 20 by 24 inches. It is 
in the shape of a heart, the 
centre part curving inwards. 

CoUedion of the Caatle of Lowenberg 
or WilhelmshBhe, near Cassd. 

55. Small round German hand 
shield of the fifteenth century, 
from engravings of the time. 
Cabinet of Engravings at Munich. 


Small Shields. 

56. Small hand shield of the middle of 
the fourteenth century, called 
pamidenne, from a carving on a 
comb made at that time. 1 foot 
J inch in diameter. 


57. Small German hand shield, about a 
foot in diameter, of the end of the 
fifteenth century. 

Arsenal of Munich. 

58. Small hand shield with hook for 
sword - breaking ; it measures 
about 11 inches diameter, and is 
of the end of the fifteenth cen- 

Meyrich Collection. 

59. Small hand target in steel of the 
fifteenth century, about 10 inches 
in diameter. It is said to have 
belonged to the Earl of Eich- 
mond (Henry VII. of England, 
J. 5, Museum of Artillery, Paris, 

Small Shields. 

60. Turkish small hand shield of iron, of 
the sixteenth century. The word 
Allah (God) is engraved on it. Many 
arms coming from the Arsenal of 
Mabmoud II. are similarly marked. 
Historical Museum of the Palace of 
Monbijou at Berlin. A similar ob- 
ject exists in the Erbaoh Museum. 

61. Iron hand shield, Grerman, about 14 
inches in diameter. It has a dart 
and a lantern, which shows that it 
was used at night. Museum of the 
Guelphs at Hanover. See page 297, 
No. 46, for targets with lanterns. 

62. Small German hand shield of the six- 
teenth century, from the Triumph of 
Maximilian, by Burckmayer (1517). 

63. Small hand target made of the elk's 
horn, with an iron escutcheon; be- 
longing to the second half of the fif- 
teenth century. 

L ^ Mttsewm of Artillery, Paris. 


Small Targes. 

64. Small German target with 

gauntlet, of the first half of 
the sixteenth century. It be- 
longed to the Count of Heuue- 
berg, and is now at Meiningen 
in Germany. 

65. German target with gauntlet, of 

the sixteenth century, 

Musewm of Turin. 

66. German target with gauntlet 

and hook for breaking the 
adversary's sword ; of the six- 
teenth century. 
Historical Museum in the Palace of 
Monhijou at Berlin. 

67. Small German hand target with 

a hook for breaking a sword, 
about 8i inches in size. 
Meyrick Collection. The 
engraving represents both 
sides. A similar one exists in 
the Collection of M. le Comte 
de Nieuwerkerke. 

68. Small German hand target of 

the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. (Exterior view.) 
Historical Museum of the Palace of 
Monhijou at Berlin. 

69. SmaU German hand shield with 

hook for breaking the adver- 
sary's sword, of the end of the 
fifteenth century. 

Museum at Erhach. 

Fagecmt Shields. 


70. German pageant shield of the sixteenth century, made at Augsburg. 
It is ornamented with medallions and trophies in embossed work, 
very beautifully executed. The fringe all round is fastened with 
screws and is quilted at the back. 

Ambras Collection, Vienna, 


Pageant Shields. 

71. German pageant shield of the sixteenth century, probably made at 
Augsburg. The ornaments on this shield, which are very beautiful, 
indicate by their workmanship that the shield was made at the 
end of the sixteenth century or beginning of the seventeenth. 
The trophies are like the work of the French artists of the reign 
of Henri IV. 

Amhras Collection, Vienna. 


Pageant Shieldi^. 

Pageant Shields. 307 

German pageant shield in embossed iron, of the sixteenth century ; 
it belonged to Charles V. This piece of defensive aimour, which is 
one of the most perfect specimens of this style of German art, has been 
several times counterfeited and sold at a high price to purchasers who 
have not seen the original. One of these imitations was brought into 
France and purchased by the late Baron o£ Mazis, to whom it had been 
represented as a first-rate Italian work of art. The real shield, which 
is in the Ambras Collection, is, however, characterized by a beauty 
of design and a delicacy of workmanship which disheartens even the 
cleverest imitators. The subjoined sketch gives but a very imperfect 
idea of the beauty of this artistic work. 

It has been already stated that these sorts of arms were not iutended 
as instruments of warfare, but only to be worn on gala days, when the 
nobles rivalled one another in the magnificence and artistic richness of 
their equipments. 

Italy was especially famous for this kind of work during the whole 
period of the Eenaissance, and her most favoured and celebrated 
artists furnished designs, and often themselves manufactured these 
splendid arms, which now embellish collections by their beauty of 
design and exquisite finish, but which hardly answer the purpose for 
which weapons are generally made. 


Pageant Shields. 

German pageant shield in embossed iron, of the sixteenth century. 
Its execution is of the most finished nature, and the design may be taken 
as a characteristic type of a master engraver's composition in Germany 
at tliat period. 

Ambras Collection at Vienna, 







The history of the changes in armour during the Middle 
Ages, the Eenaissance, and the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries has been already treated of in the second chapter 
of this work, but the different kinds of armour have yet to 
be described. 

The coat of mail (from the German Kutte), which preceded 
the armour composed of plates, either of leather or steel, was 
called hauberk (from the the German Halsberge), neck-pro- 
tector ; it was also called Briinne, Brunica, and Panzerhemd. 
The small hauberk, which afterwards became the dress of the 
squire or of the poorer class of gentlemen, was in the eighth 
century worn by all knights, as the Godex Aureus of Saint 
Gall bears evidence. This hauberk was a kind of jacket in 
scales, which did not descend much lower than the hips, the 
sleeves of which were rather loose, and ended before reaching 
the elbow. The large hauberk, in the shape of a frock, and 
with the " camail " or hood, at first reached just to the knee, 
and the sleeves or loose arm-guards a little below the elbow, 
like the hauberk represented in the Martyrology, a manu- 
script of the tenth century in the Library of Stuttgard, and 
also in the Aelfric, an Anglo-Saxon manuscript of the 
eleventh century in the Library of the British Museum. 
As for the equipment of the German knight in the " Jeremias 
Apocalypsis" of the eleventh century, in the Library of 
Darmstadt, it is a hundred and fifty years in advance of 
what we know to have been worn at that time ; for according 
to the embroidery on the mitre of Seligenthal and the Bayeux 
tapestry, which are both of the eleventh century, the large 
hauberk, which the " Jeremias " represents as having already 
long sleeves, with hose and leggings in separate pieces, was 
stUl worn in all other countries perfectly close-fitting, the 
leggings in one piece with the hauberk, and the sleeves 
short. The defensive armour of this German knight in the 
" Jeremias " of the eleventh century does not appear either 
in England, France, or Spain, until the twelfth, when similar 

310 Coats and Cuirasses. 

costumes may be seen on the seals of Eichard I., Cceur de 
Lion (1157-1173), of Louis VII. the younger (1137-1180), 
and of the Count of Barcelona, Don Eamon Berenger IV. 

The hauberk, before the use of mail became universal, was 
made in many different ways. The most ancient was 
probably the ringed hauberk [Beringt), in which the defence 
consisted of rings of metal sewed flatly, side by side, on 
coarse leather, or padded stuff. The "rustred" hauberk 
(Bekettet) was protected by oval flattened rings, overlapping 
each other half way. 

The " macled " coat (BescMldet) was composed of small 
lozenge-shaped plates of metal. 

The trellised coat (Benagelt) was made of leathern thongs 
trellised in and out over the stuff or skin of which the coat 
was composed ; each interstice was strengthened with a 
riveted nail-head. 

The "jazeran," or "korazin,"* was the large imbricated 
hauberk, that is to say, covered with overlapping (Oeschuppt) 
plates, like the small hauberk of the eighth century, of 
which we have already spoken. 

The coat of mail, or chain mail hauberk (Keiten, or 
MaschenpanzerJiemd), was composed entirely of mail, gene- 
rally in iron, without a lining of leather or stuff, and with- 
out either a right or wrong side ; it thus formed a complete 
tissue of iron which might be put on like a shirt, the rings of 
which were riveted piece by piece, and were called grains d'orge. 

There are two kinds of this work, the single and double 
mail ; Chambly (Oise) was celebrated for the manufacture 
of the latter. The double mail, like the single, always 
shows us each ring joined to four others. 

The coat of mail in France dates much farther back than 
the time of the Crusades, to which date most compilers con- 
sider it incumbent on them to assign it. It was not the 
Crusaders who, on their return from Jerusalem, were the first 
to introduce it into their country ; the coat of mail was well 
known before the eleventh century. The Byzantine prin- 
cess Anna Conmena was acquainted with it only from 
seeing it worn by northern warriors. (See her Memoirs.) 

* The name is probably derived from Khorassan, a country in tlia 
Empire of Persia, 

Coats and Cuirasses. 311 

The coat of mail is still worn by the Indians, Persians, 
Chinese, Japanese, Mongols, Mahrattas, Poly gars, Cir- 
cassians, and other people whose civilisation is still rather 
backward. These coats are often without rivets, like the 
counterfeit Parisian coats, but there are also riveted coats of 
Persian and Circassian manufacture ; all this, however, has 
no interest in an archseologioal point of view. 

The "jacket" was a kind of small hauberk, not descending 
farther than the hips, and made in various ways, like the 
large hauberk. 

The " brigantine " was a jacket composed of small plates 
of metal, somewhat in the style of the macled coats, and im- 
bricated ; these plates were riveted underneath the stuff, so 
that the outside, generally made of velvet, lined with linen, 
shows a quantity of small rivets, like copper-headed nails ; 
thus the armour is next the body. The brigantine jacket 
(Italianische Panzerjacke) was most generally worn in Italy 
during the fifteenth century. It was the favourite coat of 
Charles the Bold. 

By the gamboison, or gambeson, was meant the doublet of 
leather or linen cloth without sleeves, and quilted so that it 
was entirely covered with stitches. The high gamboison, 
with cuishes and leggings, which ia the fourteenth century 
was worn under the earliest suits of plate armour, and the 
only specimen of which is at present in the Museum of 
Munich, was also in leather or linen lightly quilted, and was 
worn with the breastplate, waist-piece, and the sides of the knee- 
plates armed with mail, so as to compensate for the defects of 
the armour. The bishop's mantle, or mailed cape, was often 
worn over the cuirass, particidarly in Italy during the 
fifteenth century. 

The cuirass (Kiirass), from the Italian word corazza, de- 
rived from the Latin corium, probably on account of the first 
Roman cuirasses having been made of leather, was composed 
of two pieces : the breastplate (JBrustplMte), to protect the 
chest ; and the back-plate (Suchenplatte), to protect the back. 
The line down the centre of the breastplate is called tapul 
(Graete), centre-ridge, or salient ridge. 

The breast- and back-plate are generally fastened together 
by leather straps passing over the shoulder and gorget. 
The shape of the cuirass, as also of the other pieces 

312 Ooais and Cuirasses. 

of a suit, always enable us to fix its date and place of 
manufacture with tolerable certainty. The Gothic breast- 
plates, as well as those of the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, are sometimes pointed, and sometimes more or less 
rounded, but generally imitate the peaceful costume of their 
respective times. 

The reader will find fuller information respecting ths 
various changes undergone by the cuirass in the historical 
chapter, as well as in that one which treats of armour in 
general, while the engravings in the present chapter repre- 
sent in their order of date all the diiferent sorts of cuirasses 
in use up to the time of their being superseded (from about 
1620 — 1660) by buff coats or jerkins (German, Koller ; 
French, huffletin), an article of costume made generally of 
deer-slan, and furnished with a metal gorget. 

Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. 


1. Specimen of the ringed coat 
{Beringf), composed of flat 
rings sewed side by side on 
quilted linen or leather. 

This kind of coat is very 
difiBcult, if not impossible, to 
distinguish from the macled 
coat, in the illuminations of 
different manuscripts. (See 
plate No. 4.) 


^- ^- -^ .. i 

2. Specimen of rustred coat 
{Bekettet). Here the flat rings 
are oval, and overlap each other 
half wp.y. 

This sort of coat, in which 
the rings do not really interlace, 
is represented in illuminations 
as actual chain armour. 

S. Specimen of macled coat (Bs- 
schiidef). This is composed of 
small lozenge-shaped plates of 
metal, sewed on a foundation 
of cloth or leather, and some- 
times overlapping each other 
half way. 


Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. 

Specimen of trellised coat ( Oegit- 
tert and also Benagelf). Thia 
coat is made both of quilted 
linen and skin, strengthened 
with straps of thick leather, 
placed trellis-wise ; each square 
is armed with a riveted nail- 
head. It is difficult, in the 
illuminations on manuscripts, 
to distinguish the trellised from 
the ringed coat. 

Specimen of sealed or imhricated 
coat (^Gesclmppf). It is also 
called jazeran and Tiorazin. 
The armour consists of scales 
of metal sewed by rows, so as to 
overlap each other, on quilted 
linen or on leather. 

Specimen of coat of mail in 
riveted rings, called grains 
d'orge {Genietetes Ketten or 
Maschengewebe). Being entirely 
formed of metal rings, the coat 
of mail has neither wrong side 
nor lining. 

Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. 

Small hauberk or jacket * of the 7 

eighth centuiy (Kleinea Panzer- 
liemd) in overlapping scales of 
metal, a kind of armour which 
is known under the name of 
jazeraii or korazin, a name pro- 
bably derived from Khorassan, 
a country in the Persian Em- 
pire. Codes Aureus of Saint ' 
Gall, eighth century. 


8. Great hauberk (Brunne or Ganzes 

Fanzerliemd), ringed. From 
the Martyrologium, a manu- 
script of the tenth century, in 
the library at Stuttgard. It 
has the camail and close-fitting 
short sleeves. 

9. Great Norman trellised hauberk 

of the eleventh centiuy. It has 
a movable camail and short 

Bayeux Tapestry. 

* Some coins of Magdeburg, 
dating about 1150 — 1160, as well as 
some older coins of Germany, have 
representations of coats engraved on 
them, on which we can easily re- 
cognize the imbricated or cuiTed 
scales of far larger dimensions 
which formed the material of the 
hauberks of the knights painted 
on the walls of the Cathedral of 
Brunswick in the eleventh century. 
I'he earliest instance of an imbri- 
cated hauberk is one in the Codex 
Aureus of Saint Gall, about the 
eighth or ninth century, represented 


Goats of Arms of the Middle Ages. 


11. German hauberk of the eleventh 
century, with fixed hood, 
cnisses, and leggings, from the 
Jeretnias Apocalypsis, pre- 
served in the library at Darm- 

12. Gamboison, or gambeson 
(^Oeolirter leinener Unter- 
panzer). A sort of coat or 
jacket of the sixteenth century, 
made of linen quilted and 
embroidered. The gamboiaon 
was generally worn under the 

Cluny Museum, and Benn^ Collection 
at Constance. 

]3. Gamboison of the fourteenth 
century, vrith fllxed cuisses 
and legging. It is of quilted 
linen, fitted with mail at the 
breast, waist and knees. 

The only known specimen, 
fi'om which this di'awing has 
been taken, is in the Museum 
of Munich. 

14. Venetian mail cape, called 
bishop's mantle (Bischofi 
Mantel), with which the Doges 
were armed ; it was also worn 
in Germany during the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth centuries. 
Eenne Collection at Constance, 
but supposed to have come 
from the Dresden Museum. 

Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. 


15. Gorget wiih sleeves in chain 

mail, of the fifteenth centuiy. 

Dresden Museum. 

16. Brigantine jacket (ItaUanisclie 
Panzerjache) of the fifteenth 
century. The trilobed scales. 
No. 17, are stamped with the 
fleur-de-lys, and riveted, over- 
lapping each other on the 
velvet doublet of which they 
form a metal lining. 

Museum of Darmstadt. 

17. Trilobed scale of armour be- 

longing to the above described 
brigantine, nearly the actual 

18. Scales of a brigantine, stamped 

with hons (probably the ar- 
mourer's mart), in the au- 
thor's collection. Many 
museums and collections have 
exhibited this piece of defen- 
sive armour on the wrong 
side. The error arises from 
presuming that the stuif, 
whether velvet or linen, should 
be worn next the body. The 
curve of the scales, however, 
shows on which side the brig- 
antine was worn. This mis- 
take is found in the Museums 
of Dresden, Cluny, the Ambras 
Collection, etc. 


Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. 

19. Breastplate of brigantine, fif- 
teenth century, composed of 
small plates of steel. It is 
exhibited in the Cluny Mu- 
seum on the reverse side, as it 
is here drawn. 

20. Brigantine of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, composed of small steel 
plates, exhibited on the reverse 
side at the Muse'e d'Artillerie, 
Paris. No. 127. Similar 
specimens may be seen in the 
Museums of Sigmaringen and 

21. Brigantine of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, composed of trefoil- 
shaped imbricated scales. 
This specimen is remarkable 
on account of its waist-piece, 
which protects the thighs be- 
low the hips. Dresden Mu- 
seum. The Ambras Collection 
also possesses a similar brigan- 
tine, and both museums have 
exhibited it on the reverse 

Coats of Arms of the Middle Ages. 



22. Jacket in imbricated plates of 
steel, with collar and arm- 
guards in chaia mail, fifteenth 
century. The scales of this 
armour are not riveted on to 
any material, like the brigan- 
tine, but riveted to one 
another, with lining of stuff or 
skin, so that it resembles a 
coat of mail. 

Erbaoh OoUeoMon. 

23. Scales of the preceding jacket, I '^-' '-^ ' Nj— '-> 
drawn half their actual size, I — y — ^ y -^ — & — IU-, 

Coat of mail of Jean Ziska (died 
1424), from an old picture, 
probably painted &om a draw- 
ing of that time, and preserved 
in the library at Geneva. The 
coat and breastplate are in 
iron, but the mail of the gorget 
and the surrounding rims are 
of copper. 


Different Goats of Arms. 

25. Coat in steel plates, &om a 

Persian manuscript of about 
1600. This copy of the 
Schah Nameh, or Boyal Book, 
a poem composed by Ferdusi 
in the reign of Mahommed 
the Gaznevide (999), is orna- 
mented with 215 beautiful 
illuminations, and is exhibited 
in the library at Mimich. 

26. Persian hauberk in chain mail, 

with sleeves, cuisses, and leg- 
gings, from the same manu- 

27. Polished steel plate or scale, 
rather smaller than the actual 
size, from the jazeran or im- 
bricated jacket of Sobieski 
(1648 to 1696), exhibited in 
the Dresden Museum. Many 
of these scales are ornamented 
with crosses in gilded copper, 
which are riveted on. See in 
the chapter on helmets the 
pot-helm belonging to this 
same suit. 

28. Mongolian coat of steel plate 
armour. Early part of the 
eighteenth century. The 
links are without rivets. 

G. 138, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Different Coais of A 



29. Polygar coat of mail. Meyrick 
Collection. This armovir is 
remai'kable on account of tlie 
points round the collar de- 
scending on to the shoulders. 


30. Indian coat. Meyrick Collection. 
The straight coUar appears to 
indicate a comparatively 
modern origin. 

31. Indian coat in rhinoceros hide.* 
This armour, which is orna- 
mented with inlaid plates, has 
a very modem, and far &om 
graceful character about it. 
The Musee d'Aitillerie at 
Paris possesses a few similar 
Eastern coats. 

Meyrick Collection. 

* According to the Meyrick 
Catalogue, this kind of armour 
is manufactured at Mundavien, in 
the GuH of Cutoh, in Western India. 
The coats, like the round bucklers, 
are made with rhinoceros and buflalo 
hides, boiled in oil. 





Coats of Arms and Cuirasses. 

32. Saracenic coat of mail; sixteenth 
century; back view. It is 
doubled at the back mth a 
plain and pointed hood, whicli 
serves both as a protection to 
the shoulders and also as a 
" camail," or hood. This coat, 
exhibited in the Mus^e d'Ar- 
tillerie, Paris, is short, reaching 
only a little below the hips. 

33. Gothic cuirass with salient ridge 
(Graete) and lance rest; fif- 
teenth century. Ambras Col- 
lection. This is the most ele- 
gant form of cuirass. 

34. Gothic cuirass, fifteenth century, 
without lance rest, with scaled 
back plate and waist-piece. 

Arsenal of Zurich. 

85. Cuirass with salient ridge, fif- 
teenth century, in iron, and 
very heavy, covered with red 
velvet, and studded with iron- 
headed nails. 
National Museum of Bavaria, at 


36. Gothic cuirass without salient ridge, 
very rounded, and believed to belong 
to a German suit, end of the fifteenth 
century. Arsenals of lyraYimiHaTi I., 
from drawings by Glockenthon in 

Ambras Collection. 

37. Semi-rounded cuirass without topid, 
or saUeni lidge, of a Grerman suit, 
in embossed iron ; end of the fifteenth 

Meyrich CoUecHotu 

88. Semi-rounded cuirass without fopuZ, 
but with lance rest, of a German 
fluted suit; end of the fifteenth century. 
It is called " Maximilienne " and 
Milanese ; the shape is very beautiful, 
the waist-piece large, and does not 
end with the tassets, as is tisnally the 
case, the tassets in this instance being 
joined to the rest of the suit. 

Arsenai of Vienna. 

39. Semi-rounded cuirass without tapvl, 
part of a German suit ; end of the 
fifteenth and beginning of the six- 
teenth century. 

6. 6, Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris, and also in 
the Collection of the Count of Nieuwerkerlce. 





40. Semi-roimded cuirass with taptil 
and waist-piece ; first half of the 
sixteenth century ; part of a Ger- 
man suit of armour belonging to 
the Landgrave Philip the Mag- 
nanimous (died 1567). 

41. Semi-rounded cuirass with tofpul 
and lanee rest ; first half of the 
sixteenth century ; part of a suit 
belonging to a knight of the ord» 
of St. George. 

Meyrick Collection. 

42. Cuirass with lance rest, but without 
tapvl; pait of a German suit; 
middle of the sixteenth century. 
Coimt of Nieuwerkerke's Collec- 
tion. In the arsenal of the city, 
Vienna, there are many similar 
suits, which formerly belonged to 
the civic troops of this town, and 
all bear the date 1546. 

43. Cuirass withiopoZ; part of a Nu- 
remberg suit, of the year 1570. 

Imperial Arsenal of ViemtM. 




a. Italian engraved cnirass with iapul ; 
end of the sixteenth century. 

Arribras CoUeotion.* 

45. Onirass in plates, and with Uqml, 
peascod-shaped, or like a Punch's 
hump (Gdnseiauch) ; end of tlie 
reign of Henry lU. (1589). 

46. Peascod-shaped cuirass with tapul, 
and long lobster - shell cuissL-s 
instead of tassets. Eeign of 
Louis Xm. (1610-1643). 

47. Italian cuirass with buttons and 

peascod-shaped tapul. 
Count of Nieiiwerkerhe's Collection, and 
M. Sbter's Collection at Augsburg. 

* The cuirass of the suit of armour 
in the Louvre, attributed to Henry IV. 
of Prance, is of a similar shape ; the 
waist-piece is composed of three large 
metal plates. 

Cuirasses and Buff Coats. 

48. Half armour in engraved iron, 

ornamented with gilt nails; 
latter lialf of the seventeenth 
century; preserved at the 
Arsenal of Soleure, where it is 
wrongly attributed to Vengli 

49. Cuirass in plates belonging to a 

German Beiter ; middle of the 
seventeenth century. Some 
German authors have called 
these suits of plate or scaled 
armour Krehse, or crabs. 

50. Buif coat (Kollerr, German ; 

huffletin, French), of deer- 
skin ; time of the Thirty Years' 
War, and reign of Louis XIII. 
of France (1618 — 1640). 
G. 162, Muse'e d'ArtiUerie, 
Paris. The Imperial Arsenal 
of Vienna possesses the buff 
coat which Gustavus Adolphus 
wore when killed at the battle 
of Lutzen. 

51. OoUar in russet steel belonging 
to the buff coat No. 50. 

52. Cuirassier's buff 
sleeves, of 1650. 

coat with 



.'.3. Persian leather cuirass, probably 
of the sixteenth or seventeenth 
century. This piece of armour, 
which is inlaid and quilted, 
resembles very much the 
cuirasses of the janissaries, 
mentioned below. 

MeyricTc CoUection. 

54. Janissary's* cuirass; sixteenth 
century. G. ISi, Muse'e 
d'ArtUlerie, Palis. This piece 
of armour is stamped with a 
mark, which is drawn near 
plate 53. Tliis is the mono- 
gram or device by which the 
Turks represent the name of 
Allah (God). See the obser- 
vation concerning this mai'k 
in the chapter on shields. 

55. Janissary's cuu'ass; seventeenth 
century. G. 133, Muse'e 
d'Artillerie, Paris. Same ob- 
servations as the preceding 

* The janissaries (a name derived 
from the two Turkish words, ieni 
Icheri, signifying new soldiers) com- 
posed the infantry of the Ttrrkish 
militia. They were organised in 
1362 by Amnrath I , and almost all 
mass.-.cred in 1826. 




The arm-guard, properly so called (German, Armschiene ; 
French, hrassard), did not form any essential part of ancient 
armour; but it has been ascertained to have been in some 
instances used by the ancient nations as well as by bar- 
barians during the brazen age ; it was then in the form of a 
screw, as already shown above. 

During that part of the Middle Ages when plate armour was 
not yet invented, the coat of mail often had sleeves which 
formed a protection for the arm. These terminated in the 
chain mail mitten, or gauntlet without fingers, and were 
superseded at first by boiled leather plates, and later by 
steel ones. There were both single and double arm-guards, 
and also the arm-guard complete, which protected the upper 
and lower portion of the arm, and was joined together 
by the elbow-piece. The large tilting arm-guards of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were used only for the left 
arm, and had often a fixed gauntlet without joints ; they were 
generally worn instead of the manteau d'armes. The shape, 
and size of the elbow and shoulder pieces are always a help 
towards recognising the date of a complete arm-guard, which 
was generally hinged, and protected the arm entirely. 



Arm-guard with mitten (^Arm- 
schutz mit Maschen-Fausthand- 
schuli) of a coat of mail. 

"2. Complete Gothic arm-guard with 
elbow, upper arm-piece, and 
gauntlet, jfrom a monument of 
1460 in Oxfordshire. The 
elbow-pieces are very large. 

Gothic arm-guard with elbow 
and upper arm-piece, to protect 
the upper and lower part of the 
arm; middle of the fifteenth 

4. Id., id. 

,5. Complete arm-guard, protecting, 
like the preceding ones, the 
upper and lower part of the 
arm. It is ornamented with 
bands of embossed work, which, 
as well as the shape of the 
elbow-piece, indicate the end of 
the fifteenth century or the 
beginning of the sixteenth, for 
these kinds of armour were 
■contemporaneous with the 
fluted suits called Maximilian 
and Milanese armour. 



Arm-guard, with elbow and 
upper arm-piece ; part of a fluted, 
or Maximilian, suit of armour ; 
end of the fifteenth, or begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. 

7. Ann-guard, with elbow and upper 
arm-piece ; end of the sixteenth 

8. Lower-arm guard : the inner 
arm-plate is pierced with eight 
square holes. 
Spenfjel Collection at Munich, 

9. German tilting arm-guard, with 
mitten, for the left hand ; end oJ 
the fifteenth century. 

10. German tilting arm-guard, with 
mitten, for the left hand ; be- 
ginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. All these guards protect 
the upper and lower arm. 



The shape of the gauntlet or armed glovo (Kampfhandgchuk 
or Gefingerte Handtatze in. German), which covered not only 
the hand, but part of the arm, is, as well as the soleret or 
shoe, a great help towards the classification of a suit of 
armour, for hoth one and the other have undergone great 
changes. It appears to be tolerably certain that the use of 
the gauntlet proper does not date farther back than the end 
of the thirteenth century. The Martyrologium, the Pruden- 
tius Psychomachia, the Biblia Sacra, the Aelfric, the Jere- 
mias Apocalypsis, the embroidery on the mitre of Seligenthal,. 
and the Bayeux tapestry, authorities which have already 
been cited, and which date from the ninth to the end of 
the eleventh century, always represent the warrior with bare 
hands, but the seal of Eichard Coeur de Lion (1157-1173) 
shows the hand of the king already protected by a sort of 
continuation of the chain mail sleeve, forming a bag or 
mitten, in which the thumb alone has a separate place. A 
warrior in the illustrations of the German .^Ineid of Henry 
of Waldeck, thirteenth century, with a crested heaume, and 
riding a horse covered with ringed or trellised armour, has 
the hand covered with a mail mitten, or with a continuation 
of the sleeve of the coat, which seems to be trellised if not 
already plated. 

The first real gauntlet had separate fingers, and was 
covered with scales, plates, or some other overlapping plates 
of iron; the back of the hand was protected by a plate of 
metal or leather, such as is represented on the tombstone 
of the King of the Eomans, Giinther of Schwarzburg, carved 
in 1352, in the Cathedral of Frankfort, where this prince 
was poisoned in 1349. We recognise this kind of gauntlet 
in an Italian painting of the fourteenth century, in the pos- 
session of M. Odet at Sitten. The illuminations in a manu- 
script of Eoman history preserved in the Library of the 
Arsenal at Paris, probably executed at the beginning of the 
fifteenth century for the Duke of Burgundy, still represent 
all the men-at-aims with their hands protected only by 
the mitten, made by a continuation of the mail sleeve, which' 

332 The Gauntlet. 

shows how far the Burgundian equipment was behind that of 
other nations. 

The mitten (Fausthandsclmh'), a kind of gauntlet in which 
the fingers were not separated, and with plates of steel placed 
so as to move with the principal movements of the hand, 
makes its appearance in the fifteenth century. The armour 
of Joan of Arc, in the catalogue of Dezest, the bronze 
statuette of William VI. (1404-1417) at Amsterdam, and 
the armour of Frederick I., Palatine of the Ehine, preserved 
in the Ambras Collection at Vienna, show that the mitten 
was everywhere used during the first half of the fifteenth 
century, but it is to the articulated gauntlet that Bayard's 
favourite proverb applies, " Co que gantelet gagne, gorgerin 
le mange," also the terms of " throwing the gauntlet " 
and " raising the gauntlet," which in the fifteenth centui'y 
occur in the French language. 

There are, however, some German suits of armour where 
the gauntlets have already separate spaces for the iingers, 
like those in the Museum of Sigmaringen, and a largo 
number of suits of the second half of the fifteenth and be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century, more especially tilting suits, 
are provided with mittens. See the harness of Maximilian I. 
(1459-1519) in the Ambras Collection and in the Imperial 
Arsenal of Vienna. 

The articulated gauntlet came into general use towards the 
end of the fifteenth, and not in the middle of the sixteenth 
century, at the time when the pistol made its appearance, as 
compilers insist ; nevertheless almost all the fluted suits of 
armour have the inarticulated gauntlet. The gauntlet with 
separate fingers — in which the fore-finger has fifteen, the 
ring finger sixteen, and the middle finger has twenty-two 
small plates or scales, while the reverse or outside of the 
glove is composed only of three or four plates — was in use 
contemporaneously with the mitten, but after a little while 
this latter fell into disuse and disappeared. Several of these 
gauntlets were provided with a screw ring on a pivot, by 
which means the closed hand might be fixed on to the sword 
or handle of the hammer, like the curious specimen which 
the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna possesses, and which forms 
.part of a suit of armour attributed to Charles V. 

Several of these iron gauntlets are studded with nail-heads 

Tlie GamdU. 333 

placed on the outside of the glove, and in inverted positions, 
but the reason of these excrescences is not known to us.* 

The tilting gauntlet arm-guaid, for the left arm, was a 
piece of defensive armour which belonged to the latter half 
of the fifteenth century. About a hundred years later were 
worn the " gauntlet tilting shield," the " sword gauntlet," 
and the " gauntlet for bear-hunting." The last articulated 
gauntlet was soon afterwards replaced by the glove with 
deerskin gauntlet, such as was worn during the Thirty 
Years' War. 

In England, however, during part of the seventeenth 
century, gloves armed with scales were worn ; a specimen of 
which is to be found in the Meyrick Collection. 

* They served probably to inoreaee the power of a blow from the fist, 
being analogous to the cestus of classic, or " knuckle-duster " of modem 
times. — Tkai^slatoe. 



1. Gauntlet witli Beparately articu- 
lated fingers (Gefingerter 
Kampfhandschuhf or GejiTir 
gerte IMze), fiom the monu- 
ment of the Koman king, Giin- 
ther of Schwarzburg, erected in 
1352, in the Cathedral of 

2. Mitten (FaustliandsAuk), fif- 
teenth century ; the thumb alone 
is separate. 

yv <ZZ^ 2- Mitten gauntlet, in which the 

^^^^^I-'oTT^ fingers are indicated ; latter hall 

of the fifteenth century. 

4. Mitten gauntlet. 

5. Id,, id. 

Collection of Baron des Mcais, 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

6. German gauntlet; first half ol 
the fifteenth century. 



Articulated gauntlet, sixteenth 
century, -whioh closes by means 
of a screw-ring and pivot. It 
belongs to a suit of armour in 
the Imperial Ai-senal at Vienna. 

8. German articulated gauntlet ; 
middle of the fifteenth century. 

9. Mitten gauntlet of a fluted 
" Maximilian " armour ; latter 
lialf of the fifteenth century.* 
Author's Collection. 

10. Articulated gauntlet of a fluted 

"Maximilian" armour; begin- 
ning of the sixteen til centmy. 

11. Gauntlet of a German Reiter ; 

beginning of the seventeenth 

12. English gauntlet in deerskin 

covered with scales; seven- 
teenth century. 

• The fluted ai-mour of the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century 
has generally ai-ticulated gauntltts, 
and the beax's paw-shaped soleret. 
(See Nos. 11 and 13 in the chapter 
on Solerets.) 




13. Gauntlet of the sixteenth century, inj 
iron, for the left hand, used in bear- 
hunting. It is armed with darts, and 
two daggers sharpened like a saw. 
The weapon is more fanciful than 
useful, and most probably extremely 
local, as it is very seldom met with. 

Amhras Collection. 

14. German gauntlet, in iron, for the left 
hand, with a large arm-guard, or small 
buckler, and a sword fastened to it. 
This gauntlet, of the sixteenth century, 
appears also to have been intended for 
bear-hunting. These pieces of armour 
are very rare ; they must have been 
very little known, and probably only 
in the North. 





All the marrasoripts of the eighth to the tenth century 
show the warrior without either leggings or greaves (Bein- 
schienen and Kettensiriimpfe), and if he be not represented 
without any protection whatever on the legs, he has them 
bound only with thongs of leather. Even in the Bayeux 
tapestries, which nevertheless do not date farther back than 
the end of the eleventh century, William the Conc[ueror 
alone has the lower part of the legs protected, while 
none of his warriors wear leggings, either of mail or other 
materials. Dating from the eleventh century, cuishes and 
leggings with foot-soles of one piece are almost invariably 
nmde of iron chain-mail. 

Towards the end of the thirteenth century the first plated 
greaves appeared in France (Beinschienen in German, and 
tumdieres or greves in French), the buckled knee-caps {Knie- 
stiicke), and the cuishes (JD^ing. or Schenhelschienen) : they 
were at first made in boiled leather, and afterwards in iron 
or steel. In Grermany, greaves and solerets had already 
appeared at the close of the eleventh century, as the monu- 
ment at Merseburg shows. 

At first only the front of the leg was protected by the 
plaite, which was fastened by thongs on the chain-mail 
legging. The tombstone of Sir Hugh Hastings, erected in 
1347, seems to prove that the English knight of that 
period still wore the leggings and greaves in mail, while the 
monument of Merseburg, of the eleventh century; the 
miniatures on a manuscript in the Library of Berlin, of the 
thirteenth century; and the "Lancelot of the Lake," 1360, 
already depict the plate armour which Germany and Switzer- 
land appear to have been the first to adopt ; for after the 
Merseburg monument and the thirteenth-century manuscript 
at Berlin, the tomb of Berthold, who died in 1258, offers the 
most ancient evidence, on which this novel kind of armour 
is represented. 

The solerets (EisenschuTi) were articulated plates or cover- 
ings for the feet in iron ; liey do not appear to date farther 

338 Leggings. 

than the beginning of the fourteenth century. The shoes 
which Eodolph the Swabian wears on a monument of 1080 in 
the Cathedral of Merseburg do not show any plates. The 
first known soleret is pointed, like the soleret " a la pou- 
laine " (so called from poulaine, the prow of a galley), and 
which is wrongly considered to belong only to the fifteenth 

An incontrovertible proof that this fashion already existed 
in the twelfth century is found in the memoirs of the 
Byzantine princess Anna Conmena (1080-1148), where the 
authoress says, " the Frank is terrible when on horseback, 
but should he fall, the knight scarcely appears the same 
person, so weighted is he by his shield, and the long-pointed 
shoes, which prevent his walking, and render him an easy 
prisoner." The German manuscript of the thirteenth 
century, " Tristan and Isolde," also depicts the knights with 
shoes a la poulaine, a fashion which came originally from 
Hungary, where it universally prevailed during the twelfth 
century. It is, however, also attributed to Falco TV., Count 
of Anjou (1087), and to Henry II. (1154-1189) of England, 
who adopted it to hide a deformity, which gave him the 
name of Oornadu or Oornatus. At the battle of Sempach 
(1386)the knights after dismounting from horseback cut off the 
long ends of their solerets. The shoe "a la poulaine," which had 
disappeared towards the middle of the fourteenth century, to 
make way for the " demi-poulaine " or " ogivale de lancette," 
reappears towards the end of this century, and reigns anew 
during the fourteenth, in which century, however, from 1440 
to 1470, was worn also the shape "arc tiers point," and 
towards 1485 the "demi-sabot" or the " demi pied d'ours." 
The " sabot " or " pied d'ours," a style belonging to the 
fluted armour, was worn from 1490 to 1560, and was followed 
by the " bee de cane." This last soleret was replaced by 
the boot and top-boot. The knowledge of the differently 
shaped foot-coverings adopted by the Christians in Europe 
during the different periods of the Middle Ages and Ee- 
naissance are highly important for the classification of 
sculptures, miniatures, and arms, for military equipment has 
always been subject to the influences of fashion which governs 
civil costumes. 

Leggings, Thonged and Mailed. 


1. Legging bound with thongs, in 

use before the eleventh century. 

2. lion mail legging, which belongs 

to the beginning of the eleventh 
century, and disappears partly 
at the beginning of the thir- 
teenth, when it is replaced by 
the greaved soleret. 

3. First greaved soleret known, from 

the tomb of Eodolph the 
Swabian, 1080, in the Cathedral 
of Merseburg. 

i. Soleret "k la poulaiue," of the 
twelfth, thirteenth, and first 
half of the fourteenth century. 

5. Soleret " demi-poulaine " or ogi- 
vale lancette ; end of the four- 
teenth century. 

6 and 7. Solerefa "k la poulaine; 
tfteenth century. 

Greaves and Solerets. 


Soleret "arc tiers point," w^ra 
from 1450 to 1485. 

9. Soleret, middle of the fifteenth 
century, from bas - reliefs in 
marble on the triumphal arch 
of Alphonso v.. King of Arra- 
gon, at Naples, erected on hia 
entry there, in 1443. This same 
shape of iron shoe may be seen 
also on a piece of earthenware 
of Nuremberg which forms part 
of the author's collection, and 
the subject of which represents 

10. Grca¥e with soleret " demi- 
sabot," in use about 1480 and 
1485 : it forms part of a German 
fluted suit, called " Maximi- 
lian," in the author's collection. 
The mitten gauntlets of this 
suit, as well as the shape of 
the soleret, indicate the end 
of the fifteenth, and slightly 
the beginning of the sixteenth 

11. " Sabot," or bear's piw-shaped 

soleret, sixteenth century 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

12. Persian greave, from a manu- 

script of the sixteenth century ; 
a copy of the Schah Nameli. 
Library of Munich, 


Greaves and Top-loots. 


13. G reave witli soleret shaped like 
a bear's paw, from a suit of 
Maximilian or MUanese ar- 
mour, in use &om 1490 to 

14. Greave with soleret hoc de cane, 
from a suit of armour in use 
about 1560. This kind of 
soleret must not be confovmded 
with those called ogivale tiers 
point of the fifteenth century. 

15. Top-boot of carabineer of 1680. 

16. French top-boot in leather of 
the reign of Louis XV. (1715 
—1774). They are in the 
shape of gaiters laced up one 
side, the tops being furnished 
with three buttons. They are 
square-toed and high-heeled; 
the spurs belong to the end of 
the reign of Louis XTV., and 
are very like those of Mexico. 

A. 325, MMsewm of Artillery, Farts. 



The spur, from the Italian sjierone, wliicli in the Middia 
Ages was called carcaire, from the the Latin calcar (German, 
Sporn), is composed of the shank (German, Biigel), the 
spur-neck (Hals in German), and the prick or rowel [Staehel 
or Mad in German). 

The spm- seems to have been first used by the Eomans, 
who introduced it most probably among the Gauls. Neither 
the horsemen on Assyrian bas-reliefs, nor those on Persian 
or Egyptian monuments, have spurs, while the Greeks of 
the Heroic Ages, who had neither cavalry nor even a verb 
in their language to express mounting on horseback, were 
also ignorant of this appliance. 

The most ancient spurs were those made with a single 
jioint of a conical shape, which was very thick and riveted on 
at right angles to the shank. About the tenth century the 
spur began to show a slighter and sharper point, towards 
the eleventh century it became longer, and in the twelfth 
century was curved upwards. The rowel we find in the 
thirteenth century. This wheel, by the number and lengtli 
of its points, indicates quite as well as the shank and point, 
the epoch to which the spur belongs. English heraldry con- 
siders the mullet or heraldic star to be derived from the five- 
pointed rowel of the spur, though most of these rowels belong 
to the seventeenth century, and in England the six-pointed 
rowel was unknown before the reign of Henry VI. (1422); 
but some are to be seen in the illmninations of the Hisioire 
Bomaine, a Burgundian MS. of the fifteenth century, at 
present in the Library of the Arsenal of Paris. 

In Germany as early as the fourteenth century the eight- 
pointed rowel was used, a fact proved by the spurs of that 
time that are in the National Museum of Munich, which 
belonged to the knights of Heideck and the Duke Albrecht II. 
of Bavaria. 

These spurs all show a wonderful degree of finish in their 
make, considering the early period at which they were manu- 
factured, and are also noticeable on account of the shape 
of their shank, which indicates that they were worn over 
an iron greave, of which the part covering the tendon 

The Spur. 343 

fonned an acnte angle. Before the time of greaves or plates, 
as also later, in the seventeenth century, when top-boots 
had difiplaced greaves, the branches of the spur were rounded. 

The spur-neck, which in the time when tournaments were 
most in fashion, about the fifteenth century, was extrava- 
gantly long, became shorter again in the sixteenth century, 
at which time spurs had often rowels of twelve, fifteen, and 
even eighteen points. 

The spur of the time of Louis XIII. was small and some- 
times embellished with perforations, whilst in the reign of 
Louis XIV. it was in the Mexican shape, with a large spur- 
neck cut in open-work and with very large rowels, generally 
of nine points. After the fifteenth century the number of 
the points cannot be taken always as a guide, as they varied 
according to the time and the coimtry. Of all accoutrements 
the spur is the most diMcult to classify in correct chrono- 
logic order. 



1 B and 2. German spurs in iron, of 
the eighth century, found at 
Grosohnowitz, near Oppeln. 

Museum of Berlin. 

1 A. Gold spur belonging to Char- 
Musewm of the Louvre, Paris. 

3. Danish spur in bronze, of the 
eighth century, with an ii-ou 

Museum of Copenhagen. 

4. German spuria iron, of the eighth 
century, found at Gnevikon in 

Museum of Berlin. 

5. German spur in iron, of the tenth 
century, found at Brandenburg. 

Author's Collection, 

6. Anglo-Saxon or Norman spur of 
the eleventh century. 

Tower of London. 

7. German spur of the tenth cen- 
tury, found at Constance. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

8. German spur in ii-on, of the 
eleventh century. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

9. German spur in iron, of the 
twelfth century, copied from 
the frescoes in the Cathedral at 
Brunswick, painted in the reign 
of Henry the Lion, who died in 

10. English spur, found at Cheater- 
ford ; twelfth century. 

Neioille Musewm at Audley End, 

11. Spur copied from a reliquary of 
the twelfth century, in the 
collection of the late King of 

12. Spur in iron, of the thirteenth 

Hanover Musewm, 

13. Swiss spur in iron, of the thir- 
teenth century, found in the lake of Morat. 

Gymnasium Collection ai Morat, 

Spurs. 34& 

14. German spur in iron, of the commenoement of the fourteenth 

century, found at Brandenburg. 

Author's CoUeclion. 

15. German spur of the end of the fourteenth century, with eight- 

pointed rowel, found in the tomb of a knight of Heideok. 

Museum of Munich. 

16. German spur of the end of the fourteenth century, with a twelve^ 

pointed rowel. It belonged to Duke Albrecht II. of Bavaria. 

Mneeum of Munich^ 



17. Italian spur in iron, of the four- 

teenth century. 

Musemm of Sigmaringen. 

18. German spur in iron, of the 

fourteenth century, found at 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

19. Spin in copper, of the foiuteenth 


Meyrick Collection. 

20. Spur in iron with a double 

neck, of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, found at Mayence. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

21. Spur in iron, of the fifteenth 

century, with six - pointed 
Widter Collection at Vienna. 

22. German spur in iron, of the 

fifteenth century, with eight- 
pointed rowel, found in the 
isle of Rijgen. 

Museum of Berlin. 

23. Spur in iron, of the end of the 

fifteenth century. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

24. Moorish spur of the fifteenth 

century. Museum of Artil- 
lery, Palis. Similar ones in 
the Amhras Collection are 
said to be of Polish origin, and 
of the sixteenth century. 

25. Spur with stirrup attached, in 

gilt copper, of the fifteenth 
century. It belonged to Duke 
Christopher of Bavaria, and is 
now in the Museum of 


S6. German spur in copper, about 
10 inches long, of the end of 
the fifteenth century. 
Soter and Ambras CoUedions. 

27. EngKsh spur in copper, about 5 

inches loug, of the end of the 
fifteenth century. 

Meyrick Collection. 

28. Spuringiltiron, of the sixteenth 


Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

29. Spur in iron, of tlie seven- 

teenth century, with rounded 

Mitseum of Sigmaringen. 

30. EngUsh spur in steel of the six- 

teenth century. 

Meyrick Collection. 

31. German spur in iron, of the 

sixteenth century. 

Mnsewm of Sigmaringen. 

32 A. English spur in gilt iron. It 

belonged to Ealph Sadler in 

the reign of Edward VI. (1547 


Meyrick Collection. 

32 B. German spur, copied from 
one on a suit of armour for a 
man on horseback. 

33. German spur, said to be of six- 

teenth-century date. It has 
three rowels, and is of a very 
rare shape. The author be- 
lieves it to be of the seven- 
teenth century on account of 
the rounded branchea 

34. Large spur in blackened iron, 

the branches of which are 
hollow, and served as a recep- 
tacle for concealed despatches. 
TheTieel of the shank, which 
imscrewed, formed the mouth. 

35. German spur of the sixteenth 

^ Museum of Dresden. 




36. English spur of the sixteenth or 
seventeenth century. In the 
Meyrick Collection it is said 
to be of the fifteenth ; but the 
shape of the hent branch ren- 
ders this unlikely. 

37. Spanish spur of the middle of 
the seventeenth centm-y, 
copied from a work by a 
Spaniard, in "which it is said 
to have belonged to Alphonso 
Perez de Guzman, who was 
bom in 1278, died in 1320 ; 
but at that time the rowel was 
much smaller, and had, in 
fact, barely come into use. 
The branches are rounded. 

38. English spur of the sixteenth 

Meyrick Colleciimi. 

39. Spur in gilt copper, of the six- 
teenth centuiy, wrongly attri- 
buted to Louis XIV. (1643— 

Museum of the Lmivre. 

40. Spm- in iron of the reign of 
Louis XIV. (1643—1715). It 
resembles the Mexican spurs. 

Author's Gollection. 

41. German spur in iron of the 
seventeenth century. 

Museum of Sigmaringen, 

42. English spur of the end of the 
seventeenth century, caUed 
gaiter spur. 

Meyrich Collection. 

43. Polish spur of the seventeenth 

Museums of Prague and Sig' 


a German spur of the sixteenth 

Museum of Berlin. 

45 A. Persian spur of the fifteenth 


Atdhor'i Collection,. 

46 B. German spur of the seven- 

teenth ceutuiy. The width 
and shape of the branches 
show that this spur belongs 
to a time when greaves were 
no longer worn. For the 
branches of the spurs which 
were worn over greaves formed 
an acute angle, and could not 
possibly be arched or curved, 

46. Ancient African spur in iron. 
This same kind is in use at 
the present day. 

47. Arab spur, in use at the present \ S 


48. Brazilian spur, in use at the 

present day. 



The horse-armour for battle and tournaments {Panzerdecke 
in German) is often vsrongly termed caparisons (deriTed from 
the Spanish word cape), a word which properly means only 
the rich coverings or housings spread over the back of the 
spare horse (destrier, from the Latin dextra), which was led 
along on the right hand by the squire. Horse-armour during 
the Middle Ages had not attained the same degree of perfec- 
tion as armour for men; it was not until the middle 
of the fifteenth century that it assimied the form of a com- 
plete equipment, which consisted of the chanfrein (German, 
Mosstirne), the part which covers the forehead of the horse 
(and which was either open or shut, i.e., with or without 
" blinkers," to prevent the horse from shying) ; the testiere. 

350 Horse-armour. 

or head-piece (German, Kopfstiick), a name whicli was given 
to the plate whicli covered the juncture of the chanfrein, 
neck-armour, and jaw-plates, and was also sometimes applied 
to the whole head-armour of the steed ; the mane-armour 
(Mdhnewpanzer or Kammhappe in German ; French, harde de 
criniere) ; the poitrail (Brustpanzer or Vordergebiige in German), 
or breastplate, fitted either with hinges or like a flounce ; the 
crupper and thigh-pieces (German, Krupp und Lendenpanzer or 
Hintergebiige), which were either formed in one piece, which 
came all round like a flounce, or else in two pieces, that is 
to say, separated under the tail ; the rear-protector (German 
Schwanzriempanzer) ; the side pieces or flanchards (Flanhen- 
panzer or Seiienhlatter in German), which joined the front 
plate or breast-piece to the thigh-pieces and croupiere; the 
saddle with stirrups ; the bridle and bit ; the snafile bridle and 
bossettes* and the nose-band or horse-muzzle, which latter 
article was very much in vogue in Germany during the 
sixteenth century, and, according to the Diversarum gentium 
armatura equestris, a MS. of about 1617, was used by all the 
German cavalry. 

This assertion appears to be supported by doubtful 
authority ; for the muzzle, which was placed over the 
nostrils, was only an ornament, and could be of no use 
in war; most probably it was only used at festivals to 
heighten the beauty of the caparison, as proved by the 
drawings of Jobst Ammon in his Traite d'equitation civile. 
The German armourers had brought horse-armour to such a 
degree of perfection, that a picture of the year 1480, 
preserved in the Arsenal of Vienna, represents Master 
Albrecht, armourer to the Archduke Maximilian, mounted 
on a horse furnished with articulated greaves. 

At the commencement of the fourteenth century horse- 
armour was of mail, as in many countries that of man still 
was ; but it was covered over with a caparison of cloth. The 
chanfrein was known to the Greeks, but was not used in 
Europe tUl the end of the fourteenth or beginning of the 
fifteenth century, for before this date the head- stall of the 
horse is always represented as being made of mail, or of 
plates of boiled leather. 

* Bessettes : these are ornaments on the side of the bit. The name 
is also applied to the piece oi leather, or blinker, which covers the eyes 
of the mule. 



1. Head-stall (Kopf stuck) &om a 
MS. of the foniteentli ceutuiy. 

Head-stall of the fifteenth cen- 

3. Openchamfron(5oss-siirae)oftlie 
middle of the fifteenth century. 

i. Complete head-piece with open 

5. Closed chamfron, sixteenth cen- 


6. Open chamfron, sixteenth cen- 

tury, richly embossed. It 
is part of a set of horse- 
armour of the Imperial Arsenal 
of Vienna. The Meyriok and 
the Ambras Collections, the 
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna, 
the Armoury of Madrid, the 
Tower of London, the Mnseimi 
)f Artillery, the Collection of 
M. le Comte de Nieuwer- 
kerke, etc., all possess good 
specimens of this piece of the 
horse-armour, on which the 
makers of that day so delighted 
to exercise their inventive and 
decorative taste. 


7. Crinet or mane-guard (^Mashnero- 
panzer or Kammkappe) of thf 
end of the fifteenth or beginning 
of the sixteenth century. 

8. Crinet and gorget of the end of 
the fifteenth century, said to 
have belonged to Majdmilian I. 
It is alternately in mail and 
plate armour. Ambras Collec- 
tion. A similar one in the 
Nieuwerkerke Collection. 

9. Poiti'el (JBrustpanzer or Vorge- 
buge) of the middle of the fif- 
teenth century. 

10. Poitrel a jupe, or in the shape 
of a flounce, of the sixteenth 

11. Poitrel of the end of the fif- 
teenth century. It is part 
of a set of horse-armour said 
to have belonged to Maxi- 
milian I. 

Amhras Collection. 

!2 FJanehard (Flankenpanzer) of 
the middle of the fifteenth 



IS. Flanchaid from a suit of armour 
called ajupe, in the shape of a 

14. Croupiere or hind-piece mth 
cuissards {Krupp und Lenden- 
panzer or Mintergebiige), from 
a suit of horse-armour of the 
end of the fifteenth century, 
said to have belonged to 
Maximilian I. 

Ambras Collection, 

15, Croupiere or hind-piece a jupe, 
of the sixteenth centurv. 

16. Croupiere or hind-pieoe a jwpe 
and trellised, of the second 
half of the fifteenth or begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. 
Ambras Collection. 

17. Tail-guard (Schwamriem- 

Meyrick Collection. 



18. Leg-guard of German horse- 
armour; copied from a paint- 
ing of 1480 in the Arsenal of 
Vienna, representing the horse 
of Master Albreoht, the ar- 
mourer of the Archduke 

19. Horse-muzzle (MauVcorb or 
Nasenband). The Museum 
of Sigmaringen, Tower of 
London, Arsenal of Turin, 
Museum of Artillery, at Paris, 
Ambras and Meyriok Col 
lections, all have similar ones 

20. Front piece of horse-armour, 
comprising head-stall, poitrel, 
neck-guard, with a saddle used 
at tournaments that protected 
the legs and chest of the rider ; 
from an engraving in the 
Tmimierbuch (hook on tourna- 
ments) of the commencement 
of the sixteenth century. 



The saddle (from the Latin sella) seems to have been un- 
known in ancient times before the Christian era. The 
Assyrian bas-reliefs show neither saddles nor stirrups, and 
on the Egyptian monuments the horse is invariably harnessed 
to the chariot. Tho Greeks, who had no cavalry, nor even a 
word in their language to express the action of riding, could 
not have known much about an article which even the Bomans 
did not possess till the fourth century after Christ. Zonoras, 
an author of that time, is the first to describe a saddle, 
properly so called, in giving the account of a combat fought 
in the year 340 between Constans and his brother Con- 

The use of tho saddle in Scandinavia dates as far back as 
the iron age, that is, to a time perhaps anterior to the sixth 
century, judging from the bronze pommels and stirrups that 
are preserved in the Copenhagen Museum ; and the Codex 
Aureus of the eighth or ninth centtuy represents the German 
courser with a saddle and stirrups. In France there is a 
bas-relief of this date (?) at Saint-Julien de Brioude (Haute 
Loire), on which, as also in the Bayeux tapestry, saddles 
and stirrups are represented. 

The saddle used in battle was almost exactly the same 
shape at first as it was at the end of the Middle Ages, with 
the exception of the cantle, which was much lower. The 
saddle used at tournaments in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries had two sorts of sheaths or guards, which covered 
entirely the legs, the thighs, the hips, and even came as high 
as the chest : these were originally made of wood, but sub- 
seq[uently of iron. 

The five specimens of these curious saddles that have come 
down to us are to be foimd at Eegensburg, at Constance, at 
Schaffhausen, at the Tower of London, and at the Grermanic 
Museum at Nuremberg. 



1. German war-s£iddle of the eighth or 
ninth century. 

Codex Aureus of Saint Oall. 

2. Norman war-saddle of the eleventh 

Bayeux Tapestry. 

3. Bohemian war-saddle of the thirteenth 

MS. of Soleslav in the Library of 

4. German war-saddle of the thirteenth 

MS. of Tristan and Isolde in the Munich 

5. German war-saddle of the thirteenth 

MS. of the German ^neid in the 
Library at Berlin. 


6. War-saddle from an ivory of the 
ftrarteenth century. 

7. Italian war-saddle, copied from a 
piece of printed cloth of the four- 
teenth century. 

Odet Collection ai Sitten. 

8. Italian war-saddle of the second half 
of the fifteenth century. Copied 
from an equestrian statue of Bar- 
tolomeo CoUeoni at Venice. 

9. German war-saddle of the fifteenth 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

10. German war-saddle of the com- 
mencement of the sixteenth cou- 
tury, found at Strasburg. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris 

11. Persian war-saddle, from a copy 
of the Schah Nameh, written 
about 1600. 

Museum of Munich, 


6 m 



Tilting-saMles. 359 

12. Tilting-eaddle, either German or Swiss, of the fourteenth century. 
It is from the Arsenal of Schaffhausen, and it is said to have been 
nsed in the tournament held in that town in 1392. It is of wood 
covered over with pig-skin, and is not very unhke the saddles that 
are in the Tower of London and in the Museum of Eatisbon, 
excepting that the horseman is meant to sit down instead of 
standing, as he must have done in those mentioned. It measures 
about 3 feet 8 inches in height, but the part meant to protect the 
stomach and chest is only 22 inches, whilst in the other saddles it 
is about 26 inches high. 

Museum of the Sistorical Society of Schaffhausen, and also in the Menni 
Collection at Constance. 

18. German tilting-saddle of the end of the fourteenth, or beginning 
of the fifteenth century, originally ia the Penker Collection at 
Berhn. It is about 5 feet 6 inches in height, 4 feet in length, and 
protected entirely the legs and chest of the rider, who stood up in 
the stirrups. 

Tower of London. 

14. Saddle, similar to the preceding one ; it belonged to the Paulstorfer 
family, which became extinct in 1622. It bears the colours of 
that family. The height is only 3 feet 4 inches, and it appears to 
have belonged to the second half of the fifteenth century. It was 
hung up in the Chapel of the Minorites at Katisbon, where the 
vaults of the Paulstorfer are, but is now in the Museum of 
Eatisbon. M. Hans Weiningen has kindly copied it for me. In 
the Germanic Museum there is a HimilaT one, which belonged to 
the same family. 



15. German saddle in ivory, of the 
end of the fifteenth centmy. 
Meyrick, Ambras, and Nieu- 
werkerke Oollectiona, and 
also those in the Mnsenms of 
Monbijou at Berlin, and Bruns- 
wick. This last belonged to 
Duke Magnus, who was killed 
at the battle of Liefenhausen. 
The saddle in the Tower of 
London has the following in- 
scription : 
" /eft hoffdeapesten 

Hilf Got ical auf Sand Jorger Nam." 
1 hope for the hest, if God help me in the 

name of Saint George. 

16. German tilting-saddle of the 
sixteenth century, from the 
Tournierbuch. It is like Nos. 
12, 13, and 14, but it differs 
from these saddles of the four- 
teenth, in being much lower, 
and that it does not entirely 
cover the legs and chest. 

These five specimens, which may 
be found at Schaffhausen, Constance, 
Nuremberg, and Loudon, are the 
only ones that the author has been 
able to find in European collections. 



The stirrup, a word deriYed from the Latin gtrivarium or 
straperium (Stdgbugel in German), is composed of the flat 
piece where the foot rests, and the ring through which the 
strap that fastens it to the saddle passes. 

As the saddle was unknown to the ancients before the 
Christian era, the stimip was not used before the fourteenth 
century ; at which time the author Zonoras Hved, who is the 
first who mentions a saddle, in his description of the combat 
in 340 A.D. between Constans and his brother Constantiue. 

The shape of the stirrup has varied very much, according 
to the time and people. At first it was only a strap, * to 
which was subsequently added a flat piece of wood or metal, 
and afterwards it was of a triangular shape, as may be seen 
in the frescoes of the Cathedral of Brunswick. 

The pyrophore stirrup had a lantern to it, which gave 
light and warmed the feet of the rider, but not a single 
specimen is to be found in any museum. The stirrups, 
used by women, as well as those used in battle of the 
fifteenth century, which took the place of the soleret, are 
closed at one end, so as to prevent the passage of the foot. 
* See the knight on the bas-relief of Brioude. 



1 . Mussulman-Spanish stirrup of the 
twelfth century. This specimen 
is about 18 inches high, and 13 
inches wide. It belonged to 
the Emperor Maximilian I., 
who sent it, not long before 
his death, to Austria, where it 
is now in the Ambras Collection. 
This valuable stirrup in iron, 
judging from the work, belongs 
to the Eomanic period, and 
was most likely taken over to 
America by the Spaniards, who 
had captured it from the 
Moors. Similar stirrups are in 
the collection of M. Oule- 
mann at Hanover, in the Mu- 
seum of Lyons, and in the 
possession of an antiquary at 

2. German stirrup of the twelfth 
century, from the frescoes in 
the Cathedral of Brunswick. 

3. German stirrup in iron, of the 
thirteenth century. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

i. Spanish stirrup in iron, of the 
end of the fourteenth century, 
but attributed in the Armoury 
of Madrid, where it is preserved, 
to King James the Conqueror, 
who died in 1276. 



5. Arab stixrup in iron, of the com- 

mencement of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. It is richly engraved 
with gold and silver. 

Author's Collection. 

6. English soleret stirrup in iron, of 

the fifteenth century. 

Warwick Castle. 

7. English soleret stirrup in iron : it 

is meant for the right loot. 

(Query : meant for female ust- ?) 

Ma/rick Collection' 

8. Iron stirrup of the end of the fif- 

teenth century. It belongs to 
a carved ivory saddle in tni,- 
Historical Museum of ]Mon- 
bijou at Berlin. 

9. Iron stirrup of the end of the 

fifteenth century. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

10. Tilting (or, query, ladies') stirrup 

of the sixteenth century. It is 
ornamented with armorial 
bearings, and the work is per- 
6. 361, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

11. Large iron stirrup, 8 inches 

wide, 6^- inches high, belong- 
ing to the sixteenth century. 
National Museum of Prague. 

12. Stirrup from a set of armour for 

man and horse, of the sixteenth 

Arsenal of Berlin. 



13. Large Saracen stirrup in iron, of 
the beginning of the tixteenth 
G. 130, Musemn of Artillery, Paris, 

14. Polish stirrup in iron, perforated 
work, of the oonunencement of the 
sixteenth century. 

Amhras GoUeotion. 

15. Small stirrup to be used with a 
soleret of the hec de cane shape 

16. Stirrup in chased iron, probably for 
a mule. It belonged to the six- 
teenth century. 

Author's Collection. 

17. Id. 

18. Id. 


S °" 19. Stirrup in embossed and perforated 

Tower of London, 
idbia. Id. _ id. 



20. Htmgarian stirrup of the six- 
teeath century. It is covered 
over with silver filigree work, 
and ornamented with gilt 
rosettes and precious stones. 
Ambras Collection. 

21. Persian stirrup from a MS. of 
the sixteenth century. 

2. Arab stirrup in perforated iron. 
Mwewn of ArtiUery, Paris. 

23. Stirrup in yellow copper of the 
end of the seventeenth cen- 

24. German stirrup in iron of the 

seventeenth century, found at 

Mvsewm of Sigmaringen. 

25. German stirrup in iron of the 

seventeenth century. 

Museum at CasseL 

26. Iron stirrup used in the north of 



Tib bridle, a word derived from the Celtic brid {^um in 
German), consists of the head-stall with frontal, of the bit, 
and of the reins. 

The bit is usually either solid or with branches. 

The name snaffle (French, bridon ; German, Trense) is some- 
times applied to a jointed bit with branches, and sometimes 
to a light bridle with reins and bit. There are also bridles 
with double reins. 

The bridle is to be found in the earliest times ; in fact, it 
is not possible to determine the exact date when it came first 
into use; but bits with branches do not appear to have 
been used before the beginning of the Middle Ages, for the 
MSS. of the ninth and tenth centuries only represent bits 
without branches or cross-pieces. The snaffles or jointed bits 
with branches in the Copenhagen Museum, and attributed 
there to the iron age, se'em to belong to the Middle Ages, 
for the Eoman solid bit in the Meyrick Collection has neither 
branches nor cross-pieces. 



Danish tridle, copied from the door of a 
church, carved in the tenth or eleventh 
century, now in the Museum of Copen- 

2. Danish bridle, copied from an agua- 
manile of the twelfth century, now in 
the Copenhagen Museum. The head- 
stalls of these two specimens have no 
front-piece, and the second one seems 
to be held on by the band that goes 
round the ears. The first has no 

3. Bridle from a bas-relief in the church of 
Brioude, carved in the ninth cen- 
tury (?). 

it// S 

i. Norman bridle of the eleventh or twelfth 
century, copied from the Bayeux 

Bits and Bridles. 

5. Roman solid bit. 

Meyrick Collection. 

6. Jointed bit, also called snafBe, 

without cross-piece, copied 
from MSS. of ninth and tenth 

7. Bit without joint, Norman, end 

of the eleventh century. 

Bayenx Tapestry. 

8. Bridon, snaffle, or jointed bit, 

with branches, belonging to the 
Iron Age or commencement of 
the Middle Ages. 

Museum of Copenhagen. 

9. German bit without joint or 

branches, from a set of harness 
in the Dresden Museum. 

10. German bit without joint, and 
with long branches and cross- 
piece, of the first part of the 
sixteenth century. 
G. 62, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

11. Branch or cross-piece of a bit in 
perforated iron, of the six- 
teenth century. 
Musewm of Artillery, Paris. 

12. Bit with chains belonging to an 
Arab bridle. 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 



The sword (spatha in Latin, spada in Italian, espada in 
Spamsh, Schwert or Degen in German) is one of the most 
ancient of weapons, and it is found amongst all nations. 
By the Greeks and Romans it was used in battle only, but 
the Persians, the Germans, the Scandinavians, and the Gauls 
wore it at all times. The Germans still retain the name Glaive 
(Schwert) for the sword, when applied to the weapon used in 
the days of knighthood, or to that used for executions. 

The sword is composed of two principal parts : the blade 
(Klinge in German), the extremity of which is called the 
point {Spitze, or Ort in German) ; the " tang," which fits into 
the handle ; the edge ; and the hilt, which includes the pommel 
'^Knauf in German) ; the handle (Milse in German), generally 
of wood or horn, wound round with iron or copper wire, which 
is an outer case to the tang ; the guard {Parirstangen or Stich- 
hlaiter in German) ; the counter-guard, which is opposite the 
guard, and which protects the back of the hand and the 
wrist; the pas d'dne, a species of guard only used in the 
sixteenth century, which came partly over the edge of the 
blade ;| the quillons, which crossed horizontally between the 
tang and blade — all these are comprised in the one word 
hilt. The flat piece of metal which is sometimes affixed to 
the bottom of the hilt is called a shield (Korh in German) ; 
and the term shell is applied to the semicircular hilts, such 
as the Spanish rapiers have, which protected one side of 
the hand; the grooved blades, introduced so as to lighten 
the weight, must likewise be mentioned. 

The espadon, from the Italian word spadone, implied at 
first a long sword, used with both hands, but later the 
word was applied to all double-edged weapons. 

The estoc, from the German word Stock, or the Celtic stoc, 
was the long narrow sword intended for thrusting rather 
than cutting. Therefore the expression frapper d'estoc et de 
taille can only apply to the long broad-bladed sword, inas- 

* For swords famed in history, see the iatroduotory chapter, which 
treats of the arms of the iron age. 

t See the illustratioc, page 190, of the end of the fourteenth, oi 
beginning of the fifteenth century, where the men on horseback are 
holding this sort of sword. 

2 B 

370 The Sword. 

much as tie blade of the rapier and pointed sword, which was 
straight, thin, and either three or four sided, was siiitable 
only for thrusts. 

The rapiers of the estoo shape were not in use before the 
reign of Charles V., in whose time the modern art of fencing 
seems to have originated. The blades of the estoc rapiers 
were made at Toledo, Seville, and Solingen, and they are very 
celebrated. The rapier has a basket hilt, either solid or of 
perforated work, and a long straight handle. The coliche- 
marde rapier, or Konigsmark sword, is known by its large 
hilt, and by the blade being cut or engraved into little 
squares. It was used only in the reign of Louis XIV., and 
then only in duels. The word coliehemarde is only a corrup- 
tion of Konigsmark. 

The scimitar (in Persian cMmchir or chimicMr, in German 
Scymitar) was the acinace of the Eomans, and most probably 
gave rise to the sabre. It was used only by Oriental 
nations in ancient times, and afterwards by the Moors in 
Spain, by Saracens, and by the Turks. The handle of this 
sword has no guard, the blade is single-edged, short, and 
curved ; it is slightly wider towards the end. 

The sabre (from the German Sabel or Sdhel, or from the 
Sclavonic sahla) is the weapon that is most like the scimitar. 
It was unknown to the Greeks and also for some time to the 
Eomans, but most probably it was known to the Persians 
and the inhabitants of Iberia before the conquest of this 
country by the Visigoths and Arabs. The sabre was also 
the principal weapon of the Dacians in the time of Trajan 
(a.d. 101 to 106), as may be seen by the bas-reliefs on the 
Trajan column, which represent the campaigns of that 
emperor. Dacia was bordered on the south by the Danube, 
on the north-east by the Carpathian mountains, and on the 
north by the Dniester, and corresponds to Moldavia, Wal- 
lachia, Transylvania, and also a portion of Hungary. The 
sabre first appears in Germany about the fourteenth century, 
and was universally employed in Europe at the time of the 
first crusade. 

This weapon, which Meyer, in his book on fencing, pub- 
lished in 1570, wrongly calls a dusach* and which is often 

* The diisack was a Bohemian sabre of a peculiar shape, without 
» handle or hilt. It was wielded with a gauntlet protecting the hand. 

The Sword. 371 

represented in the engravings of Hans Burgmeier, was 
the favourite weapon of the Mussulmans, who used to give 
special names to their sabres. Mohammed, the founder of 
Islamism, had nine, which were named respectively, Mahur, 
Al-AdKb, Daulfakar, Ali-Kola (after the city of Kola, 
where there were at that time many manufactories of 
arms), Al-Ballar, Al-Hatif, Al-MedJiam, Al-Bosul, and Al- 

The real Scotch claymore had a plain cross-guard, without 
the basket hilt which protected the whole of the hand : 
swords and sabres with these hilts are often wrongly called 
claymores, but they were used only by the Venetians, and 
were called schiavone, being the weapon used by the Doge's 
guards in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as may be 
seen in pictures of that time ; in Scotland they were not 
known tiU the eighteenth century. 

The yatagan, the hhandjar, the flissa, the horikri, the 
Icampah, etc., etc., are all different sorts of hatchet sabres, 
generally without hilts or cross-guards. These Oriental 
weapons are all so like each other, and they have varied so 
little during many centuries, that they do not afford a subject 
for study, nor can they be classed chronologically, on which 
account the sword of the Christian Middle Ages is more 
valuable to the antiquary. This weapon in the eighth, ninth, 
tenth, and eleventh centuries was large, long, two-edged, with 
a rounded point, and only useful for cutting or slashing. 
The handle was straight, and formed with the blade a Latin 
cross. The pommel was usually rounded or flattened, and 
had sometimes two or three lobes in the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries. The guards are always straight, but in 
the thirteenth century their points were curved slightly 
towards the blade, which at that time was sharp-pointed, and 
about three feet in length. 

In Germany the sword was a very formidable weapon as 
early as the thirteenth century. The one of the knight 
Koniad Schenok de "Winterstetten (1209 — 1240), that is pre- 
served in the Museum of Dresden, has a straight guard, free 
from any curve. The pommel is about four inches in 
diameter, the handle six, and the hilt about ten inches in 
length ; but these dimensions are unusually great. 

The sword of the fourteenth century is even longer than 
that of the preceding ages ; it was generally about forty-five 

872 The Sword. 

or fifty inches in length. The handles are always in the 
shape of a cross. 

The sword of the fifteenth century had a longer haft than 
those of earlier times ; those of the sixteenth century are 
more complicated in the arrangements of the hilt, from which 
the simple cross-guard now disappears. After this time the 
pas-d'dne form began to be used. 

IBraquemart, malchus, coustil a croc, epee de passot, are all 
names that were used to describe the short sword of Italian 
origin, which had a blade very broad at the top, but gradually 
tapering towards the end till it came into a point like a 
tongue, which form seems to have been copied from the 
ancient parazonium. This kind of sword belongs to the 
fifteenth century, and in England was coiomonly known as 
an anelace. 

The flamherg, or Swiss flame-sword, must not be mis- 
taken for the flame-sword intended to be used with both 
hands, which was a weapon in use in the sixteenth century. 

The two-handed sword (Zweihander), or real espadon, is no 
earlier than the fifteenth century. It was the ordinary 
weapon of the foot-soldier in Switzerland ; in Germany its 
use was confined mainly to the defence of besieged towns. 

The lansquenette of the sixteenth century was short, wide, 
two-edged, and pointed. The handle was like a trmicated 
cone, and flattened at the end, which formed the pommel. 

The verdun was a long narrow weapon, which took its 
name from the town where it was made. 

The handle of the seventeenth-century sword was even 
more complicated than that of the sixteenth. Many of the 
handles have quite a profusion of guards, counter-guards, 
pas-d'ane guards, etc. Their shape indicates a decline in 
taste, from the want of simplicity and severity of design. 
Several swords of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
have rings intended to be slipped over the thumb so as to 
protect it. The Germans call them Degen mit Daumringe. 

For swords of the epoch called the iron age, see the chapter 
in which the arms of this period are described. In it will be 
found the names of the celebrated swords of the heroic 
times, described in " sagas " and in poems. 

Swords of the Middle Ages. 


I. Sword belonging to Charlemagne 
(771-814-), 3 feet in length. 
The handle is in embossed work, 
the blade is very wide, and with 
a blunted end. 

In the Louvre. 

2. Sword in sheath, of the ninth 
century, from the illustrations 
in the Bible of Charles II. le 
ChauTO (840-877). It will be 
noticed that the pommel is in 
the shape of a cross. 

In the Lowvre. 

3. Sword in sheath, of the eighth or 
ninth century, copied from the 
Codex Aureus of Saint Gall. 
It measures about 4 feet 3 
inches in length, and has a 
rounded end. 

4. Anglo-Saxon sword of the tenth 
century, about 2 feet in length, 
found in Hertfordshire. 

British Museum. 

5. Anglo-Saxon sword of the 
eleventh century, from a MS. 
in the British Museum. It 
measTU'es about 35 inches in 
length. It will be observed 
that Anglo-Saxon swords are 
shorter than those of Germany. 


Swords of the Middle Ages. 

6. Sword of the end of the eleventh 

century, about 38 inches in length, 
of tempered iron, with the exception 
of the pommel, -which ia of copper. 
I. 1, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
This sword has a sharp point, and 
is the same as those carried by the 
knights in the Bayeux tapestry. 

7. Mussulman sword of the eleventh 

century. Its length is about .34 

8. German or French sword, either of 

the eleventh or twelfth century, 
found at Saint Agata dei Goti, in 
the kingdom of Naples. 3 feet in 

Museum of Erhacli. 

9. German sword of the twelfth cen- 

tury, copied from the frescoes on 
the dome of the cathedral at Bruns- 
wick, which were painted in the 
reign of Herny the Lion, who died 
in 1195. This sword is not very 
sharp, and it has a pommel with 
six lobes. 

10. German sword, either of the eleventh 

or twelfth century, about 38 inches 
in length, with a five-lobed pom- 
mel. Museum of Munich. M. le 
Comte de Nieuwerkerke has a 
similar sword, but with straight 
hilt. There is also another in the 
Copenhagen Museum with a three- 
lobed pommel. 

Sivords of the Middle Ages. 


H. Indian sabre, probably of tbe 
twelfth century. The handle 
of the weapon is richly inlaid 
with silver ; it was excavated 
at Neumai'k, in Bavaria, and 
most likely brought over by 
the crusaders. 

National Bavarian Museum at 

12. German sword of the thirteenth 

century ; formerly belonged 
to the knight Konrad Schenck 
de Winsterstetteu (1209— 
1240). It is very large, the 
length being about 8 feet 2 
inches, and the width 4 inches. 
The pommel is 4 inches in 
diameter, the haft 6J inches, 
and the hilt 10 inches in 
length. On the blade the 
following inscription is en- 
graved : — 

" Konrad viel werther Schenck, 
Hierbei du meln gedenck : 
Von Winsterstetteu hochgemuth, 
Lass ganz kelnen Eisenhut." 

(Conrad, be mindful of me. 
May brave Winsterstetteu 
leave no helmet unscathed.) 

13. Fi-agment of a sword of the 

thirteenth century. 
M. te Comte de Nieuwerkerhe's 

14. Sword of the thirteenth century, 

found in a tomb in Livonia. 
British Museum. It dates 
from the time when the 
knighthood of the Glaive 
(^Schwert-Ritter), which was 
eventually conquered by the 
Lithuanians, was founded in 
the Teutonic order. The two 
ends of the guard are curved 
towards the blade, a fact which 
indicates it to be of thirteenth- 
century date. 

15. British sword in iron, about 30 

inches in lengtli, of the thir- 
teenth century, as is indicated by the ends of the hUt, which are 
curved towards the point. This weapon is called Anglo-Saxon. 

Tower of London t4>. 


Swords of the Middle Ages. 

16. English sword, thirteenth cen- 

tury ; the handle is only 
2| inclies long. This weapon, 
liie the preceding one, has 
been wrongly attributed to 
the Anglo-Saxon period. 

No. f^, Tower of London. 

17. Sword in its sheath, probably of 

the thirteenth centm-y, but if 
not, of a still earlier date. 
This weapon, preserved at 
Jerusalem, is said to have 
belonged to Godfrey of Bouil- 
lon (eleventh century). 

18. Sword of the thirteenth century, 

39 inches long. The blade 
is ridged, and not grooved 
in the centre. The slight 
inclination of the qu,iUon» 
towards the point of the sword 
denotes the time of its manu- 
J. 2, Muse'e d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

19. Sword, end of the thirteenth or 

beginning of the fourteenth 
century! It is 41 inches 
in length. The inscription 
which the flattened pommel 
of the sword bears, MAEIA, 
in Gothic capitals, leads 
us to conclude that it must 
be prior to 1350, and not 
of the fifteenth century, a" the 
catalogue of the Muse'e d'Artil- 
lerie affirms, where it is ex- 
hibited under No. J. 10. This 
handsome sword was found in 
the Bois de Satory. 

20. German sword in iron, with 

copper pommel, 38 inches 
long, end of the fourteenth 
century. Found near Bruimen, 
in the lake of Lucerne. 
Collection of M. Smhholzer, curator 
of the Arsenal of Berlin. 

Swords of the Middle Ages. 


21. German sword of the fourteenth 
century, 33 inches long, 
and with a thumb ring. If 
the ornaments and the armorial 
bearings did not point out its 
origin, it miglit be reasonably 
supposed that this weapon was 
of Eastern manufacture. 
National Museum of Mwiidi, 

22 and 25. EngTavings on the blade 
of the preceding object 

23. Arab sword, fourteenth centniy ; 
the handle silver - gi.'t and 
richly engrayed. The quiUom 
are double and curved towards 
the point. This weapon bears 
the date 1323 engraved in 
Arabic numerals, and re- 
sembles in shape the Moorish 
swords. Speugel Collection, 
Munich, but now in the Nieu- 
werkerke Collection. 

24. Executioner's sword of the fif- 
teenth century, 27 inches in 
length ; the hilt and handle re- 
semble the lansquend swords 
of the sixteenth century. The 
blade has a gallows engraved 
on it, and the date 1407. 





f m 



1 ^ 


Swords of the Middle Ages. 

2o. Sword of the fifteentli century, 
andace, with broad, short, 
double - edged blade,* 26 
inches long ; witliout a groove, 
but with a ridge in the centre. 
The quillons are very much 
curved towards the point of 
the blade. 

J. 13, Musee d'ArtiUerie. 

27. Italian sword, anelace, fifteenth 

century ; blade broad, short, 
and double-edged, 26 inches 
in length. 

28. Italian sword, anelace, fifteenth 

century; the blade about 4 
inches broad by 26 inches 
long, double-edged, and fluted 
ivory handle. The guard 
bears the word "SoUa." 
Ambras Collection. Similar 
specimens may be seen in the 
collections of the Count of 
Nieuwerkerke, of M. Soter, 
at Augsburg, and in the 
Museum of Munich. 

29. Sword, like the preceding 

one, 25 inches long, but 
broader in the blade, some- 
times called "langue de 

Arsenal of Prince LobTiowitz at 

30. Sword, like the preceding one, 

about 22 incljes long. 
J. 476, Musee dArtilhrie de Paris. 

* These kinds of swords, called 
"pistos"and "anelaces," represent 
the weapon known in France under 
the names of " braquemart, malchus, 
coustil h. croc " and " e'pe'e de passot." 

f This is the parazonium or small 
sword of the ancient Greeks and 
Bomans, which they carried on the 
left side. 

Swords of the Middle 

SI. Bohemian sword, fifteenth cen- 
tury, called Diisack or Tesack, 
39 inches long, composed 
entirely of iron. The wearer 
had his sword hand protected 
by an iron or deer - skin 
gauntlet, which reached to 
tlie elbow. 

32. Iron sword in one piece, fif- 

teenth century. This weapon, 
38 or 39 inches long, and 
used in Germany, resembles 
the Bohemian Diisack. 

Dresden Museum. 

33. Scimitar, 32 or 38 inches 

long, from a painting on a 
table of the fifteenth century, 
at Augsburg. 
Indmtrial Museum, Vienna. 

34. Claymore * or Scottish sword of 

the fifteenth century, 3 feet 

Warioick Castle. 

35. German sword, fifteenth century, 

3 feet 2 inches long. 

Museum of Mwnich. 

* The name claymore has been 
incorrectly applied to those six- 
teenth-century swords which have 
iron basket-work hilts. These are 
iu/reality Venetian swords, and were 
originally called scMavona. {Vide 
No. 69.) The long-bladed swords 
with similar handles belong to the 
end of the seventeenth and begin- 
ning of the eighteenth centuries. 
They were used among all nations 
as cavalry swords. 



Swords of the Middle Ages. 

36. German sword, fifteenth century 
38 inches long; the pommel 
in crystal. 

Musema of Munich. 

87. German sword, fifteenth century, 
4 feet in length ; the pommel 
and handle are of copper. 

Museiim of Munich. 

38. Cutlass sabre, fifteenth century, 

extremely large, about 3 feet 
10 ruches in length; from 
an engraving. 
Cabinet of Engravings, Mimiclt. 

39. German sword, fifteenth century, 

3 feet 10 inches long, belong- 
ing to a knight of St. George. 
Imperial Arsenal of Vienna, 

40. Sword, Swiss, end of the fif- 
teenth century, with broad 
blade and quiUon hilt, pas 
cCdne," and counter guard. 
The whole length is 3 feet. 

Author's Collection, 

* This is the most ancient sword 
with a ^os d'&ne which the author 
ha8 ever met with. Some frescoes 
of the end of the fourteenth or be- 
ginning of the fifteenth century, on 
the walls of the church of Mon- 
doneda, represent warriors armed 
with swords with pas d'ane hilts. 

Swords of the Sixteenth Centwy. 381 

4-0 -A- 4-1 

40 A. Sword, end of the fifteenth or 
beginning of the sixteenth 
century, restored according to 
a description in the manu- 
scripts, " The Arsenals of the 
Emperor Maximilian," three 
volumes of polychrome water- 
colour drawings, executed in 
1505, on an order of the Em- 
peror, by Nicholas Glocken- 
thon, and containing all the 
remarkable arms which were 
then preserved in the three 
Imperial Arsenals. 

AmlTos GoVection. 

41. Same period and same source, 




43. Ditto, ditto. 

44. Ditto, ditto. 

45. Ditto, ditto. 


Swords of the Sixteenth Century. 

46. Same period and eaiiie sourca 

47. Ditto, 


48. Sword, mth handle and guard 
in gilded copper. A calendar 
for the year 1506 is very 
elaborately engraved on the 
blade, thus rendering it a 
curious piece of workmanship. 
Arsenal of Berlin. 

Swords of the Sixteenth Centwry. 


BO. Sword, German, sixteenth cen- 
tury, witli quillmis, pas d'dne, 
and counter-guard with five 
branches. 3 feet 10 inches 
J. 52, Mue^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

51. Sword, Swiss, all of iron; the 
blade is 2 feet 7 inches long, 
and the handle about 9 inches 
long. It belonged to the 
reformer Zwinglius, who died 
in the battle of Cappel (1531). 
Arsenal of Zurich. 

52. Sword, German, beginning of 
the BLxteenth centui'y, 3 
feet 8 inches long. The 
blade is ornamented with a 
crucifix in high relief, which 
renders it unsuited for being 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

53. Sword, Dutch, with long and 
broad blade. It belonged to 
Wilham the SOent, who was 
murdered in 1584. 

Arserial of Berlirt. 


Swords of the Sixteenth Century. 

54. Sword, German, belonging to a 

lansqueTiet. of the sixteenth 
century. Plain pattern, with 
counter - guard. The total 
length is 2 feet 11 inches ; the 
blade measuring 29 inches in 
length and 2 in breadth. 

Muaewm of Sigmaringen. 

55. Sword, Spanish, with Moorish 

orniimeuts, sixteenth century, 
belonging to the collection of 
the Marquis of Villaseca, and 
attributed by him to Boabdil, 
the last Moorish king of 
Granada, who was dethroned 
in 1492. This sword is very 
like one preserved in the 
Armeria Real, at Madrid, and 
attributed to Don John of 
Austria, who died in 1578. 
Two similar swords are to be 
seen, one in the Cabinet de 
MedaiUes, at Paris, and one 
in the possession of Don 
Fernando Nuilez. The sword 
in the Cabinet de Me'dailles, 
No. 876, bears the inscription, 
"II n'y a de vainqueur que 

56. Sword, German, sixteenth cen- 

tury, manufactured at Augs- 
burg. It is 4 feet 3 inches 
in length, and the pommel 
and guiUons are engraved. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

57. Sword, German, belonging to a 

lansquenet, sixteenth century, 
2J feet long. The double 
guard, hilt, and pommel are 
of iron, with copper mount- 

Museum of Garlxrulhe. 

Swords of the Sixteenth Century. 


58. Sword, out and thrust, French, 

3 feet 9 inches long, -with 
a slender blade, in the style 
of the Spanish rapier blades. 
The quitlons are curved: it 
has a pas d'dne and an open- 
work pommel, and bears on 
the guard the initial letter H. 
This sword either belonged 
to Henri 11. of France him- 
self or to one of his courtieTs. 
The ornaments on the pom- 
mel consist of H's interlaced, 
and the ornament on the 
scutcheon is formed by an H 
interlaced with a heart. 

Author's Collection. 

59. Sword, German, sixteenth cen- 

tury. The blade has a double 
edge, narrow, and with a 
ridge ; the handle is of black 
iron. The quillons are cm-ved 
towards the point. Gnard 
and pas d'dne. 
J. 27, Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris. 

60. Sword, cut and thrust, German, 

beginning of the sixteenth 
century. The blade has three 
ridges. Two guards and a 
counter-guard. The guillom 
are straight. The handle of 
shagreen. Fas d'dne. 
J. 47, Miis€e d' AHilhrie, Paris. 

61. Sword, beginning of the six- 

teenth century, with Spanish 
blade, bearing the mark of the 
armourer, Alonzo de Sahagon 
of Toledo. 
J. 50, Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris. 

62. Tilting sword, sixteenth cen- 

tury, from a picture of that 
period in the collection of the 
Count of Bngenberg. 

63. Sword, German, sixteenth cen- 

tury. It is 3 feet 6 inches 
ia length; tJie pas d'dne 


386 Swords of the Sixteenth Century. 

hilt* is richly inlaid with silver allegoric figures representing the 
Danube, Ehine, etc. The blade bears the inscription, PETER. 

Museum of Sigmaringm. 

• We may again remark it was by this name that the small guard 
on the blade was called. It was not until the latter half of the sixteenth 
century that the pas d'dne was generally adopted, but it may be seen a) 
page 380, both in the text (No. 40) and in the foot-note, that the pag 
d'dne dates back even to the fifteenth century. See also the ex- 
planation of the word pas d'dne in the introduction to this chapter, and 
«lso at No. 63. 

Swords of Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. 387 

64. Sword, Gernian, sixteenth cen- 
tury, from the descriptions of 
the " Noces princiferes," by 
Industrial Mmeum of Vienna. 

Sword or Spanish rapier, end of 
the sixteenth century. Basket 
hilt and straight quiUone. 

J. 85, Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

66. Sword, German, inlaid with 

gold and enamelled, beginning 

of the seventeenth oentm-y ; 

with quiUom and pas d'dne. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

67. Sword, or rapier. 

J, 102, MJuseum of Paris. 

Outline of a sword, German, 
beginning of the seventeenth 
century, with pas d'dne and a 
German inscription, " leh 
halte Jems und Maria." It is 
preserved in the Armaria of 
Madrid, where it is attributed 
to St. Ferdinand (1200—1232). 
There is thus a difference of 
400 years between the date of 
the manufacture and the date 
assigned to the sword. 

388 Swords of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. 

69. Sword, Venetian, 2 feet 9 inches 

long, beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, called " schia- 
Tcna." * This sword and the 
Bcy tiled sword were the offen- 
sive weapons of the Sohiavoni 
or Doge's guards. In almost 
all collections it is described 
as a claymore, which is the 
Scottish sword with a plain 
cross hUt. Museum of Sig- 
maringen and FaUly Collec- 
tion. In this last-named col- 
lection there is a scMavona 
stamped with the winged Uou 
of Venice. 

70. Same as above. J. 119, Mus& 

d'Artillerie de Paris, where it 
is erroneously described as a 

71. Cavalry sword, end of the 
seventeenth century. 
J. 96, Musee d'Artillerie, Farie. 

72. Scottish cavalry sword, eigh- 
teenth century, erroneously 
called claymore. 
J. 118, Mtis^e d'Artillerie, Pari^. 

* The pictures of Pietro deHa 
Vecchia often represent people 
armed with this kind of sword. 

Swords of Seventeenth and MgMeentJi 


73. Savoyard sword, beginning of 
the seventeentli century. It 
belonged to Captain Branaa- 
lieu-Chaffardin, who was killed 
under the walls of Geneva in 

Arsenal of Geneva. 

74. German sword, beginning of the 
seventeenth century. It is 
grooved and measures 7 feet 
2 inches in length. With 
quiUons and pas d'dne. 

Museum of Munich. 

75. Sword of the latter years of 
the seventeenth or beginning 
of the eighteenth century. It 
is 5 feet 4 inches in length. 
J. 135, Musee d'Artillerie, Paris, 
and the Imperial Arsenal of 

76. Cutlass or mariner's sword, 
seventeenth century; quUlone 
and counter-guard. 

Museum of Erbach. 

77. Sword of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, with guard covering the 
back of the hand, and quillons, 
the ends of which are curved 
in opposite directions. 





890 Swords of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. 

7S. Court sword of the time of Louia 
XV. (1715—1774), in polished 
iron or steel cut in facets. 

MerviUe Collection. 

Court sword of the time of Louis 
XV. (1715—1774), in steel, 
with gilt ornament, and with 
a pas d'dne of a peculiar 

Merville Collection, 

80. Court sword of the time of Louia 
XVI. (1778—1793), in steel. 
Merville Collection. A large 
quantity of these kinds of 
swords have been made whose 
shapes vary but little. Some 
of them have in the eyes of 
the amateur a great artistic 
value, especially when the 
date of their manufacture is 
shown by the stamp. 

Eastern Sabres. 


78*. Indian sword called "Eunda 
de Rajah," * sixteenth century, 
3 feet 3 inches long, and en- 
tirely made of iron. The blade 
is damascened, the handle, 
guard, and hilt are beautifully 
ornamented ■with embossed 
and engraved work. 

Author's Collection. 

79*. Indian sword called " Johur de 
Mnjdh," beginning of the 
seventeenth century. 

Mueewm of Tsarshoe-Selo. 

80*. Nepanl sword, called " Konkri 
3. 453, Musee d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

81. Hindoo-Mussulman sword in 
Khorassan damascened work. 
The diSerence between the 
Indian and purely Turkish 
taste may be seen in the 
handle of this sword. The 
damascening of the blade is of 
a yellowish tint, which Is the 
most esteemed. 
J. 407, Mvsie d'Artillerie, Paris. 

* At the Museum of Tsarskoe- 
Selo, and at the Musee d'Artillerie, 
Paris, there are similar swords. 


Eastern Sahres. 

82. Persian sword from a manuaoripl 
of 1600, an illustrated copy of 
the " Sdhah Nameh," a poem 
by Ferdusi, composed In the 
reign of Mahmoud, a.d. 999. 
Library of Munich. 

83. Albanian or Arnaut* sword, 
recognisable by the peculiar 
shape of the handle, which in 
other specimens is often omar 
mented with small chains. 
The handle and sheath of this 
weapon is inlaid with bright 
embossed silver, and the da- 
mascened blade is almost 
straight in shape. 

Musee d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

84 Turkish sabre with black damas 
cened blade, of ancient mamn- 
fecture of Constantinople. 
J. 390, Mus^e d'Artillerie Paris. 

85. Turkish sabre, seventeenth cen- 

Dresden Museum, 

* The Turks caU tlie Alljiiniana 



85 B. SeimitaT, from a German 
manoscript, beginnmg of the 
fifteenth century. 

86. Turkish scimitar, which differs 
greatly from the scimitars of 
the West in the shape of its 
guards, the ends of which 
curre towards the point of the 
sabre. Tliis guard is in the 
shape of a heart, like almost 
all Eastern sabres. 

87. Chinese scimitar, a weajwu 
easily known, like almost all 
Chinese sabres, by the absence 
of quiHons, counter-guard, pas 
d'dne, and basket hilt, by the 
handle being corded, and by 
the pommel, which resembles 
the Chinese head-dress. 

87 A. Large cutlass or mariner's 
sword. Blade 1 foot 4 inches 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

87 B. Matador's sword with which 
the toreador on foot fights 
and kills the bull. The 
handle of this weapon is 
'oound with a piece of red 
woollen biaid. . 
G. Aroea Collection at Par.'*. 

St. B 

C '^ 


Scimitars and Yataglmns. 

. Japanese yataghan with damas- 
cened blade, and rhinoceros 
horn handle, studded with 
dice-shaped ornaments. 
J. 439, Mus^e d'Artillerie, Parie. 

, Japanese sabre with curved 
point ; the handle is of carved 
wood, mounted with silver. 
J. 414, Musge d'Artillerie, Paris. 

90. Japanese sabre called 


91. Chinese sabre. 

Tower of London. 

92. Modern Chinese sabre ; the 
handle is of white wood. It 
was part of the spoil taken 
from Pekin, and is exhibited 
in the Musee d'Artillerie, 

93. Chinese sabre-knife, given to 
condemned ciiminals to kill 
themselves with. 

Museum of Berlin, 

Yataghans, etc. 


94. Turkish yataghan with blade 
damasi:!ened in gold. Taken 
from the Turks before Vienna 
in 1683. 

95. Albanian yataghan. The handle, 
like the sheath, is plated with 
bright silver, embossed and 
engraved. The blade is 

Mue^e d'Ariillene, Paris. 

96. Kabyle flissa, with handle 
ornamented in copper. It 
will be noticed that the flissa 
and yataghan resemble one 

97. Turlrishkandgiar. Horn handle, 
studded with copper ; damas- 
cened blade. J. 427, Musee 
d'ArtiUerie, Paris. It may be 
noticed that yataghans, flissas, 
and kandgiars are very like 
each other, which renders 
their classification difficult. 
The yataghan, as well as the 
flissa and kandgiar, are gene- 
rally single-edged and with- 
out guards ; they are m:i9 
Like sabres than swords. 

African Suords. 

98. Arab sword, exhibited mider 
No. G. 413, Muse'e d'Aitillerie, 
Paris, where it is described aa 
an Indian weapon. Tlie quil- 
lons are curved towards the 
blade, which is indented. 

99. Sword from Morocco with 
rhinoceros horn handle. The 
guard is composed of three 
quillons, all curved towards 
the blade ; there is also a 

100. Zanguebar sword (Eastern 
Africa), 1 foot 10 inches long. 
The blade is single-edged, 
but has three grooves. The 
sheath and handle are in 
embossed or engraved copper, 
ornamented with precious 
Chritty Collection, London. 

101. Large Zanguebar sword with 
crimped leather sheath. The 
haft, tapering towards the 
end and twisted, forma a 
handle, which is without 
either guard or quillons. As 
the sword is very long, it is 
difficult to understand Low 
this singular weapon could 
be wielded. 

Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris. 

African Yataghans. 


102. Zanguebar sword.* 

Musee d'AHiUerie, Paris. 

103. Scythed yataghan of Tonariif 

Mus^e cHArtillerie, Paris. 

104. Hatchet yataghan of Tonarik 

Musie d'ArtHlerie, Paris, 

* The coast of Zanguebar is a 
large district of Eastern Africa, 
which borders on the Indian Ocean ; 
it comprises many states, among 
which may be named those of Mago- 
doxo, Melinda, Zanzibar, and Qoiloa, 
The inhabitants speak the Caf&e 
tongue, and many of them are 

t The Tonarik tribes inhabit part 
of the Sahara. 


Two-handed Swords. 

105. Two-handed Grerman sword 
{Zweihdnder in German), 
fifteenth century. J. 148, 
Museum of Paris. The British 
Museum possesses a similar 
weapon, 5 feet 8 inches 
in length. It was the 
state sword of Edward V. 
(1475—1483). The sheath 
and handle are enriched with 
polyehiome enamels. 

106. Swiss or German two-handed 
sword of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, with wavy blade and 
hooks. J. 151, Mus^e d'Ar- 
tillerie, Paris. A similar 
sword is in the Az Collection 
at Lintz, and bears the date 
1590, and the German in- 
scription : " Weich nit von 
mir, treuer Gott!" " Forsake 
me not, oh true God !" 

107. Swiss two-handed sword, be- 
ginning of the seventeenth 

Two handed Swords. 


108. Two-handed sword, end of the 
sixteenth or beginning of the 
seventeenth century, as the 
curvature of the quillons 
towards the handle and the 
ring for the thumb seem to 
J. 169, Muaee d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

109. Swiss two-handed sword, with 
curved and saw-edged blade, 
fifteenth century, about 4 feet 
in length, the handle being 
18 inches in length ; the 
quiUons are curved towards 
the blade. 

Arsenal of Berne. 

110. Two-handed German sword 
(_Zweihandiges Siebmesser), 
end of the fifteenth century. 
This singular weapon, which 
is cutlass -shaped, is not 
straight ; the blade and 
handle incline in opposite 

Arsenal of Vienna. 

111. Two-lianded German sword 
with cushions QFaustkapperi), 
sixteenth century. 

Dresden Musevm. 



This kind of weapon, the diminutive of the sword — the 
war-knife, in fact — has been in use among all people and 
during all epochs. The shades of difference between the 
poniard (from the Latin pungere, to prick, or pugnus, a fist, 
and called in German Dolch) and the dagger* (from the Celtic 
dag, point; in German, Grosser Dolch or Dolckmesser) are 
often so slight that the two weapons are continually con- 
founded one with the other. The poniard, properly so called, 
is smaller and shorter in the blade than the dagger, which 
was identical with the ancient broad and short sword of the 
early nations. 

It has been seen that the poniard was in use during the 
ages of flint, whether chipped or polished, a time at which 
the Danish weapons were the most finished and most artistic. 

During the bronze period the poniard equally maintained 
its sway, it was the parazonium of the ancients, and was worn 
on the left side, while amongst the Greeks and Eomans the 
sword always hung from the right side ; among the Assyrians 
and Egyptians, on the contrary, it hving on the left. 

The dagger of the Germans was the scramasax (see under 
this name), a species of single-edged cutlass with a very 
long haft. The guards of the poniard and dagger, as well 
as those of the sword, are a great help towards fixing the 
date of their manufacture, and it has been remarked that 
during the thirteenth century the ends of the quillons were 
slightly curved towards the point of the blade. 

The misericorde was a poniard which received its name 
from being used to give the last or finishing stroke (coup de 
grace) to an adversary ; its triangular blade rendered it 
serviceable for thrusting through the points of the armour, on 
which account it was called in German PanzerhrecTier (cuirass- 
breaker). The French misericorde of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries was nevertheless larger than the German 
Panzerbrecher, and it was also used in England for planting 
in the ground and tethering the horse to during the reign 
of James I. (1603). 

* In venery or huntiag terms, " dague " is the name given to the 
first horn which grows on the head of the young stag in his second year ; 
hence the name "dagnet" given in France to the young stag before he 
is thi'ee years old. 

The Bagger. 401 

The dagger' with thumb-ring {Bolch mit Baumring), the 
ase of which dates from 1410, is the long Spanish poniard, the 
guard of which, placed above the quUlons, has a large ring 
fastened to it in which the thumb was placed. Towards the 
end of the fifteenth century it was worn on the right side, 
and also on the loins. During the sixteenth century it had 
a double thumb-ring, and was placed on the end of the pike 
to resist cayalry. 

The anelace, so called because it was worn fastened to a ring 
(^annulus), is distinguished by the size of the blade, the shape 
of which, broad above and pointed below, resembles an ox- 
tongue. Hence its French name "langue de boeuf." The 
small knife often seen on the sheath of this weapon, and 
which was generally made at Verona, is called " bastardeau." 

The lansquenet dagger, end of the fifteenth and beginning 
of the sixteenth century, was somewhat long, and worn below 
the girdle, as the pictures of that time show. The Swiss 
lansquenet dagger was shorter, and more like a poniard with 
a steel sheath. 

The Frankish archers, the foot archers, and almost all the 
foot-soldiers of the Middle Ages, were armed with daggers. 

The main gauche, end of the fifteenth and beginning of the 
sixteenth century, believed to be of Spanish origin, and from 
thence brought into Italy and France, was more properly a 
duelling weapon. It was held in the left hand to ward off 
blows, while the right was armed with the long rapier. The 
Italian main gauche preserved in the Musee d'Artillerie at 
Paris, No. J. 485, and engraved further on (see No. 28), 
represents one of these weapons called " pennated," with three 
blades expanding by means of a spring when a button was 
pressed in the handle, and forming a guard of great length 
and breadth, in which the adversary's sword might be caught 
and snapped. 

This dagger, however, is neither of Spanish nor of Italian 
origin, as compilers have always repeated ; it was already 
known in Germany during the fifteenth century, when it was 
used in the secret sittings of the Free Judges, at the taking 
of the oath vowed in the name of the Holy Trinity, which 
was represented by the three divisions of the weapon, with 
which all the Schoeffen were provided. 

The stiletto (Spitzdoleh) wa,s a small poi JtJwhich eamii 

2 D 

402 The Dagger. 

into use during the Middle Ages, and which is well known 
even at this day. 

The " creese," sometimes written hrees, which the Diction- 
naire de rAcad^mie Frangaise erroneously spells " crid," is 
a Javanese dagger, generally with a wavy or " flaming " blade, 
which the Malay teibes render still more fatal by dipping 
into poison. 

The " khouttar," a Hindoo weapon, has a large blade like 
the Italian an dace, fixed on to a square handle, into which 
the hand is slipped, and thus protected as far as the wrist by 
this kind of guard or gauntlet. There are hhmttars in which 
the blade is divided into two points, but they are not common, 
and are called serpent-tongued. 

The " wag-nuk " is not a poniard, properly so called, but 
a weapon meant for striking with as a tiger strikes with his 
claws. It was invented in 1659 by Sevaja, the chief of a 
secret society, and was used by bandits in assassinations. 
The wounds inflicted by this weapon resembled those made 
by a tiger, and thus diverted suspicion from the real authors 
of the crime. 

The Italian daggers are celebrated for their fine workman- 
ship in wrought iron, being often incrusted and damascened 
with silver ; the blades are frequently of pierced work. 

Ancient Italian and German daggers and poniards have 
been known to fetch at the public sales in Paris the high 
price of a thousand francs. 

In more modern times the names of knife-swords and 
bayonet-poniards were given to the knives, swords, and 
bayonets in the shape of poniards, that is, with a pointed 
blade sharpened on both sides. 


Daggers and Poniards. 

Baggers an^ Poniards. 405 

1. British cutlass, tenth century. It bears on the blade the namea 

" Edwardus ," and " prins agile." It is attributed to Edward U. 

Maehd Manuscript 

2. Iron dagger, about a foot long, thirteenth century. 

Museum of the Canton, Lausanne 

3. Iron dagger, thirteenth century, the blade of which measures about 

12, and the haft about 5 inches, 

Mv,semn of the Canton, Lausamte. 

4. Iron poniard, probably Scottish, fourteenth century. 

Collection of Prince Charles of Prussia (see No. 13, next page). 

5. Same as above. 

6. Poniard, beginning of the fourteenth _oentury. 

7. Iron dagger, about 14 inches in length, beginning of the fourteenth 

century. The haft is very long. 

Museum of the Canton, Lausanne. 

8. Iron dagger, about 19J inches long, end of the fourteenth century. 

Tower of London, 

9. Iron dagger, 14j inches in length, end of the fourteenth century. 

It was found in the lake of Morat, and the handle is of carved 
bone. Arsenal of Geneva. Poniards of this shape were manu- 
factured until the sixteenth century, for the ' Feldbuch,' published 
at that time by Egge at Prankfort-ou-the-Main, and preserved 
in the cabinet of engravings at Munich, contains simila,r illus- 

10. Iron dagger, end of the fojirteenth, or beginning of the fifteenth 

century. Collection of the Count of Nieuwerkerke. Similar 
■weapons (found in the Thames) may be seen in the British 
Museum, and in the Museum of Sigmaringen, found in Hohen- 
zoUern. A manuscript of the fifteenth century, illuminated by 
Zeitblom for the Prince of Waldburg, also shows this same fciud 
of poniard. 

11. Poniard, end of the fourteenth century. 


Baggers and Poniards. 

Baggers and Poniards. 407 

12. Dagger, fifteenth century, of a shape belonging also to the fourteenth 


Arsenal of Vienna, 

13. Scottish dagger, about 14i inches long, the handle is of wood ; 

fifteenth century. See the observations on the claymores, and the 
dagger. No. i. 

Caimt of Nieiiwerkerk^s Collection. 

14. Dagger with single thumb ring, about 16 inches long, fifteenth 


Author'i Collection. 

15. Dagger with double thimib ring, sixteenth century. The two rings 

were placed there to fix the dagger on a shaft, or at the end of 
a lance, to resist cavalry. 

16. Dagger, anelace, or Verona dagger, fifteenth century. 

Mum d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

17. Dagger, anelace, fifteenth century. 

18. Dagger, fifteenth century. 

Musee cPArtitterie, Paris. 

19. Dagger of a German lansquenet, sixteenth century, about 14 inches 

long. Sheath in polished steel. 

Mm^e d'Artillerie, Paris, 

20. Dagger of German lansquenet, sixteenth century. 

SSter CoUecticm, Maximilian Museum, Augdmrg. 



Daggers and Poniards 
_. ^ 


Baggers and Poniards. 409 

21. Poniard, German, sixteenth contury. 

22. Stiletto {Spitzdolch), about 12 inches long, end of the sixteenth 

century. In Germany these weapons were also called Panzer- 
breclier, or cuirass-breaker. 

23. Dagger, Swiss, sixteenth century, from the Soltikoff Collection. 

Similar weapons, belonging to M. Buohholzer of Lucerne, and 
the Count of Nieuwerkerke at Paris, have in embossed work on the 
sheaths, instead of the usual hunting subjects, representations 
of the Dance of Death. These daggers are often provided with 
small knives, which served to cut the thongs of the armour, to 
pierce holes, and for various purposes during the campaign. 

24. Dagger, German, sixteenth century. 

Ancient Soltikoff Collection. 

25. Poniard, German, with wavy blade, very short and broad. 

'Arsenal of the City of Vienna, 

26. Poniard, German, sixteenth century. The guard has four quillons. 

Collection of Charles XV., King of Sweden. 

27. Main gauche, sixteenth century. 

Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

28. Main gauche, German, sixteenth century. Musee d'Artillerie, 

Paris, and also in the museums of Prague and Sigmaiingen. See 
the arms of the Free Judges. 


Daggers and Poniards. 






rj A r\ Pi n n "■ 


Daggers and Poniards. 411 

29. 3fam gauche, German, about 20 inches long, sixteenth oentniy. 
The handle is richly engraved. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

80. Main gauche, Spanish, with the insoriptiou " Viva Felipe V.," which 
shows that this weapon was in use in the year 1701. 

Meyrick Collection. 

31. Main gaache, Grerman, with indented blade for breaking swords, 

sixteenth century. 

Count of Nieuwerkerke'e Collection. 

32. Main gauche, German, with indented blade for breaking the enemy's 

sword; thnmb ring, and qniUons curved in inverse directions; 
sixteenth century. 

Muieum of Dresden Collection. 

33. Indented blade of No. 31. 

34. Large German hrise-ip^e, sixteenth oeutuiy. 

Meytiek CoUeetion, 

33. Indented blade of the preceding objeot. 


Daggers and Poniards. 

36. Large main gauche, German, 
•with indented quillons, and 
grated guard as sword-breaker, 
seventeenth century. It mea- 
sures about 25 by 10 inches. 
National Museum of Munich, 

37. Stiletto, German, called Pan- 

zerbreeher, or cuirass-breaker, 
about 12 inches long, sixteenth 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

38. Poniard, Geiman, called Pan- 

zerbrecher. The numbers on 
the blade serving probably 
for measuring the bore of 

Museum of Sigmaringen, 

39. Pouiai'd, about 10 inches long, 

richly studded with precious 
stones. This weapon belonged 
to SobiesM. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

40. Poniard, Persian. 

J. 533, Musg'e d'ArtiUerie, Paris, 

Daggers and Poniards. 


41. Wag-nuk, or tiger's claw, two 

and a halt feet in length ; 
this was an Indian weapon 
belonging to a secret society, 
and was invented about 1659 
by Sewaja, a Hindoo. It was 
used for purposes of murder, 
and as it counterfeited the 
wounds of a tiger's claw, di- 
verted suspicion fiom the 

Meyrick Collection. 

42. Persian poniard, with damas- 

cened blade and ivory handle. 

43. Hindoo khouttar with blade, 

called " langue de boeuf." 

Mus^e d'ArtilUrie, Paris. 

44. Hindoo khouttar with forked 


RTuseum of Tsarskoe-Selo. 

45. Turkish kandjar dagger. 

46. Javanese krees. 

47. Javanese dagger, but of Indian 

or Persian workmanship, 17 
inches long. The blade is 
grooved, and the handle of a 
. massive piece of ivory, orna- 
mented with nail-heads in 
damascened iron. The sheath 
of shagreen is partly covered 
by plaques of niello-work. 

Author's Collection. 



The lance (from the barbarous Latin lancea, in German 
Speer, and also Spiess) was in use at a very remote period of 
antiquity, and was common among the Assyrians as well as 
among the Egyptians. Prom the eighth to the thirteenth 
century after Christ the lance remained much the same in 
shape, a simple cylindrical shaft of smooth wood, about twelve 
feet long, with the lance-head fixed by a socket on to the 

The tilting lance, which did not appear until the thirteenth 
century, and was soon utilised in warfare, had a handle ; it 
was thicker at that place, and gradually tapered towards the 
head and base. In France the use of the lance was forbidden 
during the reign of Henry IV. in 1605. The lances of the 
tenth and eleventh centuries are conspicuous by the pennons 
fastened below the socket of the lance-head. The lances of 
the mercenaries known under the name of lansquenets had 
generally small blades, whose sockets were strengthened by 
long stems branching down the shaft, to which they were 
fixed by means of screws ; these lances were sometimes 
twenty-four or even twenty-seven feet in length. The lances 
of the Swiss foot-soldiers were not often more than sixteen 
feet long, for the Swiss method consisted in forming their 
soldiers into four close rows. 

The spear was a weapon used in hunting the wild boar. 

* In the Bayeux tapestry, and in miniatuies of the same period, 
pennons are attached to the lances. 



1. German lance, from the Codex 
aureus of Saint Gall, of tUe 
eighth or ninth century. 


2. German lajice, beginning of the 

ninth eentnry, and afterwards cd ^ i'TTTlIi lidb 

called Knebelspiees, copied from 

the WessobruQ manuscript in 

the Munich Library. «\ 

3. Norman * lance, eleventh century, 
from the Bayeux tapestries. 


4. The same, with pennon. 

5. The same. 

* The lance, as also the sword, 
were among the Normans the wea- 
pons of free men, for in the laws of 
William the Conqueror on the sub- 
ject of freeing a serf, it is said, 
Tradidit illi arma libera, sciUoet 
lanceam et gladium. 









6. Anglo-Saxon lance from a minia 

tare in the Ael/ric manuscript, 
of the eleventh century, in the 
British Museum. 

7. Large spear-head, damascened 

with gold, of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, fifteen inches in length, 
the Ijlade measuring ten and a 
half, and the haft, four and a 
half inches. 
Benne' Collection at Constance. 

8. Large spear-head, fifteenth cen- 

tury, with a long shaft. 

Arsenal of Zurich. 

9. Lanceofalansquenet(Xang-8pie«8 

in German), end of the fif- 
teenth century. The sliaft is 
about twenty-four feet long, 
and is one inch and a half in 
diameter. The Museum of Salz- 
burg, possessing several similar 
lances, presented some of th em to 
the Emperor Napoleon III., who 
gave them to the Musee d'Ar- 
tillorie at Paris. Monsieur Az 
at Lintz has also a few lances 
of this kind in his collection. 

10 A and 10 B. Lances of Austrian 

foot-soldiers, end of the fifteenth 
century. Weapons lite these 
are to be seen in the drawings 
made by Nicholas Glockentbon 
in 1505, from the Arsenals of the 
Emperor Maximilian. 

Anfibras Collection. 

11 A. Lance of Swiss foot-soldiers, 

of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
Arsenals of Soleure and Lucerne. 

11 B. The same. 

12. Slender lance, called Assagai, 
from the Arsenal of Ehode.s, 
and belonging formerly to the 
knights of St. John of Jeru- 
salem (1522). 
F. 43, Mue^e d'Artillerie Paris. 



13 A. Long slender lance, begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. 
The lance-head is nearly a foot 
and a half in length. From 
drawings already mentioned, 
executed in 1505 by Glocken- 
thon, and which are to be found 
in the Ambras Collection. 

13 B. The same. 

11. War lance of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, from a piece of tapestry, 
said to have been found in the 
tent of Charles the Bold. 

15. TUting lance, with vamplate, 

sixteenth century. 

Meyrick Collection. 

16. War lance of the sixteenth cen- 

tury, profusely ornamented 
with red eagles on a white 
ground, the arms of the city 
of Innspruck. 

Meyrick Collection. 

17. Tilting and war lance, from the 

above - mentioned iUnstrated 
manuscript of Glockenthon, 

18. The same. 

All these lances have an indented 
place in the shaft for the hand to 
obtain a firm grip. This fashion 
does not date farther back than the 
end of the thirteenth century, at 
which time the tournaments were 
frequent, and well regulated. 



19. German lanoe, called Knehel- 
spiess, from Glookentliou'a 
manuscript, 1505, in tlie Am- 
bras Collection. 

20. German hunting javeUn, six- 
teenth century. 

Dresden Museum. 

21. Point of a German war and 
tilting lanoe, of the sixteenth 
century ; it is 7 inches in 

Dresden Musewm. 

22. The same. 8 inches in length. 
Arsenal of Berlin. 

23. The same. SJ inches in 

Arsenal of Berlin. 

Lance for tilting at the ring. 
A lance on this model "will be 
found in the " Traite d'Equita- 
tion," by PlurLnel, of the reign 
of Louis XIII. (1610—1643). 
K. 262, Mus(fe d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

German hunting spear, six- 
teenth century {San, or Bdren- 
fanger, and also Schweins- 
feder in German). It was 
used more especially for boar- 

, Hunting spear of the sixteenth 
century, with three wheel-lock 
pistols, and two " hallebarde " 
hooks: this weapon was part 
of the Soltikoflf Collection. 



27. Lance of the seventeenth cen- 

28. Double-headed Persian lances, 
&om a very late sixteenth- 
century manuscript copy of 
Ferdusi's Sclidh-Nameh of the 
year 999. 

W. Arrow-shaped javelin for throw- 
ing (Wurfpfeil in German), 
used for boar-hunting. 

Arsenal of Berlin. 

30. Abyssinian lance, conspicuous 
on account of its broad, iron, 
shovel-shaped base. The 
broad point recalls exactly the 
bronze and iron heads of the 
"fcamees," belonging to the 
bronze and iron ages. One 
lance of this Mnd has a ring 
fastened to it, and is known 
imder the name of " celt." 

Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Farie. 

31. The same. 

32. Chinese lance. 



The mace (from the Latin massa, Streitholben in German) 
is a "weapon heavy at one end, not made either for piercing 
or cutting, but only for stunning an enemy ; it was much 
used by the cavalry, and there are several representations of 
it in the Bayeux tapestries, end of the eleventh century. 


1. Iron mace, end of the eleventh 

Bayeux, Tapestries. 

2. The same. 

3. The Bame. 

4. Mace, from the "Gennan 
jEneid " of Heniy of Waldeck, 
thirteenth century. 

Library of Berlin. 

5. Burgnndian mace, beginning of 
the fifteenth eentm-y, from a 
manuscript believed to have 
belonged to the Duke of Bur- 
Library of the Arsenal, Paris. 

The Mace. 


, 6, English mace, in wood and iron, 
reign of Henry V. (1413 — 

Meyrick Collection. 

, 7. English mace, in iron, middle of 
the fifteenth centmry. 

8. German mace, fifteenth century, 
engraved iron ; it is ahout 22 
inches in length, and has the 
handle wired. 

Arsenal of I/ucerne, 

9. Turkish mace, u'on, fifteenth 
century; an architectural rose 
is damascened in the top. 

d'Artillerie, Paris. 

10 A. Mace, from a manuscript of 
the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, being a copy, illustrated 
with numerous miniatures, of 
the Schali - Nameh or royal 
boot, composed by the poet 
Ferdusi in the reign of Mah- 
moud (999). 

lAbrary of Munich. 

30 B. The same. 

11. French mace, sixteenth century. 



This mace had generally a long handle, and its head 
bristled with wooden or iron points ; it was common among 
the ancients, for many museums possess several fragments 
of these weapons belonging to the age of bronze. 

The morning-star was well known and much used in 
Germany and in Switzerland ; it received its name from the 
ominous jest of wishing the enemy good-morning with the 
morning-star when they had been surprised in camp or city. 

This weapon became very popular on account of the 
facility and quickness with which it could be manufactured. 
The peasant made it easily with the trunk of a small shrub 
and a handful of large nails ; it was also in great request 
during the wars of the peasantry which have devastated 
Germany at different times, and the Swiss arsenals possess 
great numbers of them. 

Momiug-stars were also made for horsemen ; they were 
short in the handle like hammers, and generally better manu- 
factured than the long-shafted ones used by the foot-soldiers. 
A few of these little maces, studded with iron points, have 
even been supplemented with hand cannons. When so 
provided they are called in German Schiessprugel. See No. 8. 



I and 2. Maces, which should be 
classed among the -vf eapons of 
the iron age, for they are copietl 
from the column of Theodosius 
at Constantinople, which dates 
from the fourth century. 

3. Swiss morning-star of the fif- 
teenth centm-y on a long shaft. 
The length of the iron, which is 
armed with fom- blades and a 
spike, is IS inches. 

Gymnasium of Moral. 

i. Swiss morning-star of the fif- 
teenth century, with a wooden 
ball studded with iron spikes 
and a, long shaft. 

Mueeum of Berne. 

5. Hand moming-star, probably a 

horseman's. It is of engraved 
iron, 26 inches in length, and 
has a dart or spike which starts 
from the handle by means of a 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 
e. Moming-star and partisan on a 
long shaft with iron bands. 

Az Collection, Lintz. 
7. Moming-star of 11 feet 4 inches 
in length, studded with spear- 
heads ; end of the fifteenth cen- 
Arsenal of (he City of Vienna. 

6. Moming-star with hand cannon, 

called in German SchiessprOgel ; 
end of the fourteenth or begin- 
ning of the fifteenth century. 
Collection of Prince Charles, at Ber- 
lin; Ambras and Meyrick Collec- 
tions ; and Museum of Sigmarin- 



The flail, or holy-water sprinkler* (from the Latin flagellum 
and the German Flegel), is a weapon whose name indicates 
its shape ; it was also called holy-water sprinkler from the 
shape, and from the drops of blood which started from those 
upon whom it was used. It was composed of the shaft and 
the whips, the latter either with or without iron points ; or 
else of the shaft, to which was fastened a chain ending in an 
iron ball, or a wooden one studded with iron. 

The invention of this weapon does not appear to be of 
ancient date, for the first mention of it is found in the manu- 
scripts of the beginning of the eleventh century. 

A statue of this epoch in the Cathedral of Naumburg in 
Germany, representing one of the founders, is armed with a 
flail, and so is the statue of the Palatine Oliver, in the 
Cathedral of Verona. 

The flail, which was very well known in Switzerland and 
Germany during the fifteenth century, was also used in 
England since the period of the Norman conquest (eleventh 
century), and existed during the reign of Henry VIII. (1509 — 
1547), though then but little used, and only in the trenches 
and on board ships. The military flail with a short handle 
belonged more particularly to Eussia and Japan. 

The armed whip, or scorpion (also called Scorpion in 
Gerinan), was a kind of hand-flail or knout, with three, four, 
or six chains. 

* Some authors erroneously give this name k t>>» mnrajng.gfaj; 


Military Flails. 


1. German holy - -water sprinkler 
{Flegel in German) of the 
eleventh century, with chain 
and ball without spikes, from 
tlie statue of one of the founders 
of Naumburg Cathedral. 

2. Iron hammer of flail, -without 

points, on a long shaft, probably 

of the fourteenth century. 

K. 83, Musde d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

3. Flail with chain and spiked ball 

on long shaft, probably of the 
fourteenth century. 
K. 81, Muse'e d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

Scorpion, or flail, with four chains 
without balls (called Scorpion 
in German), a Hussite weapon 
of the fifteenth century. 

National Museum of Prague. 

5. English flaU -with chain and 

spiked ball on long shaft ; reign 
of Henry VH. (1485—1509). 

Meyrick Collection. 

6. Swiss flail with iron hammer on 

long shaft. 

Arsenal of Geneva 

7. Short -handled flail, 2 feet 
7 inches in length. 

National Museum Munich. 


Military Flails. 

8. German flail of the fifteenth 
century on a very long shaft. 
It has an iron hammer with 
twelve spikes. 

9. Swiss flail of the fifteenth cen- 
tury with a squared iron 
hammer without spikes, on a 
long shaft. 

10. Ancient Eussian knout,* with a 
short handle. 

Dresden Museum. 

11. Japanese flail. The handle is 
only 26 inches in length, 
and the ball at the end of the 
chain is studded with very 
sharp spikes. 

* The knout actually employed 
in Russia for punishments differs 
but slightly from the ancient instru- 
ment, painful as it is to us to believe 
in the existence of such a thing in 
the present state of civilisation. 



The icar-scythe (from tlie Latin falx, Kriegssense in German) 
is notMng but the agricultural scythe slightly straightened ; 
the blade is in a line with the haft ;* it is single-edged, the 
.point slightly curved towards the shay edge, while the scythe- 
knife, also single-edged, has the point curving from the edge 
to the back ; the blade of the gisarme, or glaive-gisarme, is, 
^s the name glaive indicates, double-edged, like the cut and 
thrust sword. 

.1. Unstraiglitened war-scythe, be- 
ginning of the ninth century. 
From the manuscript o£ Wesso- 
brunn, year 810, in the library 
of Munich. 

■2. Bohemian crescent-shaped war- 
scythe, thirteenth century. 
From the manusc ript of Voles- 
lav in Prince Lobkowitz's 
library, at Eaudnitz. 

.3. War-scythe, fourteenth century. 
K. 145, Mmee d'ArUllerie, Paris. 

-i. Swiss war-scythes of the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. 
Arsenals of Zurich and, Soleure. 

War-scythes of colossal di- 
mensions (4 feet to 4 feet 6 
inches in the length of the 
blade) were used by the 
Tschaikists of Austria to mow 
down the crews of their enemies' 
boats. The Austrian troops so- 
called derived their name from 
the river Tschaike. 

Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 

» In Austria, during the Jacquerie or peasants' war, all smithg 
detected in turning agricultural implements into weapons were punished 
•with death. 



Tte scythe-knife, and another very like it, often con- 
founded with the gisarme, but in reality a breach Icnife, is,, 
like the war-scythe, single-edged, being in fact a modified 
form of the war-scythe, but, as has been before stated, the 
blade of the glaive curves from the edge, and the blade of 
the scythe towards it. The point is double-edged, and at 
the base of the blade there is a hook or spur. The glaive 
was greatly used in France during the fourteenth century, 
which is proved by the especial mention of it in the poem of 
the " Trente." 

1. Burgimdian glaive, fifteenth ceri>- 
tury. From a manuscript in 
the library of the Arsenal at 

2. Swiss glaive : at the base are 
hallebarde blades. 

Museum of Sigmaringeiu 

3. German glaive, sixteenth century, 
with wheel-lock pistol. It is 
richly inlaid. 
National Museum of Munickt 

tVar Scythes. 

4. Glaive called Cracoiuse, seven- 

teenth century. 

Klemm Collection^ Dresden, 

5. German glaive,* ornamented 

with the armorial bearings of 
King Ferdinand, the Order of 
the Golden Fleece, and the 
letter F. 

Meyrick Collection. 

6. German glaive, very large size, 

sixteenth century. It bears the 
date 1580, and the Bavarian 
K. 156, Mustfe d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

7. Scythe trident, or "Eanseui-," 

for charging {Sturmsense in 
German), of the seventeenth 
century. A German weapon 
of enormous dimensions, being 
5 feet by 4. 

Imperial Arsenal of Venice. 

* This kind of weapon is also 
called breach-knife {Brechmesser in 
German). It was especially common 
in Austria and in other parts of 
Germany, and was used as late as 
the eighteenth century, hut in reahty 
it was nothing but a scythe-knife. 



The gisarme, or glaive-gisarme [Gleefe, and also Boss- 
schinder * in German), which almost all British authors con- 
found with the halberd, is simply a glaive fixed on a shaft. 
The gisarme is quite different from the war-scythe and 
breach-knife, as it is double-edged and armed with hooks. 
The origin of the glaive-gisarme dates from the age of 
bronze among the Keltic and Germanic nations, at which 
time many tribes were in the habit of fastening glaives or 
.soramasax swords to long shafts. The Welsh called them 
llawmavn; a name derived from cleddyr or gleddyr. In some 
parts of Germany the name of Gleefe has given place to the 
more modern one of Sensen mil Spitzen. The French name of 
guisarme is apparently derived from the guisards or followers 
of the house of Guise, who were armed with them. Olivier 
de la Marche, a chronicler, born in 1426, maintains that the 
name of gisarme is of great antiquity, and believes this 
weapon to originate in the habit of fastening a dagger to the 
Made of a battle-axe. 

* Boss-scMnder : this name waa given to tlie foot-soldiers who were in 
the habit of using this weapon to hamstring the knights' horses. 

1. English gisarme {Oleefe and 
Boss-schinder in German), of 
which mention is made in the 
twelfth-century manuscripts of 
Westminster. The Chinese use 
this weapon at the present day, 
as may be seen from the 
specimens in the Musee d'Ar- 
tUlerie, at Paris. 

2. Swiss gisarme, thirteenth cen- 
Troyon Collection in the Museum of 
Oie Canton, at Lausanne. 

3. Swiss gisarme "bill," fifteenth 

Arsenal of Sdleme. 

4. Swiss gisarme "bill," end of the 
fifteenth century. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

5. English gisarme "bill," end of 
the fifteenth century. 

6. Swiss gisarme, end of the fifteenth 

Arsenal of Zurich and Wittmann 
Collection at Geisenheim. 



7. Italian gisarme " glaiye," riclily 
engraved, end of the fifteentli 


Meyrick Collection. 

8. Gisarme on long shaft, bound 
with iron. The blade is about 
2J feet in length, «,nd bears the 
inscription X. IVANI. X. 

Az Collection, Lintz. 

9. Swiss gisarme " bill," inlaid, 
sixteenth centm-y. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

10. Italian gisarme " glaive," be- 
longing to the Doge's guards : 
they were armed with this 
weapon, and with the basket- 
hilted sword, called Schiarona. 
which in almost all coUectiout 
has been erroneously cata- 
logued as a claymore, but the 
Scottish sword has a simple 
guard without either a pas 
d'dne or basket hilt. 



Though very rarely met with now, this weapon was one of 
the most ancient among the Swiss, and also much sought 
after in France during the fifteenth century, at which time 
there existed a regiment of infantry called voulgiers, who 
were armed with this broad-bladed and long-hafted weapon. 
A large number of archers also carried them. Some few 
authors wrongly give the name of voulge to the boar-spear, 
the shape of which bears not the least resemblance to the 
voulge of ancient warfare. 

Sv,'iss voulge, about 16 inches in 
length, found on the battle- 
field of Morgarten (1319). 

Arsenal of Lucerne. 

2. Swiss Toulge with hook, four- 
teenth century. 

3. Swiss voulge, fourteenth century. 
Arsenal of Zurich. 

A representation of this 
voulge may be seen in a fif- 
teenth-century manuscript of 
the Hauslaub Collection. 



i. Swiss voulge, end of the fonr- 
teenth century. 
Meyer Biermann Collection 
at Lucerne. 

5. German voulge, end of the fif- 
teenth century. 

Az Collection, lAntz. 

6. Saxon voulge, taken at the battle 
of Miihlberg (1547). 

Imperial Arsenal of Venice. 

Austrian voulge, about 2 feet in 
length. It is of the time of 
the Jacquerie or peasants' war. 
(1620-1 625), when it was forged 
out of a ploughshare. 

Az Collection, liiittz. 



Fixed on a long shaft, the pole-hammer has been known 
in Germany and Switzerland under the name of Luzerner 
Rammer, as it was a favourite arm of the people of Lucerne. 
It is called pole-hammer in English from the fact of having 
the spiked hammer placed at the end of a long shaft or pole. 
The foot-soldiers' war-hammer is of great antiquity, as we 
may see in the hammers of the so-called stone and bronze 
ages ; and Charles Martel (715 — 741) owes his name to this 
formidable weapon, which became general during the four- 
teenth century. The French poem of the Combats des Trente 
mentions the war-hammer and its weight : 

" Oil combattait d'un mail qui pesoit bien le quart 
De cent livres d'aoier, si Dieu en moi part." 

This war-hammer, of twenty-five pounds' weight, belonged to 
Tommelin Belefort. They were also used in the passages of 
arms, as Olivier de la Marche, born in 1426, remarks in his 
" Memoirs," where he also makes mention of the passage of 
arms of the " sire Hautbourdin et de Delalain." 

The short-handled horseman's hammer {BeiterJiammer in 
German) which the knights carried, like the mace, at their 
saddle-bow, is almost as ancient as the pole-hammer. Some 
antique bas-reliefs at the Louvre represent Amazons at- 
tackmg their enemies with short-handled double-edged pole- 
axes (?), one of which is, in armourer's phraseology, falcon or 
parrot-beak shaped, a term used however when the hammer 
was long-handled. 


War Hammers for Foot-soldiers. 

1. steel war-hammer on long shafts 

fourteentli century (iMzemer 
Hammer in German). 
li. 84, Musee d'AHUlerie, Paris, 

2. Steel war-hammer on long shaft, 

fifteenth century. 

3. Swiss steel war-hammer on long 

shaft, fifteenth century. This 
weapon, of which there are a 
great number id the Arsenal of 
Lucerne, is a fair type of the 
Luzerner Hammer, or hammer 
of Lucerne. 
Meyer Biermann Collection and 
Museum of Sigmaringen. 

i. Steel war-hammer on long shaft, 
end of the fifteenth, or begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. 
The sword which forms the 
apex of the whole is more than 
3 feet in length. 
K. 88, Musee d'ArtUlerie, Paris 

5. Swiss steel war-hammer on long 

shaft, from a drawing of Hans 
Holbein > 1-145-] 554), represent- 
ing the combat of Theibaut 
Industrial Museum of Vienna. 

6. Hammer-pike. This long-shafted 

weapon was carried by the 
subalterns in charge of the flag 
under the First Empire (1804- 
K. 275, Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris. 

Horsemen's War Hammers. 


7. Horseman's war-hammer {Beiter- 

hammer in German), 2 feet ill 
length ; ironhandlestuddedwith 
copper ornaments of Gothic 
character, denoting the end of 
the fifteenth century. 

8. War-hammer, 3 feet 4 inches in 

length, belonging to a Hussite 
chief of the fifteenth century, 
serving at once the purposes of 
a weapon and a rod of office. 
The handle, about 16 inches in 
length, is covered with red 
velvet. A dart 2J feet long 
springs Irom the hammer on 
pressing a button near the 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

9. Horseman's parrot-beaked war- 

hammer, end of the fifteenth 

Meyrick Collection. 

10. Horseman's parrot-beaked war- 

hammer in chiselled iron, or- 
namented with fleurs-de-lys ; 
22J inches in length, sixteenth 

Arsenal of Berne. 

11. Horseman's parrot-heaked war- 

hammer, sixteenth century. 
K. 69, Musee d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

12. Scaling war-hammer, taken from 

the Savoyards under the com- 
mand of Branaulieu Chaffai- 
din in 1602, under the walls 
of Geneva, in an nnsuccessfnl 
night attack. 

Arsetud of Geneva. 

13. Horseman's war hammer with 

very long spike of iron and 
copper. The shaft is wood, 
the handle ivory; sixteenth 

Dresden Museum. 



The battle-axe (from the German Sachen, and not from 
the Latin ascia) was generally called Streitaxt in German, 
but when the handle was greatly lengthened and used by 
ibot-soldiers it became a pole-axe, and was called Fuss- 
Slreitaxt. This cuneiform weapon, like the common hatchet, 
from which it is modified, is one of the most ancient and 
best known during the so-called ages of stone and bronze, 
and was the favourite weapon of all Germanic nations. 

The Frank hatchet, the well-known francisque, was short- 
handled, while that of the Saxons was fixed on so long a 
shaft that among the Anglo-Saxons it was named pole-axe. 

At the battle of Hastings (1066), where Harold was 
defeated by William the Conqueror, the Saxons at first 
repelled with success the repeated attacks of their Norman 
foes, whom they overthrew in large numbers with their long 
battle-axes, etc., a weapon which among them was generally 
about five feet in length. In the Bayeux tapestries are 
many representations of battle-axes without either point or 
hook, in this resembling the domestic hatchet and the 

The foot-soldier's battle-axe of the fourteenth century 
differs considerably from the weapon of an earlier date. 
Though on one side an axe, it becomes on the other a war- 
hammer, either with a saw edge or a sharp point, but 
generally large and curved, called falcon-heaked ; whilst the 
term parrot-heakecl was applied when the weapon was short 
in the handle and belonged to a horseman. 

The battle-axe sometimes was provided with a long dart 
or sword fixed at the top. 

The short-handled horseman's axe (Beiterajxt and Bartke 
in German) is found to have sometimes a gun-barrel encased 
in the handle, either the primitive hand-cannon or the wheel- 
lock pistol. 

The short-handled battle-axe as well as the war-hammer 
appears to have been known to the ancients. It is some- 
times seen in engravings of Assyrian war-chariots and ia 
sculpture which represents Amazons. 

Foot-soldiers' Pole-axes. 


1 and 2. Poot-soldier's long-shafted 
pole-axes {i uss-Streitaxt in 
German), end of the eleventh 

Bayeux Tapestry, 

3. German foot-soldier's pole-axe, 

end of the fourteenth century. 
K. 93, Musee d'ArtiUerie, Fans. 

4. German foot-soldier's pole-axe, 

fifteenth century. From a ■wood 


Cabinet of Engravings, Munich. 

5. German foot-soldier's pole-axe, 

fifteenth century. 
Museum of Munich, Collection of 

Charles XV. of Sweden, and Mey- 

rick Collection. 

6. Swiss foot-soldier's pole-axe, fif- 
teenth century. 

Arsenal of iMceme. 


Foot-soldiers^ Pole-axes. 

7 A. German foot- soldier's pole-axe, 
fifteenth century. 
Cabinet of Engravings, Munich. 

7 B. The aame. 

8. Kussian foot- soldier's pole-axe, 
called Bardiche. 
K. 95, Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

9 Russian* foot-soldier's pole-axe, 
with which the StreKfes or Stre- 
litzen were armed. 

Museum of Tsarskoe-Selo. 

10. Venetian pole-axe with saw- 

edged hammer, sixteenth 

Meyrieh Collection. 

11. Swiss pole-axe with saw-edged 

hammer, sixteenth century. 

Arse7ial of Berne. 

12. Swiss pole-axe, with hammer 

and dart 

Arsenal of Berne. 

l:-i. Long-shafted Scottish Lochabcr 
axe, the national weapon of 
Collection of Prince Charles at 

li. German pole-axe, iifteenth cen- 
tury, f 
Historical Museum of Monhijou at 

* The modern battle-axes of the 
inhabitants of the Caucasus are of 
this same shape : this may be seen 
from the weapon of Schaniyl, also 
in the Museum of Tsarskoe-Selo, 
and in German fifteenth-century 
engravings in the Cabinet of En- 
gravings at Munich. 

t Nos. 9 and 14 might be classed 
among the voulges. 

Horsemen's Battle-axes. 


15 English foot-soldier's Jedburgli 
axe, sixteenth century. 

Meyrich Collection. 

10. Scottish or English foot-soldier's 
K. 96, Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

17. German horseman's short-hand- 
led battle-axe {Beiteraxt and 
Barthe in German), end of the 
fifteenth century. 

Dresden Museum. 

iJ8. Turkish horseman's battle-axe, 
end of the iifteenth century; 
it belonged to tlie Sultan 
Mahomed Ben Kaitbai, who 
reigned from 1495 to 1499. 
An inscription in open-work 
letters says, " The Sultan, tlie 
victorious king, the father of 
fortune, Mahomed Ben Kait- 
bai, may the servant of God 
be glorified in him." Tljere 
is also in Cufic characters the 
name of God five times re- 

Ambras Collection. 

•19. Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe. 
From a diuwing by Albert 

20. Horseman's iron battle-axe, be- 

ginning of the sixteenth cen- 

21. English horseman's battle-axe, 

beginning of Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign (1558). 


Horsemen s Battle-axes . 

22. Austrian battle-axe : the handle 

is about a yard in length, and 
bears the date 1623 and a 
wheel, a sign for gathering- 
themselves together adopted 
by the peasants in the Jacque- 
rie rebellion, to conquer which 
the aid of the Bavarian horse- 
men were called in. 

Az Collection, Lintz. 

23. Short -handled Polish battle- 

axe, bound with strips of 
leather, beginning of the 
seventeenth century. 

Meyrich Collection.. 

24. English executioner's axe, end 

of the sixteenth century, with 
which the Earl of Essex was 
beheaded in the reign of Eliza- 
beth (1558-1603). 

Tower of London. 

25. Saxony miner's axe, for show, 

called Bergharthe, with the 
dale 1685; the handle is in- 
laid with ivory, and the blade 
pierced in open work. These 
arms are only intended for 
the festival day processions of 
miners' corporations, and not 
for actual use. 

26. Horseman's battle - axe, with 

small hand cannon, fifteenth 

27. Battle-axe with small band 

cannon, 31 inches in length : 
it belonged to the reformer 
Zwingli, who died in the battle 
of Cappel in 1531. 

Arsenal of Zurich. 

28. German battle-axe with wheel 

lock pistol, inlaid with ivory 
and silver, end of the fifteenth 
Szolcau Museum {Hungary), and 
Museuffh of Sigmaringen. 

29. Battle-axe with flint-lock pistol, 

end of the seventeenth cen- 

SO and 31. Chinese battle-axes. 

Mvs(fe d'Artillerie, Paris', 



The halbard may be deriyed from the German Salbe-Barihe,, 
half battle-axe ; or from Helm, casque, and BartTie, battle-axe ; 
or from Alte Barthe, old battle-axe : in Germany and Scandi- 
navia it dates from the earliest centuries of the present era, 
though it was not known in France until the Swiss intro- 
duced it in 1420. The president Fouchet, whose writings 
are about the end of the sixteenth century, attributes the 
introduction of the halbard to Louis XI. (1461 — 1483), 
" This prince," he writes, " ordered at Anglers and other 
good cities some new war-blades called halberds." This 
assertion is confirmed by miniatures of the fifteenth century 
in which the halbard is represented, though the shape varied' 
greatly according to the time and country. 

1, 2, and 3. Three kinds of halbards, 
somewhat like the ranseurs, 
eleventh century. From the 
Psalterium, a manuscript in the 
Stuttgard Library. 

i. Swiss halbard, fourteenth century. 

6, 7, and 8. Four German hal- 
bards of the fourteenth centui-y. 
National Museum of Munich. 



9. Swiss halbard, beginning of the 
fifteenth centui-y. 

Author s Collection. 

10. Swiss halbard, end of the fif- 

teentli century. 

Arsenal of Berne. 

11. Swiss halbard with three- 

pronged hammer, end of the 
fifteenth century. 

Arsenal of Berne. 

12. German halbard with three- 

pronged hammer, beginning of 
the sixteenth century. 

Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 

13. Swiss halbard, middle of the 

sixteenth century. 

Author's Collection. 

14. German halbard, sixteenth cen- 
tury, engraved and gilt, a very 
handsome weapon. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

15. German halbard, sixteenth cen- 

1 ? Soler Collection- in the Maximilian 
Museum at Augsburg. 

16. Venetian halbard, end of the 
sixteen til century. 

Meyrich Collection. 



Tte ranseur is a kind of partizan, but coming originally 
from Corsica it has been called in France corgeque, and also by 
some authors roncone; the weapon was well known in Germany 
during the fifteenth century. The ancient Ceremonial Frangais 
says that it was a long and broad javelin with two barbs. 

1 . Burgundian ranseur, or roncone, 

from miniatures in a fifteentli- 
century manuscript. 
Library of the Arsenal, Paris. 

2. Ranseur, end of the fifteenth 

K. 98, Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris. 

3. German ranseur, beginning of 

the sixteenth century. Prom 
the Glockenthon manuscript. 
Amhras Collection. 

4. German ranseur, sixteenth cen- 


NiewwerherTte Collection. 

5. Italian ranseur, sixteenth cen- 


6. Eanseur, seventeenth century. 

Arsenal of Perlin. 

7. Four-sided ranseur. The point 

is above a yard in length. 
Arsenal of the city of Vienna. 
This same ranseur is found in 
drawings made in 1505 by 
Glockenthon, who made fac- 
similes of the arms in the 
arsenals of Maximilian I. 

8. Eanseui-, beginning of the seven- 

teenth century. 

Museum of Sigmaringen, 



The partizan is derived from the Spanish partesana, ot 
ffrom pertuis, opening, on account of the large wounds made 
by it, or perhaps simply from the French partisan; in 
German called Partisane, and also Bolimischer OJirloffel; 
and is a species of halbard. The iron is long, broad, and 
double-edged ; there is no axe, but barbs in the style of the 
ranseur. The partizan was known in Prance since the time 
of Louis XI. (1461) until the end of the seventeenth 
century, but its invention is not earlier than 1400. Pietro 
Monti, in his Exercitiorum atque Ariis MiUtaris Collectanea, 
Milan, 1509, who has particularly wished to describe this 
weapon, with which the guards of Francis I. and his succes- 
fiors were armed, has confoimded the partizan with ranseurs 
and halbards, an error which has been committed in our 
days in the catalogue of the celebrated Meyrick Collection at 
Goodrich Court, where even spontoons and langue-de-hceuf 
bayonets have been placed in the category of partizans. 



German partizan (Partisane or 
Bohmischer Ohrloffel in Ger- 
man), whose iron measures I4J 
inches. It dates probably from 
the early years of the fifteenth 

National Museum of Munich. 

2. Swiss partizan with armourer's 
mark, fifteenth century. 

Meyer Biermann Collection at 

3. Swiss partizan with armourer's 
mark, fifteenth century. 

Meyer Biermann Collection at 

4. French engraved partizan, reign 

of Francis I., sixteenth century. 

K. 166, Musee d'Artillerie, Faris. 

German partizan, richly engraved, 
and bearing the date 1615 and 
the order of the Golden Fleece. 
It belonged to the guards of 
the Palatine of the Rhine. 

Meyrich Collection. 



Nearly all authors of encyclopsedias and dictionaries, from 
the habit of copying one another, have repeated that the 
bayonet (Bajonnet in German) was invented and manufac- 
tured at Bayonne by Puysegur, who died in 1682. Never- 
theless this sort of dagger or sword has not been carried at 
the end of a fusil only, it had been already adapted to the 
arquebus, and even perhaps to the earliest portable iirearms. 
The bayonet was already known ia France about 1570, but 
was not universally adopted until about 1640, when it re- 
placed the pike in certain regiments. At the present day 
the bayonet is composed of the blade and socket with collar, 
which latter invention has been wrongly attributed in England 
to Mackay, in 1691, and in France to Vauban ; but it was at 
first a simple handle in wood, iron, or horn, intended to fix 
into the barrel. Subsequently the bayonet was fixed at the 
end of the gun by means of the socket, which was sloped so 
as to turn on the collar. This was the side-arm joined to 
the firearm, called musket-gun ov fusil-musket, and attributed 
to Vauban, which Oouhorn, his rival, introduced among the 
Dutch infantry about 1680. 

A wheel-lock musket, made towards the end of the six- 
teenth century, and preserved in the Culman Collection at 
Hanover, weakens, however, the supposition that Vauban was 
the inventor of the socketed bayonet, for this firearm pos- 
sesses a long bayonet with socket and collar, whose blade 
serves at the same time for a screw to draw the charge. 

There are Zang'tte-de-tosjt/ bayonets, Spanish knife bayonets, 
triangular bayonets, Bohemia^n soytlie-bayoneis, hayonei-sabres, 
etc., etc. 



1. Genuiui bayonet with socketed 
collar, sixteenth century. 
Cvlmann Collection, Hanover. 

2. Bayonet-poniard with handle and 
sword-breaker, end of the six- 
teenth century ; about 15 
inches in length. 

Sliter Collection at Augsburg. 

3. Wooden - handled triangular - 
bladed bayonet-poniaid ; total 
length 14 inches; seventeenth 

Soter Collection at Augsburg, and in 
Swiss Arsenals. 

English lengue-de-boeuf plug- 
bayonet {Fflug Bajonnet in Ger- 
man), end of the seventeenth 
century. Tower of London. 
A similar one in the same 
museum bears the inscription : 
" God save King James the 2d." 

Spanish wooden-handled knife- 
bayonet, seventeenth century. 
It bears the inscription : 
" No me saches sin rason 
Ne me embainez sin honor." 
(Unsheath me not without 
reason, nor sheath me without 

Mefyrick Collection. 

2 G 



G. French spring-handled bayonet, 
seventeenth centnvy. 

7. Swiss handle - bayonet, seven- 
teenth century. 

8. French socketed bayonet, used 
in 1717. 

9. French grooved bayonet, used in 

10. Bohemian socketed scythe - 
bayonet, beginning of the 
eighteenth century. 

Prince Ldbhyimtz's Collection ai 

11. The same. 



The pontoon (from tlte Italian spunione, pointed ; Sponton 
in German) was the half pike carried by infantry officers from 
the end of the seventeenth to the end of the eighteenth century. 
The imgraceful and grotesque shape of the weapon points 
out very accurately the time of its invention — the period 
of wigs and three-cornered hats. The last spontoons known 
in France were those carried by the French guards in 1789, 
models of which may be seen in the Mus^e d'ArtUlerie, at 

1. Austrian ofBcer's spontoon, eud ' 
of the seventeenth century. 

2. Officer's spontoon, from one of 
the small German principali- 
ties; end of the seventeenth 

3. Prussian spontoon; reign of 
Frederic II. (1740—1786). 

i. Spontoon with wheel, seven- 
teenth century. 

Museum of Sigmaringtn. 



This weapon (Stiirmgabel in German) began to appear 
towards the end of the fifteenth century. The Arsenal of 
Geneva possesses several Italian scaling-ladder forks taken 
from the Savoyards in 1602. The military fork is also 
mentioned in the accounts of the siege of Mons, in 1691, 
where the grenadiers of the elder Dauphin's regiment, under 
the command of Vauban, assaulted a breastwork and carried 
away the Austrian forks. To recompense their bravery 
Louis XIV. gave the sergeants of that regiment the right of 
carrying a fork in place of the halbard. 

Military Forhs. 


1. Military fork, fifteenth century. 
From the original collection in 
the Cabinet of Engravings, 

2. Gterman military fork, beginning 
of the sixteenth century. Prom 
a water-colour drawing of 
Glockenthon's, made in 1505 
&om the arsenals of Maxi- 
milian I. 

3. Italian scaling-ladder fork taken 
&om the Savoyard troops under 
the walls of Geneva in 1602. 
Arsenal of Geneva. 

4. Scaling-ladder fork &om the 
second siege of Vienna in 1683. 

5. Double military fork, seven- 
teenth century. 

6. Simple military fork, seven- 
teenth century. 

Arsenal of Genena. 

Three-pronged military fork, 
seventeenth century. 

Az Collection, Lirdz. 

454 Arms and Utensils of War and the Chase. 

1 . Articulated iron hand, sixteenth 

century ; attributed to Gotz of 
Berliohingen. Museum of Sig- 
maringen. In the National 
Museum of Munich there is a 
similar hand. 

2. Long-shafted hook used by the 

besieged in a town to tear 
away burning arrows, from the 
Walturius of 1472 and a manu- 
script of the beginning of the 
fifteenth century in the Haus- 
laub Collection at Vienna. 
(See the chapter on war- 

3. German catolipole (Fangeisen in 

German), fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries ; it is 14 inches 
in length, and fixed on to a 
long shaft. This terrible wea- 
pon was intended to catch the 
knight by the throat and un- 
liorse him. 
Museum of Sigfnarwgen^ Toioer of 
Londcm, and Imperial Arsenal of 

4. German double catchpole, six- 

teenth century. 

Dresden Museum. 

5. Hunting spear with a spring- 

blade on either side, inlaid, 
sixteenth century. It is about 
2 feet in height. 

Dresden Museum. 

6. Hunting spear with spring and 

double knife, sixteenth cen- 
tury, bearing the name Bar- 
tolam Biella. 

Dresden Museum. 

7. Battle-hook, sixteenth century, 

found among the ruins of the 
fortified castle of Erperath, near 
Neus and Diisseldorf, which 
«a3 destroyed by tlie Swedes. 
Museum of Sigmaringen. 

War Engines and Besieging Weapons. 455 

8. Hunting sword with cross-piece near the point of the blade, sixteenth 


J. 171, Mus^e d!ArtiUerie, Paris. 

9. Small Turkish drums covered with human sMn, taken hy General 

Eauchhaupt, who commanded, during the grand electoi^s reign, a 
Brandenburg brigade at the battle of St. Gotthard in Hungary. 

Arsenal of Berlin and Autlwr'i Collection. 


The war engines (^ArUwerc in German) which were em- 
ployed during the Middle Ages, and before the time of large- 
calibred firearms, have been copied from those of the 
ancients. (See Introduction, pp. 29, 30, 31, 54 and 55.) 
We recognise the lalista, intended to shoot large airows ; the 
catapaU or tormentum of the Latins, and the onagre in old 
French, which shot forth stones and pieces of rock; the 
battering ram, and a modification of it called in French 
irebuchet, and the ancient tolleno or see-saw with two baskets, 
which deposited the combatants within besieged places. 
In Germany were also used different sorts of engines with 
the names of Manges, Blindes, Tribocs, Patrarias, Tanten, 
Igel (hedgehog), Katzen (cat), and a variety of other names, 
to designate different kinds of maohines whose names and 
shapes were modified according to their respective provinces. 
The miniatures in the Codex Aureus of Saint-Gall, ninth 
century, represent inflammatory machines in the shape of 
fish carried on the points of lances. The Musee d'Artillerie 
at Paris possesses two bows of baHstas from the castle of 
Damascus, probably made in the time of the Crusaders, and 
the Cabinet of Antiquities at Zurich several iron rods of 
balista arrows, found with many broken bits of these machines 
in the ruins of the Castle of Eussikon, which was destroyed 
towards the end of the thirteenth century. 

The archives of Mons, in the year 1406, make mention of 
war engines, drawings of which are met with in all the 
manuscripts of that time, particularly in the fifteenth-century 
drawings of Zeitblom, in Prince Waldburg Wolfegg's 

456 War Engines of the Middle Ages. 

The inventors of war engines were at ttat time particu- 
larly occupied in discovering new methods of setting fire to 
besieged places, and even went so far as to devise portable 
fire machines indented to be fastened to dogs, cats, and even 
birds. The cock himself, the beloved and living time- 
piece of the lansquenets, who never quitted them in their 
campaigns, was transformed into an incendiary torch by 
these terrible inventors. 


Two hand torches. Codex Aureus of Saint-Gall, niath oentm-y. The 
engine which the horseman carries at his lance's point is shaped like a 
fish. As the manuscript represents it as vomiting fire before the 
besiegers have arrived at the place, the fiery torches are probably not 
made with gunpowder or other explosive material, but simply of resin. 

War Engines of the Middle Ages. 


War engine to shoot large stones, balls, or pieces of rook (this was 
the catapult or tormentum of the ancients, the French onagre, and the 
German Bleydenn), from the drawings of Zeithlom, fifteenth century, in 
the library of Prince Waldbnrg Wolfegg. Authors of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries have drawn a large number of these machines, but 
BO varied in their construction as to appear productions of fancy rather 
than copies from actual objects. 


Machine for shooting stones and makiug a breach, called treJmchet, 
from Zeitblom's drawings, fifteenth century. Library of Prince Wald- 
bnrg Wolfegg. At that time there were double trebwiliets, which shot 
stones by the backward and forward motion of the beam called rod 
(verge), or arrow (fleohe), one end of which was always loaded while 
the other returned. The simple trebuchet was put in motion by means 
of a rope pulled by four men. The trebuchet with a sling was con- 
structed in much tbe same manner as the simple trebuchet, with this 
difference, that, at a given moment, a hook fastened to the long end of 
the beam let fiy one of the ropes, and the stone was shot forth from the 
tangent of the circle described. 


War Enginea of the Middle Ages. 

War engine for shooting arrows (the halista of the ancients, and the 
Belagerungshalester of the Germans), copied from the Walturius printed 
at Verona in 1472. Hauslaub Library at Vienna. This machine 
shoots off the arrow by means of a very strong piece of wood, which, 
being drawn down by ropes wound round posts, springs back against 
the beam as soon as the ropes are loosed, and thus propels the arrow. 

War Enginei of the Middle Ages. 


Engine ■with gear, for battering in breach (from the German Brechen, 
break, or from the Keltic brech, hreca, opening), which must have been 
fai more efficacious than the battering ram, whose blows could only 
have made a hole in the wall, while the impetus of this machine must 
have often broken down the entire side . This drawing is copied from 
those in the Pyrotechnie de VAncelot Lorrain ; the same engine is also 
drawn in the Walturius of the Hauslaub Library at Vienna. 


War Engines of the Middle Ages. 

Slinging engine witli backward and forward motion, from a manu- 
script, Recueil d'Andens Poetes, in the Imperial Library at Paria. This 
is one of the simplest engines ; the end of the beam, freed from the 
holder, rises with rapidity as the other end is weighed down, and 
giving impetus to the sling, diaohaiges the projectile. 

Four-wheeled balista {Balista guadrirofa), from the Notitia Utraque 
turn Orientis turn Occidentis, etc. BS,le, 1552. The author of this 
Notitia, who has copied notes of the administration of the Roman armies 
in the East and West, has added drawings of balistas which he copied 
from machines or pictures of his time. 

War Engines of the Middle Ages. 


War engine from the Notitia Utraque cum Orientis tvm Ocddentis, 
etc. Bale, 1552, where it is called ialista fulminatrix. This engine is 
interesting on account of the men inside wheels who form its motive 
power. In the same work may be seen a wheeled boat called by the 
aathor Libowma, in wiiich the wheels are moved by cxen. 


War Enffines of the Middle Ages. 

10. Iron of a balista arrow, 5 J inches 
long, found under the ruins of 
the castle of Russikon, in the 
Zurich Canton, which was 
destroyed towards the end of 
the thirteenth century. 

10 B. Iron of a balista arrow, from 
the Kriegsbuch of Frons- 
perger, 1573. 

1 1. Bow of a balista, from the castle 
of Damascus. It is of palm, 
wood, covered with small pieces 
of horn. 

Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris. 

12. The same. 

13. Besieging or miner's basket, 
wicker, from a fifteenth- cen- 
tury manuscript in the Haus- 
laub Collection, Vienna, 


Diver's dress from a fifteenth- 
century manuscript in the 
Ambras Collection. In the 
illustration the figures are 
quite black, probably intended 
to imitate leather. 

War Engines of the Middle Ages. 463 

15. Aimed dog carrying a torch to 
set fire to a camp. 
Hauslaub Collection, Vienna. 

16. Cat with torch to set fire to a 

besieged place. 

17. Bird. The same. 

18. Jug in baked earth without a 

cover, and filled with quick- 
lime, which the besieged used 
against the besiegers. It was 
found in the Ketzerthurm. 
Cabinet of Antiquities at 
Zurich. Leonard Fronsperger 
explains the use of this seem- 
ingly chQdish projectile in his 
Kriegshuch (War book), pub- 
lished at Frankfort in 1573 : 
"Soil man fiiUen ein Theil 
mit Asohen unt ungeloeschten 
Kalk der Klein ist wie Mehl, 
dervea unter die Feiad gewor- 
fen mit Krafften dass die 
Hafen zerbreehen und unter 
sie streun gleioh wie man das 
Weihwasser giebtkommt dann 
in denn Mundt, etc., etc." 
(These jugs should be filled 
with ashes and powdered 
quicklime, and thrown with 
strength against the enemy; 
when broken they scatter 
their contents and sprinkle 
the enemy as with holy water, 
and enter into his mouth, &c.) 

18 his. Incendiary barrel used by 
the besiegers in the Middle 
Ages. From a manuscript, 
beginning of the fifteenth cen- 

Hauslavh Library, Vienna. 

19. Chariot of intrenchment, used 

in the seventeenth century in 
the war against the Turks. 


War Engines of the Middle Ages. 

20. Iron scaling-ladder {Sturmleitel 
in German), from a German 
manuscript, beginning of the 
fifteenth century. 

Hauslaub Library, Vienna. 

21. Danish iron scaling-ladder, 
with joints and articulations 
(Stormstige in Danish). 

Mtiseum of Copenhagen, 

22. German iron scaling - ladder 
with joints and articulations. 
Dating from the war against 
the Turks, seventeenth cen- 

Dresden Mueeum. 

23. German scaling-ladder, with 
scythe-knife, beginning of the 
seventeenth century. This 
ingenious instrument, pre- 
served in the Museum of 
Munich, is fixed on a long 
shaft having at the lower end 
a furrow or channel which 
screws on to other shafts, and 
may be lengthened at plea- 
sure, so as to touch the top of 
the walls of besieged places, to 
which it hooks by means of 
the teeth in the moveable 
knife. The length of the 
moveable knife is about 2 feet. 

War Engines of the Middle Ages. 


24. Calthrop (Fuesangel in Ger- 

man), found at Eosna. 

Museum of Sigmariiigen. 

25. Calthrop from the water-colour 

drawings made by Glocken- 
thon in 1505 of the arms in 
the three arsenals of Maxi- 
milian I. 

Anibras ColUction. 

26. Calthrop from a manuscript of 

the sixteenth century in the 
Hauslaub Library, Vienna. 

27. Calthrop knife (Fusmngel- 

Messer in German), about 9 
inches long, used in Saxony 
during the Seven Years' War 
(eighteenth century). These 
knives were screwed on to 
beams of wood and placed 
under water in moats. The 
hole in the blade was intended 
to put a piece of stick through, 
so as to form a handle to 
screw the knife. 

Klemm Collection, Dresden. 

28. Cheval de frise {Spanisdher 

Eeiter in German), from the 
Prague arsenal. This engine 
was used as protection against 
a charge of cavalry. 

Arsenal of Berlin. 

29. Cheval de frise, from the wars 

of the French republic, eigh- 
feenth century. 

Arsenal of Berlin. 


2 H 



The sling, whose French name oifronde was derived from 
the Latin funda {Schleuder in German), which was anciently 
written fonde, gave its name to the party who took up arms 
against the court during the minority of Louis XIV., 1648 — 
1652. The sling is a weapon whose origin, like that of the 
bow and arrow, is of remote antiquity. Made of rope or of 
a leathern thong, the sling is used to hurl stones, and even 
fire-balls. After placing the missile in the socket, the 
slinger whirled his weapon round and round, gradually 
augmenting the speed until the greatest possible amount of 
swiftness had been attained, when he loosed one of the cords, 
retaining the other. 

The sling, the range of which was generally above five 
hundred paces, was much used by the ancients and during 
the Middle Ages, at which time it constituted, with the bow, 
the equipment of by far the greater niunber of foot-soldiers. 
The inhabitants of the Balearic Islands were celebrated for 
their skill with this weapon. 

The Greeks, Romans, and Carthaginians, as well as the 
Germans, had each their regiments of slingers. 

The use of the sling has continued even among European 
armies until the sixteenth century, at which time they were 
employed to hurl grenades. Savage nations, however, iiuve 
always adhered to the sling, and there are those among them 
who have succeeded so far as sometimes With it to resist suc- 
cessfully the fire of a carbine. 

The staff sling (in French, fustibale or fusiibalv3, from the 
Latin fustis, stick, and the Greek /?aXXa), to throw ; Stock 
Schleuder, in German) was composed of the shaft, about a 
yard in length, and a leathern sling fixed on to one end. 
The slinger held it with both hands, and could hurl stones 
with great violence. This weapon was subsequently em 
ployed to throw grenades. 

The nume fustibale was also given to large engines which 
were a species of catapult intended to hurl heavy missiles. 

The Sling and Staff Sling. 


Two illustrations of slings, one 
with the thong loosened, the 
other with both thongs held in 
the slinger's hand; from a 
tenth-century manuscript. 

Slinger with his staff sling, from 
a manuscript of Mathieu Paris, 
an English chronicler, born at 
the end of the twelfth century, 
died in 1259, who was the 
author of a Mistoria 
Anglic from 1066 to 1259. 

8. Staff sling from a manuscript of 
the beginning of the fifteenth 

Arribras CollecUon. 

i. Long-shafted staff sHng, intended 
to hurl grenades. From a 
manuscript of the sixteenth 

Library of the Chevalier von Bans- 
laub at Vienna. 



The blowpipe, or shooting-tube, is called in French sarha- 
cane, in Italian cerhotana, which latter word is derived from 
Carpi, the place of manufacture, and from the Latin carina, 
reed ; in German it is called Blasrohr. At the present day 
the blowpipe is only used to hunt small birds. This weapon 
is a simple tube or pipe, through which small earthen balls 
are blown. As a war weapon the blowpipe was used to 
shoot poisoned arrows, Greek fire which scattered sparks, 
and small shot. As the blowpipe is nothing but a tube, 
varying only in length and thickness, it is needless to give 
an illustration. The modern ones now employed to kill the 
little feathered songsters are divided into several pieces, 
joining together like a fishing rod. 


The bow, called in Latin arcus, in German Bogen, is a 
weapon of offence formed of an elastic piece of metal or wood 
slightly depressed in the centre, and which, bent by the 
drawing of the string fixed at each end, shoots off the arrow 
in the endeavour to straighten itself, as soon as the archer 
looses the string he has drawn towards him. The arrow in 
German is called Pfeil. 

The Scythians, Cretans, Parfchians, and Thracians were as 
much celebrated in ancient times for their skill in the 
handling of this weapon as the English archers were during 
the Christian Middle Ages. The Bayeux tapestries, besides 
several miniatures, prove that the bow was among the 
Normans and Britons, as well as among the Kelts and Gauls, 
an instrument of war, while the Germanic races used it only 
for the chase ; with the Huns, however, the bow, which was 
wholly composed of horn, served both purposes. 

During the twelfth century the archer generally carried 
two cases, one was the quiver, from the old French word couir, 
containing the arrows [fleclies in French, from the old 
German Flitz, but called at that time, according to the 

Bows and Arrows. 469 

chronicles of Saint Denis, pilles and sayettes) ; the other was 
the bow case. 

Arrow-heads of the long bow were generally like the 
quarrells of the cross-bow, which in after years superseded the 
bow. They were square (carrels and carreaux in French), 
with two, three, and even foxir points, but seldom barbed 
like the arrows of ancient days. The length of the bow and 
arrow varied according to the country and the height of the 
archer. In England, where the archer shot at least twelve 
arrows in a minute, and seldom missed his aim at two 
hundred and forty yards, the length of a bow was the breadth 
of the archer's span between his outstretched arms, which in 
a well-proportioned man would equal his height. When 
bent the English bow measured about half that size, and the 
arrow was a yard in length. The wood most sought after in 
France for the making of bows was the yew, which was also 
employed for cross-bows. 

In Charles VII.'s time (1422 — 1463) a law was passed for 
the planting of yew-trees in all the Norman churchyards, so 
that wood might never fail for the new weapon, which was 
then in great favour among the French. The bodies of horse 
and foot archers were maintained for a long period, the royal 
regiments under Louis XII. (1514) being the last body of 
archers in France. 

The bow was used until the introduction of fire-arms and 
guns ; even later it was still popular, and preferred to the 
cross-bow, on account of the greater simplicity and sureness 
of the weapon. The cross-bow, more difficult to bend, 
necessarily took more time. The cross-bowman could only 
shoot three bolts during the time in which a skiKul archer 
might discharge from ten to twelve arrows. Besides this, 
the rain slackened the string of the cross-bow, thereby 
taking away all strength, but the long bow-string was easily 
protected from damp. The loss of the battle of Crecy was 
partly the result of this accident (1346), for the French 
cross-bowmen could hardly make any return to the arrows of 
the English archers, and in 1856, when, after the defeat of 
Poictiers, the inferiority of the cross-bow in this respect was 
again shown, bodies of French archers were formed, who 
soon acquired so great skill as to excite the envy of the 
nobles, by whom they were dissolved. In England the bow 

470 Bows and Arrows. 

was used mucli later than on the continent, the English 
archers being so skilful that they long looked with contempt 
upon the rude and heavy hand-gun, at that time in its 
infancy. In the reign of Elizabeth (1558 — 1603) the or- 
ganisation of bodies of archers had attained the greatest 
degree of perfection ; they were all provided with brigantines 
and casques. 

In 1627, at the siege of La EocheUe, we hear of English 
Archers, mercenaries in the pay of Eichelieu. They are 
mentioned in the attack on the island of E6. (See, for 
ancient bows, the Chapters on Arms of the Stone, Iron, and 
Bronze Ages.) 

Bows and Arrows 


1. German bow, early part of the 

Middle Ages. It was about 
4 feet 8 inches in length, and 
made generally of elm or oak. 

2. German bow, end of the Middle 

Ages, from Glockenthon's 
drawings in the Ambras Col- 

3. Italian bow, of the Middle Ages ; 

they were often of steel, and 
about 4 feet 8 inches in length. 

4. Italian bow, fifteenth century, 

from an illustration in the 
Walturiws, printed at Verona 
in 1472. 

Bauslavh Library, Vienna. 

5. Eastern bow, steel, probably of 

the time of the Christian 

Middle Ages. 

L. 89, Mjis^e d'Artillerie, Paris. 

6. German quiver, from the Grerman 

Mneid of Henry of Waldeck, 
manuscript of the thirteenth 

Library of Berlin. 

7. Persian quiver, from a sixteenth- 

century manuscript, a copy of 
the Schah Nameh. 

Munich Library. 

8. Persian bow case. The same. 

9. Ivory arm-brace (Spannarmhand 

in German) to protect the left 
arm from being struck with the 

10. Arm-brace. The same. 

Xi. 97, Musfe d'Artillerie, Paris. 



11. German barbed arrow-head, 3 

inches long; fourteenth cen- 

Klemm Collection, Dresden. 

12. German barbed arrow-head, 

fourteBUth century. 

Soter Collection, Augsburg. 

13. Hussite arrow - head, fifteenth 


Author's Collection. 

14. Ditto. 

15. Italian arrow - head, fifteenth 


Museum of Sigmaringen. 

16. Shell-framed arrow-head. The 


17. Iron and copper screw arrow- 

head. The same. 

18. Flower-shaped arrow-head, fif- 

teenth centui-y. The same. 

19. Iron and copper octagonal 

arrow-head. The same. 

20. Ditto, with short barb. The 


21. Ditto. 

22. Ditto, crescent-shaped. 

23. Ditto, larger moon-shaped. It 

was used to hamstring both 
men and horses. 

24. Hatchet - shaped arrow - head, 

fifteenth century. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

25. Ditto. This head beai'S the 
German eagle, gUt and en- 

26. German incendiary arrow, found 

at Vrach. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

27. Ditto, fifteenth century. Manu- 

script in the Hauslaub Col- 
lection, Vienna. 

28. Ditto. Manuscript of Glocken- 


Amhras Collection. 

29. Ditto, sixteenth century. Frons- 

perger's Kriegsbuch, 1578. 



The cross-bow, called in French arhalete, a word which ia 
derived from the two Latin words arcua and balista,* is 
believed by M. Eodios (wrongly, as I consider) to have 
existed among the Greeks, and that they called the weapon 
gastrafetes, because the cross-bowman rested it on the pit of 
the stomach. (See the Greek arms, and see also p. 30, and 
pp. 55 to 59). The Princess Anna Comnena (1083 — 1148), 
however, only knew the cross-bow from seeing the weapon 
used by the Northern men-at-arms of the first crusade. 
There can be no doubt on this point, for she says in her 
memoirs, " This tzagra, a how we are not acquainted with," etc. 
The cross-bow — composed of the bow ; the stock (Biistung in 
German), with nut ; the sight, for aiming ; the winding key, 
or spring ; and, lastly, of the cross-bow string — is in all pro- 
bability an invention of the nations stigmatised as barbarians. 

An Anglo-Saxon manuscript of the eleventh century, in 
the British Museum, and a mural painting in the Cathedral 
of Brunswick, executed in the time of Henry the Lion, who 
died in 1195, represent cross-bowmen ; but the Bayeux 
tapestries, on the other hajad, of the end of the eleventh and 
beginning of the twelfth century, portray only archers. 
Anna Comnena is not the only author of her time who speaks 
of the cross-bow ; it is mentioned also by William of Tyre. 

This weapon, which does not appear to have been used in 
China until the reign of the emperor Kien-Long (1736), was 
already well known in Trance during the life of Louis le 
Gros (1108 — 1137). A decree of the second council of the 
Lateran, held in 1139, prohibits the use of the cross-bow 
against Christians, but allows it for the purpose of killing 
miscreants and infidels. 

In England Eichard Coeur de Lion (1157—1173) for- 
nished a large number of his foot-soldiers with cross-bows, 
heedless of the bull of Innocent III., in which the prohibi- 
tion of the second council of the Lateran was renewed. A 
short time after, Philip Augustus (1180 — 1223) organised in 

* When the cross-bow was above the ordinary size, the Germans 
called it ballestre. The German ballestre was generally used to shoot 
pebbles, from which it derived its French name galet. 

474 The Cross-low. 

France the first regular bodies of cross-bowmen, both torse and 
foot, who became of great importance. (See pp. 468 to 470,") 
As it is needless to repeat here what has already been 
spoken of in the historical chapter, it is sufficient to describe 
the different kinds of cross-bows. 

A. The cross-bow with goat's-foot lever, which machine is 
intended to string the bow, is sometimes detached, some- 
times fastened to the stock, the difference being easily seen by 
the position of the two rests close to the nut (for the purpose 
of fulcrum to the lever). This weapon was constructed 
either with or without a stirrup. 

B. The cross-bow with windlass, in which the windlass 
(called in French cranequin) is not fixed to the stock. This 
cross-bow is distinct from the one with goat's-foot lever, by 
reason of the two rests being placed about six inches below 
the nut, as the windlass has a much longer catch than the 

0. The cross-bow with windlass is called in French arbalete 
a tours, arbalete de passe, and de passot. 

The windlass was called a tours, because that part of it 
intended to be fixed to the stock to draw the string was often 
battlemented like a tower. The stock of the windlass cross- 
bow, when the detached mechanism to draw the bow-string 
is provided with two cranks and two pulleys, has no fixed 
rests, but is always worked by a stirrup. The Genoese 
archers were aimed with this kind of cross-bow at the battle 
of Agincourt (1420) ; which was also extremely in req[uest 
among the Belgians, and was particularly used for shooting 
at a mark, and for the defence of ramparts. In Germany 
these cross-bows were sometimes from twenty to thirty feet 
in size. 

D. The crossbow with wheeled gear is an exceedingly 
rare kind, the author never having met specimens in any 
collection, and consequently collecting his knowledge of 
them from fifteenth-century manuscripts. The wheeled 
gear, which replaces the windlass and goat's-foot lever, was 
fixed to the stock of the cross-bow in a groove, and was wound 
up by means of an equally stationary key. A catch, such as 
exists in a capstan, prevented the wheel from unwinding when 
the pressure on the key was relaxed. The illustrations re- 
present the cross-bow with the stirrup. 

The Cross-bow. 475 

E. The cross-bow (a gajet in Prencli, because the missiles 
used wore stones) of the sixteenth century is the next in 
order. Instead of quarrells or cross-bow bolts this weapon 
shot leaden balls, and even stones. The stock, which between 
the nut and the bow was generally curved, was often made 
of iron. This weapon of medium strength is bent by means 
of a lever fixed to the stock, or with the hand alone. 

F. The barrelled cross-bow, so called because the groove 
through which the quarrell slips is covered by a half tube, 
leaving a passage for the string. This tunnel gives the 
stock the appearance of a gun. The barrelled cross-bow was 
used during the seventeenth century, and is not of much 
strength ; it is bent by means of a stick, or simply with the 
hand, and has served as a model for the manufacture of 
modem cross-bows. 

G. The Chinese cross-bow with sliding chamber, which 
supplied twenty arrows in succession ; this might be termed 
a repeating or revolving cross-bow. 

There are some German cross-bows which, when the 
weapon is not bent, curve outwards from the stock, instead 
of towards it, as the steel arm does. This contrary curve 
was employed to increase the strength of the bow when bent. 
The bows of the cross-bow, manufactured in layers of wood 
and horn, were for a long time considered to be phalli of 

The missiles used for all cross-bows, with the exception of 
the pebble-shooting cross-bow, were called quarrells or bolts 
(Bolzen in German). 

One kind of quarrell was feathered (vireton in French), so 
as to regulate the flight by giving a rotatory movement. 
Another kind (matras, or carreau assommeur in French; 
Fogelbolzen in German) ended in a round knob, which killed 
without shedding blood. It was used in hunting, especially 
against feathered game, when the hunters desired to preserve 
their spoils uniniured. 


The Cross-low. 

German cross-bowmen, from a manuscript, beginning of the fifteenth 
century. The cross-bow with windlass may be noticed, as well as fiery 
arrows. One of the soldiers already carries a hand-cannon. 

Hauslaub Library, Vienna. 

The Cross-bow. 


A. Cross-bow with goafs-foot lever 
(^Armhrust mil Geisfuss, or 
Sebelarmbrust in German). 

1. Cross-liow with goat's-foot lever, 

from an Anglo-Saxon miniature 
of the eleventh century. 
Library of the British Museum. 

2. Cross-bow with goat's-foot lever, 

from a mural painting in the 
Cathedral of Brunswick, exe- 
cuted in the reign of Henry 
the Lion, who died in 1195. 

3. Cross-bow with goat's-foot lever. 

It may be noticed that the 
rests X are placed close to the 
sides of the nut. The cata- 
logue of the Museum of Copen- 
hagen, where this weapon is 
exhibited, has engraved it along 
with a windlass, which cannot 
possibly belong to it, for the 
cross-bow with windlass has 
the rests x placed at least six 
inches below the nut, the lever 
of the windlass being much 
longer than that of the goat's- 

4. Goat's-foot lever (Geisfuss in 

German) intended to bend the 
preceding cross-bow. 

4 bis. Cross-bow with goat's-foot 
lever fixed to the stock.* 

* A similar weapon in iron wood, 
sixteenth century, belonging to 
Ferdinand I., proved by the inscrip- 
tion on the bow : Dom Fernando rei 
de Romano, followed by four Golden 
Fleeces. It bears the name of the 
Spanish armourer, Juan Deneinas. 
This valuable cross-bow once be- 
longed to M. Spengel, at Munich, 
but is at present in the collection of 
the Count of Nieuwerkerke. 


The Cross-how. 

B. Cross-bow with windlass (TFin- 
denamibrmt in German). 

5. German cross-bow with windlass, 
fifteenth century. The rests x 
are placed about 6 inches be- 
low the nut. 
Imperial Gewehrkammer, Vienna. 

6. Windlass for the preceding cross- 
Imperial Qewehrkammer, Vienna. 

7. Swiss cross-bow with windlass, 
fifteenth century. Same de- 
scription as No. 5. 

8. Windlass tor the preceding cross ■ 

9. Tyrolese cross-bow with wind- 
lass, end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Same description as for 
Nos. 5 and 7. 

The Cross-hoiv. 


10. CroBS-bow with the windlass 
applied to the stock. It will 
be remarked that the rests x 
are placed from 4 to about 6 
inches below the nut, as the 
grip of the windlass requires 
more space than the goat's- 
foot lever. 

0. Cross-bow with latch, sometimes 
styled simply Latch ( Flaschen- 
mg Armhrusl in German). 

11. Cross-bow with windlass. There 
are no rests, for the windlass 
is fitted to the foot of the 

12. Windlass {FUachenzug in Ger- 
man) for the preceding cross- 

13. Part of a windlass, in the shape 
of a battlemented tower. 

Mus^e d'AHiUerie, Fans. 

14. Oross-bowwithwindlassfastened 


The Co'ORs-how. 

15. Bow of a German cross-bow 
with windlass, about i feet 8 
inches, beginning of the fif- 
teenth century. This huge 
weapon, whose stock measures 
somewhat over 4 feet 6 inches, 
is exhibited in the Arsenal of 
the city of Munich. 

15 a. Cross-bow to shoot two arrows 
at a time, from the Walturius, 

Sauslaub Library, Vienna. 

Wheel cross-bow with gear and 
catch (^Zahnradamibrust, in 

15 B. Wheel cross-bow with gear, 
from a manuscript, beginning 
of the fifteenth century. 

Ambras Collection. 

E. Prodd, a light cross-bow, used 
chiefly in field sports; six- 
teenth century {Stein- or 
Kugelarmhrust, also BaUedre 
in German). 

16. Prodd. tiS shout pebbles, 

The Cr OSS-how. 

17. steel chain of a prodd ; a very 
rare kind. 

Az Collection, Lintz. 

IS. Iron prodd, end of the seven- 
teenth century. 

F. Barrelled cross-bow (Lant- or 
Hinntn-Amibrust in German). 

19. Groovuil or barrelled cross-bow, 
seventeenth century. 
L. 72, Mus^e d'Artillerie, Paris. 

G. Chinese cross-bow with sliding ;xx> 
chamber (^Chinesische Bepeti- w^^ 
tions Armhrmt in German). 

20. Chinese cross-bow with sliding 
chamber, for shooting twenty 
arrows successively. 

Mus^e d'Artillene, Paris, 

2 1 


The Cross-hew and QuarreU. 

21. Gun cross-bow (Pistolen-Arm- 
brust in German), sixteenth 
century, once belonging to 
Ferdinand I. (1503—1564), 
shown by the name Ferdi- 
nandus and his coat of arms 
engi'aved on the barrel and on 
the steel bow. This cross-bow, 
serving a twofold purpose, 
measures 30 inches by 22^. 
National Museum, of Munich. 

22. Quarrell, or cross-bow bolt 

(Bohen in German), used at 

the battle of Sempach (1386 ;. 

Arsenal of Geneva. 

<a m ' n r I JZJJ^Jf J^ 


23. Single - pointed and feathered 
cross-bow bolt, for battle. 

li, ^ 24. Treble-pointed and feathered 

"rl/V^J, "^ ' cross-bow bolt, for battle. 



^dorar/ncsn^a, , 

25. Four - pointed and feathered 
cross-bow bolt, for battle. 

QuarreUs, or Bolts. 

2t! Bajbed (Geaidermkt in Ger- ^ 'f 

man) and feathered crosa-bow ^C^^ — 
bolt, for war and chase. 



27. Tyrolese feathered cross-bow _.___ 
bolt, for hunting chamois. ^— 



28. Tyrolese feathered cross-bow 

bolt, for hunting chamois. 

29. War cross-bow bolt. The steel 

head is three-sided and the 
feather is made of leather and 
slightly curved, so as to 
strengthen the arrow's flight 
by a rifled or rotatory move- 

30. The same, with a single point. ^ - r| || .i|, j - 



31. Bird bolt {Vogelbolzen in Ger- 

man). The circular head is 
flattened at the top, with a 
small steel square rising in 
the centre. 

32. Fiery cross-bow bolt. 

Arsenal of Zurich. 

33. German barbed and feathered 

bolt (GewiderhaJct in Ger- 
man), 2 feet 7 inches long. 
The cross-bow to which this 
bolt belongs is about 5 feet 2 
inches by 4 feet 11 inches. 
Arsenal of the Oity o/ Munich. 







34. Quiver for bolts (Bolzen-Kocher in Ger- 
man), twelfth centuiy, from a mural 
painting in the Cathedral of Brunswick, 
reign of Henry the Lion, who died in. 


35. Quiver for bolts, leather and wood. 

Collection of Prince Charles, Berlin. 


^f}. Quiver for bolts, leather and wood. 
Historical Museum in the Palace of Monbijou^ 
at Berlin. 


37. Steel quiver for bird-bolts, end of the six- 
teenth or beginning of the seventeenth 

Meyrich Collection^ 




THE lustory of the fire-arm, dating feom its first appear- 
ance in Eviiope at the commencement of the fourteenth 
century, has been given at pages 59 to 74, and each illustration 
has been explained in a detailed manner, which could not figure 
at so great length in the historical chapter. Two things we 
know : that it is impossible to fix the date of the invention 
of gunpowder, and that the first fire-aim was a large bored 
weapon ; in fact, the common kitchen mortar. In crushing 
a mixture of saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoal, the tyro found 
himseK blown backwards by the explosion which resulted 
from the pounding. Turning the lesson to good account, he 
made a small hole at the further end of this kitchen mortar, 
so as to fire the compound without personal danger, and thus in- 
vented the first fire-arm. We may then fairly consider the mor- 
tar to be the shape of the first invented fire-arm of heavy calibre ; 
it was followed in succession by the cannon, (from quennon, a 
name derived frSm the German Kanne or Canne, pot, or can), 
which was loaded at the breech ; the cannon, which received 
its charge by means of a movable chamber ;* and, finally, by 
the muzzle-loading cannon. 

Originally made of forged iron, from the beguming of 
the fifteenth century fire-arms were cast in bronze, at which 
period also appear the trunnions, supporting the weight of the 
cannon, besides preventing the recoil against the gun-carriage, 
doing away with the use of the butt, and rendering more 
easy the vertical pointing. Movable gun-carriages also re- 
placed stationary ones, and fore-carriages were soon after- 
wards added. 

The first portable fire-arm, or small hand cannon, is of the 

* Cannons loaded by means of a movable chamber are used at the 
present day in China, for the camions from the ramparts taken in the 
campaign of 1860, and preserved in the Musee d'AitUlerie at Paris, are 
almost all of this description. 

486 Fire-arms. 

same date as the breech-loadiag cannon, both being invented 
in the beginning of the fourteenth century. 

We have seen that the fire-arms of large bore may be re- 
duced into four distinct classes, notwithstanding the diversified 
descriptions of those authors of the sixteenth century who 
have often described the same weapon in a dozen different ways. 
The classification of the portable fire-arm may also be sim 
plified by considering only the varieties in the mechanism 
required for discharging the piece, the improvements of the 
lock, in short (GewehrscMoss in German) ; and paying no 
heed either to varied forms or fanciful names. These 
different kinds may be reduced to twelve, without including 
either the air-gun, which should be quite put aside, as the 
propelling power is pneumatic force, and not explosion of 
gvmpowder, or the hair trigger {Stecher), erroneously called 
in France la double detente, which may be adapted to all 
fire-arms constructed with a view to accuracy of aim. 

The species differing by the mechanism of their locks are : 

The first hand cannon; middle of the fourteenth century. 
This weapon was of forged iron, roughly made, and fastened 
to a heavy block of wood ; it could not be raised to the 
shoulder, and the touch-hole (Ziindloch in German), placed 
above the charge, had sometimes a small hinged plate cover, 
to preserve the priming from damp. When made shorter it 
was called petronel, and used by cavalry. 

Tlie portable hand cannon ; end of the fourteenth century. 
This one differs from its predecessor by the wood being 
more shaped and provided with a stock (Kolbe in German), 
intended to be shouldered ; the touch-hole also is on the 
right of the barrel. 

These weapons were fired by means of a detached match. 

27*6 serpetitine gun, but without trigger or spring (Mit 
Schlangenhahn-Luntentrager, ohne Feder noch Driicker, in 
German), invented about 1424. Prom henceforth the match 
was always held by the serpentine or linstock. 

The springless matchlock (Mit Schlangenhahn-Luntentrager 
and Driicker, ohne Feder, in German), with which better aim 
could be taken.* 

* Tin's arm ia still uaed among the Mahrattas of India, amongwiaom it 
was inti'oduced by the Europeans of the east coast towards the end of the 
Bxteenth century. The serpentine generally represents a dragon's head. 

Fire-arms. 487 

Tlie inaiclilock, or arquebus, from the old German. 

TJte harquebus (Schlangenhahn-Luntentrager, mit Dr&cker 
und Feder), invented in the second half of the fifteenth 
century. This is the first invented weapon capable of 
taking a steady aim. The barrel was generally about a yaixl 
in length. 

The double matchJoch (Dappelhahen in German). It differs 
from the matchlock on account of the two serpentines 
striking downwards on opposite sides by means of two 
triggers and springs. The barrels of these weapons mea- 
sured from a yai-d and a half to two yards in length. They 
were sometimes fixed to a stand with iron points, or with 
wheels, and sometimes placed on the rampart wall. For this 
end the cannons were provided with hooks [Hahen), from 
which may have been derived the old German term of Hack- 

le matchlock arquebus, which differs in hardly any respect 
from the matchlock gun. 

The icheelloch gun (^Badschlossbiichse in German), invented 
in Nmemberg, 1515. It is remarkable by the wheel-lock, 
composed of ten pieces, and has nothing in common with 
the matchlock, the match being replaced by the sulphurous 
pyrites [Schwefelkies in German). 

The hair trigger (Stecher), invented at Munich in 1543, 
und erroneously called in France the double trigger, is an 
ingenious construction, intended to render the motion pro- 
duced by the snapping of the ordinary trigger hardly per- 
ceptible, but cannot be considered a new category of arms, as 
it may be adapted to all gun-looks. 

The rifle- barrelled arquebus (Biichse in German). The 
rifled barrel was invented in Germany ; according to some, at 
Leipsic, in 1498 ; according to others, at Vienna or Nurem- 
berg, by Gaspard Zollner or KuUner. 

As for the wheel-lock musket (Mushete in German), it 
differs from the arquebus only in the greater size of the 

The snaphaunce gun (Schnapphahn in German) derives its 
name from a pecking fowl, and dates from the sixteenth 
century. (See pages 69 and 70.) 

The snaphaunce lock, which worked by means of the 
enlphurous pyrites, was the forerunner of the flint lock. 

488 Fire-arms. 

The Frencli * flint-lock gun {Flinte in German), probably- 
invented in France between 1630 — 1640. See page 70. 

The carbine (from the Arab Karab, weapon), which has a 
rifled baiTel, and whose name is given in Germany both to 
the small cavalry weapon and to the hunting weapon, does 
not form a different category. It is simply a rifled-barrelled 

The percussion-capped gun, invented by the Scottish gun- 
smith Forsyth in 1807. (See pages 71 and 72.) 

The needle gun, invented in 1827 by the German Nicholas 
Dreyse. (See page 74.) 


The mortar, from the Latin mortarium (Ilorser or Bbhler 
in German), is the most ancient European fire-arm, aud 
derives both name and existence from the same source, 
namely, the common mortar used to pound solids. When 
first invented, about the middle of the fourteenth century, 
the mortar was forged of iron and without trunnions (Zapfen 
in German), that is to say, without the pivots placed under 
the barrel of the cannon, to prevent the recoil on the gun- 
carriage, and to facilitate the pointing. 

This important benefit dates from the fourteenth centui-y. 
at which period the armourers began to cast cannons instead 
of manufacturing them with iron bars bound together by 
hoops, as the casks of the present day are made. See pages 
.59 to 66. 

* T)iis fire-arm, which had been gradually brouglit to a high degree 
of perfection, was composed of the barrel {Lauf in German), the farther 
end of which was called diamber, the nearer, mouth, and the diameter of 
the barrel, calibre ; of the loclc (^Schloss in German), and the stock (Scliafi 
in German). The extreme end of the barrel, joining it to the stock 
(termed by English gunsmiths the lump), is called queue in French ; 
touch-hole is tlie opening through which the powder is fixed (Ziindloeh 
in German) ; trigger {Driicker in German), the piece of iron which moves 
the spring (Feder in German) to snap the cock (Bahn in German). 

The Mortar. 


1. German moiibter cauuou nr 
mortar, manufactra'ed of ircjii 
bars, which being placeil 
lengthwise from end to end are 
fastened by circles of ii'on. 
This cannon, 7 feet 10 inclies 
in length, and 3 ftet 6 inches 
in diameter, has a shield placed 
between the handles, the shape 
of which indicates the beginning 
of the foui-teenth century. The 
cannon was forged at Stier in 
Austria, and was taken by the 
Turks, from whom the Aus- 
trians recovered it in 1529. 

Imperial Ar&enal of Vienna. 

2. Jlortar, forged iron, with rings, 
but without trunnions ; middle 
of the fourteenth century. 

Epinal Museum. 

3. Stone mortar fStein-Bohler or 
Stein-Morser in German), from 
the siege of Waldshut (1468). 

i. Mortar, forged iron, 2 feet 8 
inches in leugth, and about 1 
foot in diameter. Tliis cannon 
has trunnions (Zapfen in Ger- 
man), and cannot be earlier 
than the beginning of the iif- 
teenth century. 

Arsenal of Berlin. 
5. Bronze mortar with ring, but 
witliout trunnions ; end of the fifteenth century. It was found in the 
idiawings made by Glockenthon of the armour contained in the arsenals 
"of the Emperor Maximilian I. (1505). 

Ambras Collection. 



The barrel of tliis fire-arm is generally of a conical stape ; 
the name is derived from the German Kanne and Kanone, and- 
not from the Greek Kana, reed : the cannon is the follower 
of the mortar. The name trunnions is given to the largo 
pivots placed under the gun to prevent the recoil against the 
gun-carriage, and also to facilitate the pointing. The half 
rings, often in the shape of dolphins, surmounting the cannon, 
are called handles ; the diameter of the bore is the calibre ; 
1 he opposite end to the mouth is the breecJi, finished by the 
button, now termed cascabel. 

The first breech-loading caimons were called homhardcs 
and pierriers ; these were shortly followed by the movable 
chamber system, and then by the muzzle-loading cannon. 
(See pages 59 to 67). 

Serpentines, coulevrlnes, demi-cotdevrines, faucons, faucon- 
neaiix, passe volants, hasilics, spirales, bomhardes, are the vague- 
names by which the same kind of cannons are often described 
in different localities. 


Stone Mortars in Forged Iron. 

Stone Mortars in Forged Iron. 493"- 

1. Breech-loading cannon, forged iron, open at both ends; English, 

from the battle of Cie'oy (1346). 

2. Breech-loading cannon, open at both ends. The butt, or recoil piece, 

was lowered during the loading. From a manuscript, fourteenth 

3. Blind, or mantlet to a breech-loading cannon (Schirmdach in Ger- 

man), second half of the fourteenth century. 

4. Breech-loadiug cannon, which the artilleryman is about to load with 

red-hot shot* Manuscript, beginning of the fifteenth century. 

Ambras Collection. 

5. Breech-loading cannon, fifteenth-eentui'y manuscript. 

Anibras Collection. 

* The illustration in this manuscript shows that neither Franz von 
Sickingen, 1525, nor Etienne Bathory, King of Poland, were the first to 
use red-hot shot. It is well known that during the fifteenth century 
red-hot shot, or pieces of iron wrapped in wet linen, were shot into 
besieged towns to bum them, though they did not become general- 
until the seventeenth century. A represents the breech, B the muzzle- 


Mortars and Gannons. 

Mortars and Cannons. 495 

6. Memish breeoh-loading cannon. This curious engine, Trhose file- 

chamber screws into the barrel, is of forged iron, made at Ghent 
between 1404 and 1419. 

7. German cannon cast in bronze, beginning of the fifteentli centur)'. 

The length is 12 feet, the diameter 2. The cannon bears the 
following inscription in German : My name is Catherine, beware of 
my contents. I punish injustice. George Endorfer cast me. Also; 
Sigismund, Archduke of Austria, anno 1404. This cannon, already 
with handles and showing traces of a cover to the lock, comes from 
Khodes, and is now in the Muse'e d'ArtiUerie at Paris. 

8. "Wrought-iron cannon, taken at the battle of Grandson (1476). The 

lengtli is 4 feet 8 inches, the diameter is 2 inches, and tljere are no 

Museum of Lausanne. 

9. Breech-loading cannon, wrought iron, fifteenth century, taken from 

the Maiy Rose, a ship sunk at the beginning of the sixteenth 

Tower of London. 

10. Wrought-iron cannon, taken at the battle of Grandson (1476). 

Length 4 feet 6 inches, diameter 1 foot 8 inches. 

Museum, of Lausanrte. 

11. Wrought-iron cannon or mortar, with wheeled gun-carriage, from 

the battle-field of Morat (1476). The length of the cannon is 
2 feet 6 inches, the diameter 8 inches ; the gun-carriage is 2 yards 
long, and the granite ball or shot 10 inches in diameter. This 
Burgundian cannon has no trunnions. 

Gymnasium of Moral. 


Mortars and Gannonn 

12. Breech-loading cannon withi 
wheeled and roofed gun-car- 
riage, end of the fifteenth 
century. This piece is still 
without trunnions. 

1+ ISreech - loading wrought -iron 
cannon "wittiout trunnions, 
from the Chateau de Sainte 
Uisane, Switzerland, where it 
■was placed after the battle of 
Morat (1476). Martinus 
Jacobus {De machinis lihri 
decern, 1449) * gives the 
drawing of a similar cannon. 

].■). The same. 

16. Mortar or cannon, elbow-shaped, 

Gei-man, fifteenth ceutm-y, 
with movable chamber and 
breech - loading ; from the 
engravings of the Jnstitu- 
tionum reipvhllose militaris, 
&c., by Nicolai Marescalehi, 
printed at Eostock, 1515. 
HausJaub Library at Vienna. 

17. Mortar or cannon, elbovf-shaped, 

Italian, fifteenth century, 
breech-loader, with movable 
chamber ; from Martinus 
Jacobus, De maeliinis lihri 
decern, 1449. 

* Manuscripts in the library of 
St. Mark at Venice. 

Mortars and Gannons. 


18. Breech-loading cannon, fifteenth 

century. Manuscript in the 
Hauslaub Library, Vienna. 

19. Wrought-iron cannon, loaded by 

means of a movable chamber. 
Called in French venglaire, 
from the German Vogler and 
Vogelfanger, and from the 
Flemish VoglwleT. The muz- 
zle is raised to the ■wished-for 
Museum of Bruesels ami Manuscript 
in the Saudavh Library at 

20. Wrought-iron cannon with 

movable chamber, fifteenth 

Tower of London. 

■21. Cannon -with movable chamber, 
fifteenth century, from a 
manuscript in the Ambras 
Collection, Vienna. 

22. English cannon with movable 

cnamber, fifteenth century. 
A, The movable chamber. 

23. Wrought-iron cannon with 

movable chamber and trun- 
nions.* The movable chamber 
is missing. 
No. 1, Mus^e d'ArtiUerie, Paris. 

" See the explanation of this 
name at the beginning of the 
chapter. See also, for the veuglaire, 
No. 34. 

Gannons, various. 

24. German cannon or oulverin 
(in German, Feldechlange), 
muzzle-loader, without trun- 
nions, but on a movable gun- 
carriage with toothed rack; 
from a manuscript by Zeit- 
blom, fifteenth century. 
Library of Priiice Waldburg 

25. German gun-carriage, 
with small carmous. 


26, German muzzle-loading cannon. 
Still without trunnions, but 
has the toothed rack for rais- 
ing and depressing the cannon. 


27. Id., id. 

28. German muzzle-loading cul- 
verin (in German, Feld- 
schlange). StUl without trun- 
nions, but on a movable gun- 
oairiage with toothed rack. 

Cannons, various. 


2S). Barguudian muzzle-loading can- 
non, Tvithout trunnions, but 
on a movable gun-carriage 
with toothed rack; this 
weapon was brought from the 
field of Nancy (1477), and is 
at present at Neuveville. 

30. English muzzle-loading cannon, 
end of the fifteenth century. 
Tower of London. 

SI. English muzzle-loading cannon, 
without trunnions, and ou 
grooved rack. 

32. German muzzle-loading cannon, 

without trunnions, fifteenth 
Mauslaub I/ibrary at Vienna. 

33. Swiss cannon rammer, called 

lanteme, fifteenth century, 
copper, on a long shaft, the 
end of which contains a 
wadding screw. Arsenal of 
Soleui'e. See also, farther on, 
the same kind of loading rod 
from Fronsperger's book, six- 
teenth centm-y. 

33 %:^^>^^=m^ 

500 Camions, various. 

a*.. A. 



A and B. German eerpentme 
cannons (called OrgelgeschUtz 
in German : see also, at p. 65, 
the Todtenorgel, or deatli 
organ), wrought iron, each 
with five muzzle - loading 
barrels, middle of the fifteenth 

Mmeum of Sigmaringen, 

Geiman serpentine organ with 
forty cannons, from the repro- 
dactions des armes de VEm- 
pereur Maximilien I., drawn 
in 1505, by Nicolas Glocken- 
thon. Ambras Collection. 
See, farther on, the " organs " 
of the seventeenth century. 

Cannons with trunnions, which 
make their first appearance in 
the middle of the fifteenth 

German cannon with 
chamber and trunnions, from 
the drawings by Glockenthon. 
See also No. 23. 

Ambras Collection. 

Carmons, various. 


38. German war chariot, called in French Bibaudequin, fortified with 
arrows and fonr bronze /oZeonefa. Prom Glockenthon's drawings. 

Jmhras Collection. 


Lannons, various. 

Cannons, various. 503 

39. Two small falconets or cannons, iron, with trunniona, from Gljcken- 

thon's dxawings. 

Amhras CoXiection, 

40. Breech-loading cannon with trunnions, from a manuscript of 

Senftenberg, a commander of artillery at Dantzic ; sixteenth cen- 

41. Muzzle-loading cannon with trunnions, called by Fronsperger, in 

his Kriegsbueh, published at Frankfort in 1573, Basilmm; 
weighing 75 hundredweight, carrying 70 lbs. of iron, and drawn 
by 25 horses. By the side is the loading rod of copper, sometimes 
called lanteme, already mentioned imder No. 33. The artillery- 
man takes his level by means of a square. The Austrian army 
stUI used the loader at the battle of MoUwitz in 1741, while the 
Prussians had for some time used a prepared charge or cartridge. 
The rammer and sponge are still used, 

42. Breech-loading and rifled cannon with trunnions, end of the six- 

teenth century. Length, 6 feet 4 inches ; diameter, 7 inches ; 
calibre, 3 inches. The breech is grooved, which closes the end 
of the cannon. By the side is a section of the chamber. 

Arsenal of Zurich. 

Cannons, various. 

43. Serpentine organ, with forty- 

two cannons, to be fired six at 
once, seventeenth century. 

Arsenal of Soleure. 

44. Small Swedish muzzle-loading 

cannon, with trunnions, seven- 
teenth century. Length, 3 feet 
8 inches ; diameter, 4 inches. 
The baiTel is formed of a thin 
copper tube, wired outside, and 
the whole covered with leather. 
Arsenals of Berlin and Ham- 
burg, Muse'e d'Artillerie, Paris, 
and collection of the King of 
Sweden. In the Imperial Ar- 
senal at Vienna is a leathern 
gun lined with a bronze tube, 
which the city of Augsburg 
offered to the Emperor Joseph 
I. (1705-1711). 

45. Muzzle-loading cannon, with 

trunnions, made of a tube of 
copper encased in a thick 
coating of hme, and the whole 
covered with leather : this was 
a light weapon, and easy to 
carry in mountainous districts ; 
the length is 7 feet ; it belongs 
to the seventeenth century. 

Arsenal of Zurich, 

46. Swiss breech- loading serpentine 

cannon, seventeenth century. 
Arsenal of Soleure. 

47. Swiss breech-loading serpentine 

cannon, with the maker's 
name, Zell Blasi, 1614. 

Arsenal of Bale. 


Cannons, various. 

Cannons, various. 507 

-46. Small iron breeoli - loading cannon, on revolving gun-carriage 
(German, Drehbasse). This piece was left at Munich in 1632 by 
Gustavus Adolphus. 

49. Small copper cannon (Swiss), adapted for firing ten successive 

charges. The length is 27 inches, and it bears the signature of 
Welten, Inventor, 1742. 

Arsenal of Zurich. 

50. Breech loading cannon of the eighteenth century, from the memoirs 

of Colonel Wurstemberger. 

51. Paixhars howitzer cannon, invented by H. C. Paixliana. 

Cannons, various. 

Catino7is. variouj. 509 

52. Armstrong gun, 600 lb. projectile, invented by Sir William Arm- 

strong & Co. 

53. Large breech-loading Prussian cannon, of steel, cast in tlie foundry 

of M. Krupp, exhibited in Paris in 1867. It weighs rather under 
50 tons, and the shot 1192 pounds. 

54. Prussian rifled field-piece, loaded at the breech. It is of cast steel, 

and was invented by M. Krupp. This cannon, which is of the 
same power as the French " pifece de douze," is loaded with solid 
shot, covered with a leaden casing, so as to fit closely into the 

55. Breech of preceding guns, on M. Krupp's principle. The closing is 

effected by means of a lateral shield, which is pressed by a turn 
ot the key, and the breech closed at the momen* of firing. 



."iU. A grenade enclosed in a canvas- 
bag, sixteenth century : this- 
was discharged frora a mortar. 

57. Inner casing of the preceding 

.58. Grape-shot (German, Trauhen- 
liageT), sixteenth century. It 
consisted of sixteen balls placed 
around a wooden stem, and 
enclosed in a bag. 

Sg 59. Interior view of preceding shot. 

60. Grape-shot composed of eighteen 

61. Interior view of the preceding 

02. Chain - shot (French, ohalne 

63. Shot united together. 

64. Double shot with connecting 

'jpt 65. Linstock (German, iMnfeiisioc/j; 
French, Porte-mache). 

Woolwich Arsenal. 

Portable or Hand Fire-arms. 


The history of hand fire-arms has been already given at 
pages 67 to 74, and continued at the begimung of this 

1. Hand cannon for foot soldier in 

cast iron, belonging to the first 
half of the fom-teenth century. 
The touch-hole (German, Ziind- 
loch) is on the upper part of 
the cannon. 
Arsenal of Berne, and National 
Museum of Prague. 

2. Hand cannon for foot soldier, 

from a MS. of the end of the 
fourteenth century. The touch- 
hole is on the top of the cannon. 

8. Hand cannon for foot soldier, 
from a manuscript of the year 
1172, in the library of Haus- 
laub at Vienna. 

4. Hand cannon for a knight, called 
a petronel (see historical chap- 
ter), from a manuscript in the 
ancient library of Bui'gundy. 
The articulated plate armour 
is characteristic of the latter 
half of the fifteenth century, 
though the bassinet has a 
movable vizor. These hand 
cannons were in use at the 
same time as the serpentine 
arquebnse, and even as the 
flint and steel arquebuses and 
muskets, i.e. till tire beginning 
of the sixteenth century, as may 
be seen from the drawings, by 
Glockenthon, of the arms of the 
Emperor Maximilian I. (1505). 

Hand Fire-arms. 

5. German hand cannon, fixed on 

wooden boards or standa, be- 
longing to the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. The touch- 
hole is still on the upper pai't 
of the cannon. From the draw- 
ings of Glockenthon, done in 

Amhras CoUeetion, 

6. German hand cannon in fluted 

iron, of the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, or end of the 
fifteenth century. It is only 
9J inches in length, 2 inches in 
diameter, and is fixed on to a 
piece of oak about 5 feet in 
length. In the Germanic Mu- 
seum, where it is wrongly as- 
cribed to the fourteenth century. 

7. Hand cannon in wrought iron, 

called a petronel, to he used by 
a knight. It is of the end of 
the fifteenth century. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

8. Hand cannon with stock, of the 

end of the fourteenth century. 
The touch-hole is on the top of 
the cannon. 

9. Angular hand cannon on stock ; 

to be used in defending ram- 
parts. It is a little over 6 feet 
in length, and the touch-hole 
is on the top of the cannon. 
This piece was used in the de- 
fence of Morat against Charles 
le Te'meraire (1479). 

Gymnasium of Morat. 

10. Eight-sided hand cannon with 

stock. The touch-hole, which 
is on the top of the cannon, 
has a cover moving on a pivot. 
This cannon is 54 inches in 
length, and the balls or bullets 
about IJ inch in diameter. It 
belongs to the first part of tlie 
fifteenth century. 

Museum of Dresden. 
10 B. Persian matchlock cannon, 
copied from the Scliah-Namen, 
in the Library of Munich, 

Hand Fire-arms. 


11. Hand cannon on stock, end of 

the fourteentli, or beginning 
of the fifteenth century. In 
this piece the touch-hole is on 
the right side. 

12. Hand cannon -with serpentine, 

a match-holder, without trig- 
ger or spring, invented about 
the year 1424. 

13. Serpentine or guncock for match, 

without trigger or spring. 

14. Serpentine without trigger, but 

with spring. 

15. Serpentine with spring, but 

without trigger. 

16. Serpentine lock, without trigger 

or spring. 

17. Hackbuss lock with spring and 


18. Hackbuss (in German, Saken- 

biiclise) or hand cannon, with 
butt end and serpentine lock. 
It belongs to the second half 
of the fifteenth century. The 
match is no longer loose, but 
fixed to the serpentine, which 
springs back by means of the 
trigger. This sort of cannon 
is generally about 40 inches 
in length, and it is usually 
provided with a hook, so that 
when it is placed on a wall 
it cannot slip back. The hack- 
buss without a hook is, as a 
rule, better made, and was 
subsequently called arqueiuse 
with matchlock. It had also 
front and back sights (in Ger- 
man, Visir und Kern). 

2 L 


Hana Fire-arms. 

19. Chinese arquebuse. 

Tower of London. 

20. Swiss arquebuse of the second 

half of the fifteenth century. 
Arsenal of Scliaffhauseii. 

21. Double arquebuse (in German, 

DoppelhaJcen). This weapon 
had two serpentines, or dog- 
heads, falling from opposite 
points, and was generally used 
in defending ramparts; the 
barrel was usually from 5 to 
6§ feet in length. 

22. Hackbuss, loaded from the 

breech by means of a revolv- 
ing chamber, a weapon be- 
longing to the beginning of 
the sixteenth century. 

Arsenal of Berne. 

In the Museum of Zurich 
there is a double arquebuse, 
for using on ramparts, loaded 
from the breech, and 10 feet 
in length. It is of the end of 
the sixteenth century, and has 
a wheel-lock and serpentine, 

23. Hackbuss and gun fork (Ger- 

mau, Gabel), from the draw- 
ings of Glockenthon; it may 
also be seen in the engraving 
of the "Triumph of the 
Emperor Maximilian I." From 
this we see that the hackbuss, 
or match arquebuse, was used 
for a long time together with 
the wheel-lock arquebuse. 

Hand Fire-arms. 


24. Serpentine haokbuss with match, 

also called musket. It is also 3 I 
fm-oished with a fork, called 
fourguine in French. 

25. Hackbuss or musket, with link.* 

Tower of London. 

26. Serpentine haokbuss with link, 

also called arquebuse, loaded 
from the breech by means of 
a revolving chamber. It dates 
from the year 1537, and bears 
the initials W. H. by the side 
of a fleur-de-lys. 

7, Torwer of London. 

26 irts. Eye protector, belonging to 
a musket in the Arsenal of 

27. Hand cannon with rasp, early 

part of tlie sixteentli century. 
It is entirely of iron, and is 
called Monchsbiichse (monk's 
arquebuse). For a very long 
time it was wrongly thought 
to be the first fire-arm ever 
made, and to have belonged 
to a monk named Berthold 
Schwartz (1290-1320), who 
was also said to have invented 
gunpowder. This little weapon 
is about HJ inches in length, 
and the barrel 5 inches in 
diameter. It preceded the 
wlieel-lock, and appears to 
have suggested the idea of it. 
A rasp scatters sparks from 
the sdphurous pyrites by fric- 

3Iuseum of Dresden. 

" It may be noticed that the 
author has classed all the serpentine 
and link or match fire-arms as hack- 
busses, though they were sometimes 
called arquebuses and link muskets. 
The musket is distinguished from 
the arquebuse by its larger dimen- 


Hand Fire-arms. 

28. Hand cannon on rest, and German arrjucbusier. From the designa 
of Glookenthon of the tluxe Arsenals of the Emperor Maximilian I. 

Amhras ColUetion. 

Tliis engraving is very interesting on account of the study of the 
costumes, while it proves that the simple hand cannon of a large size 
was still used along with flint and wheel lock arqnpVmspa. 

Ewnd Fire-arms. 


29. Serpentine hand cannon and German soldier, from the designs of 
Glockenthon, spoken of ia the preceding page. 

This weapon appears to have three barrels, bnt as only one terpentine 
is visible, most likely the two other barrels were discharged by means of 
a detached link. 


Rand Fire-arms. 

Hand Fire-arms 

31. Wheel-lock (in German, Mad- 
tchloss), invented at Nurem- 
berg in 1515.* It is in ten 
pieces, and is not at all like 
tbe serpentine locks, for the 
match is superseded by the 
sulphurous pyrites (in German, 

32. Same as above (inside view). 

33. Same as above (outside view). 

34. Seifpentine and wheel-look. 

35. Very elaborate serpentine and 

36. Key for wheel-lock. 

* Mr. Pritchett, an English col- 
lector, has a wheel-lock, which he 
believes to date from the year 1509. 


Arquebuses and Muslcets. 

37. Wheel-lock arquebuse of the 
sixteenth century. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

38. Wheel-lock musket of the six- 
teenth century. 

Mtiseum of Artillery, Paris. 

39. Wheel-lock musket of the six- 
teenth centmy. It is loaded 
from the breech by means of 
a revolving chamber. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

The Museum of Dresden has 
a similar one. 

40. Beat of wheel-lock musket (in 
German, Musketen Gabel), of 
the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century. It is about 
5 feet 10 inches in length. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

Arquebuses and Muskets. 


il. Rest ior luuoket, about 5 feet 2 
inches in length. It is .i 
three-sided dart of steel damat^- 
cened with gold, and fastencil 
to it is a wheel-lock pistol. 
This weapon belongs to the 
sixteenth century, and re- 
sembles the preceding one. 
Historical Museum of the Monbijoii 
Palace at Berlin. 

i'2. Ecst for musket 

Gabeldegeri}, of the beginning 
of the seventeenth century. 
Collection of I'rinee Charles at 

13. Blunderbuss with wheel-lock 
and copper barrel, covered 
over with a thick leathern 
casing in the same way as the 
Swedish cannons. The blun- 
derbuss is 27 inches iu length, 
and barrel nearly 2 inches in 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

Snajjliaunces and Flint-lochs. 

44. Supplementary trigger, or triggoi 
of precision (Stecher In Ger- 
man), invented in the year 
1543 at Munich. It could be 
fixed to all kinds of wheel- 

45. Suaphaunoe lock to be used 
with the sulphurous pyrites. 

46. Flint-lock, probably invented in 
Fi-ance between 1630 and 
1640. Ancient model (out- 
side view). 

47. Same as above (inside view). 

48. Flint-lock of French gun of the 
year 1670 (outside view). 

49. Same as above (inside view). 


Mint-looli Guns and Revolver Arms. 

Flint-lock Guns and Revolver Arms. 525 

50. Flint-look and bayonet gun, French, of the seventeenth century. 

51. Prussian flint-lock and bayonet gun, time of Frederick the Great. 

In 1730 an iron ramrod was added to this weapon, an addition 
which contributed greatly to the victory of the battle of Mollwitz. 
Prince Leopold I. of Anhalt-Dessau, the organizer of the Prussian 
infantry, had already introduced the iron ramrod in his own 
regiment in 1698. 

52. German repetition gun, grooved and adapted for firing six shots 

successively, of the seventeenth century. 

Museam of Sigmaringen. 

53. German revolver, with turning cylimier, filing four shots, end of 

the eighteenth century. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

526 Flint-lock Guns and Revolver Arms. 

Flint-lock Guns and Bmiolver Arms. 527 

54, Carbine revolver, with taming eyliQder, firing eight shots, for 

cavalry use. 

55. Raquetle gun of the eighteenth century. 

Arsenal of Berlin. 

56 A and b. Piston and percussion locks, invented in 1807 by the 
Scottish gunsmith, Forsyth. 

57. Breech-loading percussion gun, made on tlie Lefancheux system. 

58. Same as above. This engi-aving represents the gun open and 

ready to receive the charge. 


Flint-loch Guns and Revolver Arms. 

59. Prussian needJe-gun, invented 
by n German named Nicolas 
Dreyse, born in 1827, died in 
1868. The weapon is repre- 
sented open and ready to 
receive the charge. 

CO. French needle-gun, invented by 
M. Chassepot in 1866, upon 
the Dreyse model. The gun 
is represented open and ready 
to receive the charge. 

01. Spencer repetition guii of the 
middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. It was invented by 
]^ Icssrs. Spencer of Winchester. 
This sort of gun was a German 
iriVentiou originally, as may 
be seen from the weapon pre- 
served (see page 524, No. 52). 
M. Dreyse had already made 
several experiments, in 1828, 
witli a gun adapted for re- 
peated discharges, of his own 
invention ; but finding it in- 
ferior to his needle-gun he 
gave it up. Nevertheless, his 
son has taken up the inven- 
tion, and continues liis expcri- 



This weapon probably derives its name from the word 
pistallo, which means pommel, and not from Pistoja, for it 
appears not to have been first made at Pistoja, but at Perugia, 
where they made some small hand cannons a hand's span in 

I do not know of a single Museum which possesses a match- 
lock pistol. The Mdnchsbiichse in the Dresden Museum, that is, 
the small hand cannon with a rasp, spoken of in the historical 
chapter, and in the introduction to this one, appears to have 
preceded the wheel-lock pistol, which is the most ancient 
weapon of this kind at present in existence. 

The coup de poing, a small pistol, which the Germans call 
Terzerol, is not a modern invention, for the author has one of 
the same kind, with a wheel-lock, of the sixteenth century. 
It is made entirely of iron, and the barrel is only 6k inches 
in length. The revolver pistol, as well as revolver guns, 
existed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and 
those made at the present day, amongst which the Colt 
revolver is the most celebrated, cannot be called inventions, 
but only improvements on an old invention. 

* The Eoman span is about 7| inches. 



64. Wheel-lock pistol of the six- 
teenth century. This was the 
sort of pistol used by the 
German cavalry, and also by 
the Bitter, or knights. 

65. Double wheel-lock, end of the 
sixteenth century. Arsenal 
of Zui-ich. The Dresdsn Mu- 
seum has some similar ones 
with double •wheel-looks and 
three barrels. 

66. Wheel-lock pistol with double 
barrel, beginning of the 
seventeenth century. 

Tower of London. 

67. Wheel-lock pistol, firing seven 

1 of Sig\ 

68. Bnrrel of the preceding pistol. 



Fidols. 533 

69. Wheel-lock and mortar pistol, called in German Katzenkopf, of the 

seventeenth century. 

Arsenah of Woolwicli and Berlin. 

70. Wheel-lock and mortar pistol of the seventeenth century. It is 

entirely of iron. 

GaslU of Lowmberg, on the Wilhdmshohe near Cassel. 

71. Flint-lock pistol, end of the seventeenth century. 

Tower of London. 

72. Pistol with flint-lock, of the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

Museum of Prague and Gewehrkammer (^Museum) at Dresden. 

73. Coifs revolver, invented by Samuel Colt, of the United States, in 


74. Mat revolver, invented a short time back by M. Le Mat. 

534 Pistols and Various Appliances for Fire-arrm. 

75. Priming turnscrew for wheel- 
lock pistols. 

Arsenal of Berlin. 

76. Same as above. 
Ternow Collection at Berlin. 

77 77. Priming tm-atorew for wheel- 
lock pistol. 
Museum of Fragile and Spengel 
Collection at Munich. 

78. Powder eprouvette, or appliance 
for trying the strength of 
powder with flint and wlieel- 

79. Powder eprouvette with screw 
and rack. 

80. Powder eprouvette with pendu- 
lum action. 

81. Matchlock case for musketeer. 

82. Matchlock case for Bohemian 
grenadier. Author's Collec- 
tion. Similar ones are to be 
seen in the historical museum 
of the Palace of Monbijou at 
Berlin, and in the collection of 
arms of the Prince of Lobko- 
witz at Eaudnitz in Bohemia 

S?, Arquebusier's ammunition bag. 
end of the fifteenth century, 
from the designs of Glocken- 

Amhrae Collection 

Belts and Powder-flasks. 


84. Baldrick, or cross-belt, belonging 
to a musketeer,* fitted ■with 
wooden capsules (PafrojieTi- 
Giirtel in German). 

85. Same as above. This baldrick 
is also fitted witli a priming- 
horn, and a bag for bullets 
and links. 

86. German primer, end of the 

sixteenth century, made of 
oak inlaid with ivory and gilt 

Meyrick Gollecticm. 

87. Italian primer, or touch-box 

QZundpvlverjiasche), end of the 
sixteenth century. It is made 
of gold. 

Meyrick Collection. 

88. German powder-flask for arqne- 

busier, second half of the six- 
teenth century. 

* In loading the arquebuse the 
powder-flask was used. We see 
therefore conclusively that this belt 
must have belonged to a musketeer, 
as it is fitted with wooden cap- 
snlee (German, Fulvermassen). 



89. German powder-horn (German, 

PulverhoTTi), called Saxon, 
about 12| inches in length, 
end of the sixteenth century. 
The light part of the horn is 
ornamented with some excel- 
lent carved work. The mount- 
ings are in iron. 

Authors Collection, 

90. Powder-flast (Fulverflasche) in 

boiled leather, ornamented 
with iron. 

91. German powder-flask of the 

sixteenth century. It is made 
of buck-horn, and is 9 inches 
in length. 

Museum of Sigrfniaringen. 

92. German powder-flask in ivory, 
of the seventeenth century; it 
is 7 inches in length. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

93. German powder-horn in ivory, 
11 J inches in length. 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

94. German powder-horn of the 
beginning of the seventeenth 
century. It is 17 inches in 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 




THE air-gim (German, Windbuchse), invented by Gnter of 
Naremberg in 1560, and improved on successively by 
Gerlacb and by Sars of Berlin, by Contriner of Vienna, FacMer 
of Liege, Martin Fischer of Suhl, Futter of Dresden, Scbreiber 
of Halle (1760—1769), C. G. Werner of Leipsic (1750— 
1780), Gottscbe of Merseburg, Miiller of Warsaw, Valentin 
Sieglang of Frankfort-on-tbe-Main, Vrel of Coblentz, John 
and Nicholas BouUlet of Saint-Etienne, Bate of England, 
Facka Speyer of Holland, and others, is an explosive weapon, 
fired by the air, which, being compressed by an air-pump, is 
allowed to escape rapidly. Two sorts of air-guns are known 
of : one in which the air is compressed in the butt-end, the 
other in which it is contained in a copper ball, placed above 
or below the barrel. This gun, the use of which is forbidden 
in France, ought to be classed amongst the weapons adapted 
for successive discharges, because some of the barrels of 
these guns are able to contain as many as twenty bullets, to 
be fired in succession without reloading. It was used in the 
Austrian war at the end of the eighteenth century, and 
became the special weapon of some regiments. 



Air-gwns. 539 

1. Air-gun, with copper barrel and ball; the latter is placed below the 


Arsenal of Prince Lohkowitz at Baudmitz in Bohemia. 

2. Same as above. An air-gun of the same make, but bearing the sig- 

nature, T. G. Sars, Berlin, is in the Museum of Artillery in Paris, 
No. 1348. 

3. Air-gun, in which the receptacle for air is placed on the upper part 

of the barrel. Arsenal of Berlin. No. 1349, in the Museum of 
ArtUlery, Paris, is on exactly the same principle. 

i. Air-gun, with the receptacle for air placed in the butt-end, made by 
Contriner of Vienna. Arsenal of Berlin. In the Museum of Ar- 
tillery at Paris there are several air-guns yiith the receptacle for 
air placed in the butt-end. 




THE East has always been famed for tlie beauty of her 
pageantry weapons, and at a time when the greater 
part of Europe made use of rudely-forged arms, Hindustan, 
Persia, Khorassan, and even Java had attained to a great per- 
fection in the arts of enamelling,t inlaying (Tauchierarbeii 
in German), and damascening. 

On the other hand, the knowledge of embossing iron, and 
of making complete suits of articulated armour, belongs much 
more to the Christian Middle Ages, and northern nations of 
recent civilization, than to the ancients, and to eastern 

At the end of the fifteenth century the embossers of Central 
Europe had already excelled the Persian and Greek armourers 
in respect of their art, and had also arrived at the highest 
degree of art combined with great practical strength and 
durability of work. 

The Eenaissance of art, the influence of which showed 
itself in an elaborate method of working up details and in 
beautiful chasings (Ausgestochene Arheiten), can only be said 
to have brought about a decadence, for it adopted designs 

* At the present day the word armourer means a maker of defensive 
and offensive arms. Formerly only a maker of armour was called 
armourer, while an arquebusier was a maker of portable and large fire- 

t Enamel-work (i?maii, oiScIimelz or TaiKMerarbeif) is inlajing small 
pieces and ornaments of black enamel (^galena) in precious metals aud 
ill other materials. Galena is a mineral composition of lead, sulphur, 
and earthy substances. There is an autimonial galena called silver 
galena, iron galena, bismuth galena, and mock galena. 

Damascening on steel is the inlaying of small threads of gold or silver 
into iron or steel. 

Damasked steel, also called Indian or Wooiz steel, must not be 
confounded with embossed steel, for it is steel waved or watered in differ- 
ent shades. The words enamelling, inlaying, and damascening, are very 

Armourers and Gunmahers. 


of a past age, which were not at all in harmony with the 
new inventions and improvements. 

The armourer of that time, who was able to make the beU 
of a helmet in one entire piece without the aid of machinery, 
had also in many cases designed suits of armour, which, for 
beauty of workmanship and for ingenuity of design, will 
always make an imitator despair. 

often confounded one with another, for, the fact is, they all mean inlay- 
ing on metal, just as inlaying on wood and other vegetable matter is 
called marqueterie. 

Damascus steel is melted steel on which many waved patterns are 
formed by the presence of carburet of iron, which is brought out by 
means of acids. Other waved or 
watered patterns are made by means 
of small quantities of metals, such 
as platina, silver, or palladium. 
There are grey, black, and brown 
damasks, which water the steel 
when mixed with it. 

Clouet, in 1804, was the first man 
in France to imitate damascus steel, 
the production of which has been 
very greatly improved on by De- 
grand, Gurgey, Conleause, and parti- 
cularly by Stodart and Faraday in 
1822. The factories of the Bouchee 
du Blione sent their damascened 
blades to the East. The town of 
Liege used the ribbon damask for a 
very long time in the manufacture 
of their cannons, guns, and carbines 
used in hunting, even for the com- 
mon ones, and they sold them at an 
almost incredibly cheap rate. 

Damascening is an entirely dif- 
ferent work from the damas, being 

only inlaying, which is done in the following manner: As soon as the 
workman has fired the steel blade or plate, lie engraves with a tool the 
subject he wishes to represent; in the crevice he inlays a narrow 
thread of metal, which he works in with a blunt chisel : as soon as the 
design is filled in, he goes over the whole with a very fine file. Damas- 
cening was known and practised in Italy, Spain, and Germany in the 
Middle Ages and during the Eenaissance period. It was not introduced 
into France until the reign of Henri IV. 

Embossing {Treiben in German), chasing (AussteaTien), and engrav- 
ing (Stecheri), are words otfen mistaken one for the other, though the 
difference is great and very important. 

542 Armourers and Gunmakers. 

Very few documents relating to tlie armour of the Middle 
Ages have come down to us. In the chapter which treats 
of complete suits of armour of this time, there is a represen- 
tation of an illumination of the thirteenth century (p. 178), 
which shows us an armourer making a helm; besides 
this the Weisse Konig, a work written entirely by the Emperor 
Maximilian I. about the end of the fifteenth century, repre- 
sents the complete workshop of one of these armourers. 

Italy and Germany have been especially celebrated for the 
manufacture of defensive arms, whilst Spain has been re- 
nowned for the manufacture of blades, amongst which Toledo 
ones were the best. 

In Italy this manufacture was conducted on so large a 
scale, that the armom-ers of the single town of Milan were 
able, after the battle of Macalo (1427), to supply in a few 
days arms and armour for 4000 cavalry and 2000 infantry 
soldiers. Filippo Nigroli and his brothers, who worked for 
Charles V. and for Francis I., John Ambrogio the elder, 
Bernardo Civo, and Hieronimo Spacini, a Milanese, the 
maker of the famous shield of Charles V., are the most 
celebrated Italian armourers, to which names may be added 
Figino, Ghinello, Pellizoni, and Piatti. It was more par- 
ticularly at the period of the Eenaissance that Italian armour 
attained its highest perfection ; during the Middle Ages it 
could not bear comparison with German, Hispano-Moorish, 
French, and English workmanship. 

As far as regards portable fire-arms, Italy (where pistols 
were probably first invented) holds the highest place. Antonio 
Picinino, Andrea di Ferrara, of the seventeenth century, for 
sword blades; Ventura Cani, Lazarino Comuiazzi, Colombo 
and Badile, Francino, Mutto, Berselli, Bonisolo, Giocatane and 
Cotel, of the eighteenth century, for fire-arms — are names 
that cannot be forgotten, because their signatures are stamped 
on arms which have been collected from every quarter on 
account of their superior workmanship. 

In Spain, Madrid, Cordova, Cuenga, Catugel, Saint-Clement, 
Cuella, Badajoz, Valencia, Seville, Valladolid, Saragossa, 
Orgoz, Bilbao, and particularly Toledo, are the cities most 
celebrated for their manufactories of blades, and farther on 
will be found more than two hundi-ed monograms, copied 
from those on arms, which, however, are none of them of an 

Arnwurers a)id Gunmahers. 543 

earlier date than the second half of the sixteenth century ; 
but it must be mentioned that in several of these places there 
were some made as early as the thirteenth century, which 
was due, as nearly all the industry of the Spaniards was, in 
great measure to the Moors. The steel, or rather iron, used 
in these manufactories, was brought from the mines of Biscaye 
and Guipuscoa. 

Germany (where the monk Schwartz of Freiburg, in Breis- 
gau, in the fourteenth century, had made the first st«p in Euro- 
pean artillery) was famous already during the second part of the 
Middle Ages, and no less so during the Eenaissance period. 

After Eudolf of Nuremberg had in 1306 discovered the 
art of wire-drawing (Drahiziehn, Grerman), by which riveted 
mail, or suits a points Gorges, were brought within the reach 
of almost every man-at-arms, jointed plate armour, of which 
all the defensive improvements, and probably the very inven- 
tion, are fairly due to ai-mom-ers from beyond the Ehine, 
attained, towards the end of the Middle Ages, or in the 
Eenaissance, a high degree of perfection. In the hands 
of Desiderius Kollmann of Augsburg, of Lorenz Plattner, 
Wilhelm Seussenhofer, and others, the magnificent armours 
of Maximilian I., Charles V., and Francis I., rose to the 
dignity of objects of fine art, the taste of which was, however, 
even then unfavourably influenced by foreign admixture. 
Seussenhofer died in 1547, Kollmann flourished about 1532, 
at which date he furnished, among others, to Philip of Spain, 
armour of great beauty, which is still preserved. 

The admirable suit for horse and rider in the Dresden 
Museum, on which the artist has represented the Labours 
of Hercules, in all probability issued from the workshop of 
Kollmann, who held at that time perhaps the highest rank 
among armourers, and received for this suit fourteen thousand 
crowns, a sum which, bearing in mind the relative value of 
money at that age, appears truly gigantic for a single suit 
of armour. He held one of the highest ranks amongst 
German armourers of that time. 

M. de Hefner-Alteneck has published, by Bruckmann of 
Munich,* 86 of the 170 Indian-ink sketches, representing 

* " Dessins originanx de maitrea Allemands pour Amrnres de luxe 
destinees a des roia de France," published by J. H. de Hefner-Alteneok, 


Armoiiyers and GunmaJcers. 


Armourers cmd Gunmahers. 


more than 25 proposed complete suits of armour for man and 
horse, which were designed by the painters Schwarz (who 
died in 1597), Van Achen, Brockherger, and John Milich 
(born at Munich in 1517, died in 1572), for the armourers 
of Munich and Augsburg.* 

Spain also obtained from Munich some of the most costly 
of the suits of armour now in the Armeria real de Madrid, 
there marked as Italian and Spanish arms. Thanks, however, 
to the researches of M. le Baron G. de Werthern, the Prussian 

photographed at the photographic institute of Frederick Biuckmann at 
Munich. Polio. 

Several other of these designs belong to General von ilanslaub at 
Vienna, and to M. DestaUleur, government architect at Paris : they were 
!>!! bought in 1840 at the sale of the collection of State Councillor 

* These drawings, which bear evident traces of liaving boen used, 
and in which all indicates the work of the artists above named, as 
known to us thT0U2:h German engravings (vide the last two illustrations, 
selected indiscriminately), are the designs for each separate piece in the 
armours of Francis I., Henri II., and tlie Emperor Eodolph II., hitherto 
fiJsely ascribed to Italian or Spanish armourers. 

ii N 

546 Armourers and Qunmakers. 

ambassador, among the aroliives, no farther doubt can exist 
on tbe matter. 

This is the copy of the letter written by M. le Baron de 
Werthern : 

" We had here last winter two of our countrymen, M. Ber- 
genroth and M. Friedmann, who had been sent by the 
English government to examine the records of Madrid and 

" A casual observation of M. Bergenroth concerning the 
influence of German art in Spain, gave me the idea of 
engaging M. Fried mann to examine the accounts of the 
reigns of Charles V. and Philip II., to see if there were not 
the names of German armourers who must undoubtedly have 
been the makers of some of the beautiful suits of armour 
preserved in the Arsenal of Madrid, the style and workman- 
ship of which seemed to indicate the hand of a German 

" I send you the result of these researches, which have fully 
confirmed my suppositions." And farther on : " M. Bergen- 
roth recollects perfectly having seen in the records of the 
reign of Charles V. several accounts which show also some 
other names of celebrated German armourers. 

" He has promised me that on his return next winter 
I shall have a copy. 

" (Signed) Babon G. de Weethern, 

" Prussian Ambassador. 
" Madrid, 13th April, 1866." 


Simancas Estado. Leg. 1565, Fol. 33. 

Anuentas de la oapa de don Philipe de Austria prinoipe de Espana. 

Augsburg. — 755i esoudoa de oro por diez copas de plata donado war- 
pradoe aqui a razon de 17i y 16 Plonucel mareo. — ^Aug. 25 Hebr. 15-49. 

Augsburg. — Por pagas compradas an Aqueta, 1720 due. — Brus., 
30 IMay, 1549. 

Munich. — Por 8 arcabuzes h Pater Pah von Minichen, 100 escudos 
de oro. — Antwerp, 19 Sept., 1549. 

Augsburg. — Por oiertas armur que ha de haoer Maestre Bulff, veino 
de Lanuete (wheel-lock musket) 100 escudos de 22 bacor. — Auq., 18 
Julio, 1550. 

Armourers and Qimmakers. 547 

Augsbnrg.—X Camargo por 5 sacabuches (Passauer Schwerte) por 
il SO esoudos. — Augusta, 20 Ag., 1550. 

Augsburg. — A C"/maK (Kollmann) armero de Augusta 2,000 escudos de 
oru ea cuunta de 3,000 que ha de aver por unas armiir que haze pa^a 
lui sevoais. —Augusta, 22 Oct., 1550. 

Munich. — A Peter Fall de Munich, 52 esoudos por ciertos Ascabuzer. 
—Aug., 10 Oct., 1550. 

Augsburg. — A Besiderio Colman armero de Augusta, 400 due en 
cuente de loque a de aver por unas ai'mas negras que haze para mi. — 
ita, 27 Vebr., 1551. 

Munich. — ^A Peter Pah por quatro carabuzes 41 escudo, 19 Marco, 

Munich. — A Maestro Bolfe {BuTff) 250 escudos por unas anu!i» que 
hace por mi persona 24 mace y 150 mas por ciertas armas que hace pi ir 
don Antonio de Toledo. 

Augsburg. — A Maestro Haur (Staur?) de Augusta 50 ducadus por 
ciertas armus que muado hacery quedavon con U Augusta, 10 de Abiil, 

Munich. — A M. Pedro arquebuzea de Minich, 40 escudos por ciertos 
arquebuzes. — 28 Abr. 1551. 

Munich. — A M. Pedro Mallero de Munich 114 escudos por ciertos 
pie^as de Malla. — Aug., 7 Abril, 1551. 

Munich.— A Maestro Vulff (Bolfe? Bulf?), 225 escudos, 200 por 
unas armas doradas que ha de bacer y 25 por unas pillar que bin pnr 
un hameo bianco que havia hecho para mi personio. — Aug., 2 Mavu. 

Augsburg. — A Colman, 650 escudos por una armas. — 12 JNIayo, 1551 . 

Munich. — ^A Pedro de Minicb, 30 escudos por un arcabuz y 20 
escudos por los mo90s de Colman de Merced. 

Another important discovery in the history of original 
works of art, bearing on the fame of German armourers of 
this epoch, is that made by the Archivist of Innspruck. 

M. Schonherr found amongst the records of the capital of 
the Tyrol proof that : " Joerg Seussenhofer, of Innspruck, 
master armourer and heraldic engraver of Ferdinand I., had 
orders to make a magnificent set of harness, which his master 
intended for Francis I., King of France. Nevertheless, when 
the present was finished it was not sent, and it was this iden- 
tical harness which Napoleon I. caused to be removed from 
the Ambras Collection at Vienna, and sent to Paris, in which 
city it was received with great state, as belonging to Francis I.* 

* This suit of armour is at present in the Louvre, where it is thought 
to be Italian. 

548 Armourers and Gunmakers. 

Two other sets of harness were, however, actually made by this 
artist, and sent to the sons of Francis I. The groundwork 
of these harnesses was intended to have been in gold, but 
not being finished in time, the ornaments were placed on a 
black ground. 

Seussenhofer also made. six sets of harness for the court of 
France, and many suits of armour for the kings of England 
and of Portugal. 

Passau and Solingen were celebrated at a very early time 
for making blades of weapons, the quality of which was as 
highly esteemed as those of Toledo. 

Georg Springenklee, a celebrated armourer of the town of 
Passau, a place famous for its arms as early as the thirteenth 
century, obtained at the beginning of the fourteenth century, 
from the Emperor Charles IV., armorial bearings to be used 
by his township. These arms were two crossed swords. 
Another very usual mark is a woK,** which is believed to 
have been granted by the Archduke Albert in 1349 to the 
armourers' guild of Passau ; it is also to be seen on some of 
the earlier arms made at Solingen, in which city the armourers 
Clement Horn and Johann Hopp flourished at the com- 
mencement of the sixteenth century. Arms were also made 
in the last-named city as early as the latter half of the 
twelfth century, when the art was fu-st introduced by Styrian 
armourers. For a long time Solingen had its stamp-office in 
the large market-place of the town, where each armourer was 
obliged to bring his manufactures to be proved and stamped. 
This custom was, however, suppressed by the French. 

Damascening and inlaying, which have already been spoken 
of in the first jsart of this chapter, were carried on in Germany 
at the end of the Middle Ages, and their process was a much 
more solid one than that adopted by the Spanish armourers, 
a fact which can be proved by examining the magnificent 
suits of armour in the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna. 

In portable fire-arms, Germany may be said to have no 

The beautifully-finished " precision " arms of the sixteentli 
and seventeenth centuries, which are preserved in vai-ious 
museums and collections, are all of them German, with the 

* TI]C swords with this maa'k are very much sought after by the in- 
habitants of the Caucasus. 

Armourers and Chmmakers. 549 

fsception of a few Italian and French productions, 
remarkable for the beautiful chiselling and carving on them. 
These latter, however, were intended only for pageants and 

As early as the sixteenth century the manufacture of fire- 
arms had spread to such an extent over Germany, that there 
was not a single town, however small, in which there was 
not an armourer able to make an arquebuse without the aid 
of machinery. Valentin, Stephan Klett, and Clauss Eeitz, 
at Suhl, in the province of Henrteberg, had, as early as 1586, 
estabhshed two such large manufactories, that they were 
able to supply Switzerland with 2000 fire-arms of difierent 
sorts, and 500 precision muskets. We have seen that the 
rifling of the barrel had been invented in Germany at the 
end of the fifteenth century, the wheel-lock and snaphaunce 
in the sixteenth century, as well as the air and the needle- 
gun in later times. 

France, which most certainly must have had skilful 
armourers, has allowed their names to fall into obscurity, 
for, notwithstanding long researches, I have not been able 
to trace either the names or monograms of any Fi'ench 
armourer of an earlier date than the coromencement of the 
seventeenth century. 

Nevertheless, Chamblay (Oise) was famous in the Middle 
Ages for the manufacture of certain coats of mail, which 
ancient authors wrongly describe as having a double mesh, 
the fiict being that there does not exist but one kind of mesh, 
which is more or less close, according to the fancy of the 
maker. We may mention that the flint-lock, which took 
the place of the snaphaunce with the sulphurous pyrites, was 
invented in France at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, but it is not known where or by whom. 

Amongst the modern French armourers must be mentioned 
the names of Delvigne, Minie, Lepage, Gastine-Eenette, 
Lefaucheux, and Ghassepot. 

Amongst the ancient English armour there are some beauti- 
ful tilting and war helmets called heaumes, which are noticeable 
on account of their solid make and great thickness of steel. 
Unfortunately, not a single name of any of the able makers 
of these helmets has been found, and the monograms are 
also extremely rare. 

S50 Armourers and Gunmakers. 

The same remarks apply to Switzerland and Flanders, 
though this latter country has held an important place in 
the manufacture of heavy fire-arms ever since the'inventiou 
of cannons, and at the present day is renowned for hunting 
appliances and arms, which are manufactured at Liege. The 
city of Toula in Eussia distinguished itself by its factories 
for casting arms in the year 1712. 

The Hindoos had at a very remote period attained a high 
reputation, particularly for shields. These were manufaotm-ed 
at Delhi, being wrought when cold, in two separate pieces 
for the centre and the rim, and preserve their traditional 
reputation down to our own days. 

It is a remarkable fact that the more elaborately the 
Indian shield was ornamented the less was its value, for 
the inlaid and damascened flowers served but to hide the de- 
fects of workmanship. 

Gwalior and Lushhnr were celebrated for the blades of 
weapons, Nurwur and Lahore for fire-arms, Nurwur and 
Shahjehanabad for damascened arms and coats of mail, as 
well as for the superiority of their ofiensive weapons. 

In Persia and Hindostan the manufacture of damascened 
weapons is still continued, and casques, arm-guards, roimd 
bucklers, breastplates, and mail shirts (many of the latter 
being of the class termed grains d'orge), are still produced, 
the shapes of which rival in beauty those of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries. 

The principal manufactories of portable fire-arms at the 
end of the eighteenth oentiu'y were — 

In Germany, those of Saint Blaisien in the Black Forest, 
Dantzic (established in 1720), Chemnitz, Essen, Harzberg 
in Hanover, Klosterdorf, Linz, Olbernhau, Prague, Eemscheid, 
Sdlingen, Spandau (established in 1720), Suhl, Teschen, and 

In Italy, those of Brescia, Florence, Milan, and Turin. 

In Spain, those of Esqualada, Oviedo, Plasoencia, Sililos, 
and Toledo. 

In Prance, those of Abbeville, Charleville, Saint-Etienne, 
Maubeuge, and Versailles. 

In England, those of Birmingham, Sheffield, and London. 

In Belgium, that of Liege. 

In Eussia, that of Toula. 

Armourers' Monofframs and Names. 551 



Tbebuchet is the name of an armourer in the epic poem of Percival. 

ScHOYT, son of the above (Willehalm, 356-16). 

KiNN DE Mdnlecn, another armourer, mentioned in Willehaln; 

Monogram found on the blades of two 
swords belonging to the fourteenth cen- 
tury, preserved in the Arsenal of Zurich 
It is probably the wolf badge, that was 
used by the ai'mourers of Passau and 
Solingen toward the end of the thir- 
teenth century. 


Monogram of a German armourer, on a suit of annoiu' in 
the Ambras Collection, No. 37, said to be of the year 

Bodge or mark of the embossers (Taachicre) of Augsburg. 

IVl . Mark of the beginning of the sixteenth century. 

Clemest Horn, of Solingen ; this signature occurs on some swords of 
the sixteenth century in the Museums of Artillery of Paris and 

Cle^iens Hoktjm is the Latin form (or meant as such) of the same name, 
and it has been found on a two-handed sword in the Museum of 
Artilleiy at Paris. 

H . K. Raised letters on a wheel-lock arquebuse with rifled barrel, of 
the beginning of (he sixteenth centuiy. 

Museum of Artllleri/, Paris. 

I AND W. Raised letters on a wheel-lock arquebuse with rifled barrel, 
of tlie middle of the sixteenth century, in the Museum of Artillery, 

M . W. Same as above. 

F. L. Fr H. V. Z. Zi Same as above. 

552 Armourers Monograms and Names. 

BoEST DER JiJNGE. Name found on a wlieel-lock pistol, dated 1569, in 

tlie Tower of London. 
P O V G Raised letters on a wheel -lock with rifled barrel, 

dated 1590. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Petek Munstek. Name on a sword blade, which has likewise the wolf 
mark. The name of this armourer, who lived in the sixteenth 
century, as well as that of his brother, Andkeas Musstbe, Is also 
found on some swords in the Dresden Museum. The name of 
Peter Munster exists also on a magnificent sword in the Museum 
of Sigmaringeu. 

H with a crown above it is the mark of the renowned armpurer, 
Plattner, who constructed the armour of Maximilian I., as also the 
sword of that monarch, both of which are now in the Ambraa 

This monogram is not an armourer's. It forms the 
initials of Maximilian II., and was found on a halbard 
dated 1566. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 


Monogram found on a halbard of German manufacture, of 
the end of the sixteenth century, bearing the arms of 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

SoHONBEKG (J. A. V.) is the name of a celebrated armourer of Munich, 
wlio lived in the sixteenth century. Many of his works are in 
the arsenal of that city. 

AiiBROSirs Gemlioh and Wilhelm Seussenhofee, both of Munich, were 
armourers of Charles V. (1516 — 1558), and of Ferdinand I. 

.JoRG Seussenhofee and Kollmann (Helmsehmidt*), Plattner (makers 
of armour) of Augsburg, lived in the sixteenth century, and ex- 
ported a great quantity of arms to Spain. 

Franz Grossohedl, of Landshut, lived about the year 1568 ; to whom 
the Duke of Bavaria paid 1325 florins for a single cuirass. 

JIaktin Hofee, of Munich, lived about the year 1678. 

Anton PrEFFENHArSER, of Augsburg, about 1580. 

Paul Sohaller, about 1606. 

ANTONrtf Miller, of Augsburg, about 1592. 

Paul Visoiier, of Landshut, about 1600. 

.mjhann Allkjh. 

iMeves Bebns, of Sohngen. 

* Makfr of helmets. 

Armourers' Monograms and Names. 553 

Peter Bkook. 
Clemens Kollek. 
JoHAXN Ktrsohbaum. 
Clemens Meizen. 
JoHANN Mor^i. 

Heiskich and Petee Patukb. 
Haks Pkoti, of Meseue. 
C. Pols. 
Petes Weesbeeg. 

The above fifteen armoiu-ers' names are to be found on arms whict 
are mostly of the sixteenth century, in the Dresden Museum. 
Bartholomes Haohnek is the name of an armomer which has been 

found on a wheel-lock arquebuse with rifled barrel, the woodwork 

of which is inlaid with engraved plaques. 

X. Mark found on a hunting German arquebuse with wheel-lock, of 
the end of the sixteenth century. 

Museum of ArtiUery, Paris, 
JoHANN Bkoch. Signature found on a sword of the sixteenth century. 

Museum of ArtiUery, Paris. 

ryr^ j^n. <~^ JMonngram and initials found on a small 

FT Y^ /\j >^ German arquebuse of the end of the sis- 

X, J/ / K /\ teenth century. 

i \\- . i »- ^^ Museum of Artillery, Paris^, 

Vg I Monogram of German armourer of the end of the sixteenth 
Y I century, found on the rack of a cross-bow. 

■Vs :^ 

Same as above. 

JoHASNES Hopp. Signature found on a glaive, or sword of justice, of th& 
sixteenth centuiy. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

J, P. 1595. On a magnificent German fire-arm in the Erbach Collec- 

H. C. R. Eaised letters on a wheel-lock arquebuse, with rifled 
barrel, dated 1600. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

554 Armourers' Monograms and Names. 

Monogram ;u wheel-lock arquebuse with rifled barrel. 
German (?) 

Same as above. 

'I'hpse two arms, in the Museum of Artillery, Paris, may very pro- 
bably not have been German. 

JOHANN Georg Hoffmann. Signature found on a wheel-lock arquebuse 
with rifled barrel, in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Andkeas M. Sigl. Same as above. 

•Geokg and Andkis Seidel. Same as above. 

H AND S. Same as above. 

.JoHANS Hauer, 1612. Signature of an armourer of Nuremberg witli 
date, found on an engraved suit of nobleman's armour, easily 
k)iown in the Imperial Arsenal of Vienna by the peculiar back- 
piece, wliich has been hammered into bosses to suit the unlucky 
proportions of its patrician wearer. 

1V1. H. I. B. Initials found on a German halbard, dated 1613.* 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

,J, K. 1629. Initials and date found on a flint-lock gun, in the Erbaeh 

Monogram from a German halbard, which also has the 
/\ arms of the Prince Palatine, Duke of the Deiix-Ponts, 

A I and the date 1613. 

/ \ N Musetim of A rtillmj, Paris. 

AxGUSTixrs KoLTER. Signature found on a wheel-loclc arquebuse with 
rifled barrel, dated 1616. There is a similar signature on another 
arquebuse of tlie same sort, dated 1621. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
H.F. 163S. Found on some fire-arms. 

JoHANN Keixdt, of Solingen. Signature found on a soldier's sword, 
belonging to tlie first half of the seventeentli century. 

Museum of Artillery, Parin. 
MiEEOviMus t LeGEr. Signature found on a wheel-lock arquebuse with 
rifled barrel, dated 1632. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris, 

* The date appears to me. doubtful, for the flint-lock was not intro- 
duced into France till about 1640. 

t Sic in orig. : but qua;re if not a printer's error fr>r Hierouimus 'r— 
E'ransi.ator's Note. 

Armourers' 21ouograins and Names. 555 

T. A. M. 1650. On a fire-ai-m in the Erbach Collection. 

H. V. Initials on a German arquebuse with wheel-look, used for 
hnnting. It is dated 1656. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris, 

JoTTiS GsEL Abtzbero. Signature of a German* armourer on i 
wheel-lock arquebuse. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
3IATHEUS Matl. Signature on an arquebuse with rifled barrel, dated 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

IIaxs Heskick Deiler, of Fianklbrt, 1663. On a jfire-arm with ritied 
barrel, in the Erbach Collection. 

Oeokg Hoch, 1654. On a fire-arm in the Erbach Collection. 

T An initial, probably, (if the Emperor Leopold (1660 — 1705), 
i- on a breach-knile (German). 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 


liiLLiAS ZoLLNEK, of Salzburg. On a wheel-lock arquebuse, used for 
hunting, in the Arsenal of Berlin. 

ICH. SoiDiEB, of Bamberg, 1685, famous for his arquebuses. 

Haxs Breiten. Signature on the rifled barrel of an arquebuse datei.l 

Museum of Artillery, Pari.-*. 

Breitexfeldek. On a flro-arm in the Erbach Collection. 

'Georg Alt. F. A. Signature on an arquebuse with rifled barrel, dated 

Museum of Artillery, Par'". 

BiETBiOH Veban. Signature on an arquebuse with rifled barrel, date d 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

IcH 1'lkich Tilesiann, of Marburg, 1676. Signature found on a flint- 
lock gun in the Erbacli Collection. 

JIakius Linck, at Prague, second half of the seveiiteeiitlL century. 

Tower of London. 

U. Nic. Markloef, of Hanau, 1680. (Jn a flint-lock gun in tlie 

Erbach Collection. 
Tv"iLHEL3i Etch, seventeenth century ; the signature is in the Museum 

of Artillery, Paris. 

Jan Saxder, of Hanover. Signatm-e foinid nn a cross-bow, dated 1669. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris, 

This man was probably Swiss. 

556 Armourers' Monograms and Names. 

JOHANN Gt'TZTNGEK, 1677. The signatiu'e occurs on both a small and a. 

large rampart gun, dated 1677. 
Clement Poetek, of Solingen. The signature occurs on a sword ©f the 

seventeentli century. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Hans Jacob Stumpf, of Mossbrunn, armourer, engraver, and etcher of 


JoHANN Maetin. The signature occurs on an arquebuse with rifled 
barrel, date 1681. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris^ 

Leonhaedies Bieslinger, of Vienna. Signature on an arquebuse with 
rifled barrel, and serpentine match ; it is dated 16S7. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Dahiel Eck, of Nordlingen. Signature on a wheel-lock arquebuse 
with rifled barrel, dated 1G68. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

H. Maetin Mijlek. Signature on a musket with rifled barrel, of the 
end of the seventeenth century. 

Andeeas Pkantnek. Signature on a carbine dated 1675. 

Tower of London. 

P, V. 1678. On a harquebuse in the Tower of London. 
Simon ErEE. or Evee in ]?ilwang(?). Signature on a wheel-lock arque- 
buse with rifled barrel, dated 1689. 
H. P. United in a monogram is another mark on the same arquebuse. 
A. Wasungen, 1G90. On a fiint-lock gun in the Erbach Collection. 

Heineioh Keimee. Signature of an armoiu'er on a wheel-look aiqae- 
buse with rWed barrel, dated 1691. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Leon Geoi;g Dax. Sip;rature on a wheel-lock arquebuse with rifled 
barrel, dated end of tlie seventeenth century. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Baissellmans Schachner, of Innspruck. On a wheel-lock arquebuse 
with rifled barrel. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Johahn Adam Altee. Signature of armourer on a wheel-lock arque- 
buse with rifled barrel. 

Andreas Zaecba, of Salzburg. Signature of armourer on a wheel-lock 
arquebuse with rifled barrel. 

Johann Seitel, 170i. On a wheel-lock arqui buse with rifled barrel. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Geoeg Dinckl, of the Upper Tyrol. Signature on a wheel-look arque- 
buse with rifled barrel. 

Museum of Artillery, Pnrig. 

Armourers' Monograms and Names. 507 

Joseph Hameel, of Vienna. Signature on a wheel-lock arquebiise 
with Titled burrel. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

T. P. C. D. G. E. B. 1702. Initials fimnd on a flint-lock gun in 
the Erbaeh Collection. 

AViLHELM Bkabendek. Signature on a suit of German armour. 

No. 1% Ibwer of Lmidon, 

Stanislaus Paczelt. Armourer's name on a fiint-look gun fur the 
chase, dated 1(38. 

Tower of London. 
W. Initial on a German spoutoon of the reign of Charles VI. (1711 — • 

Museum of Artlllerij, Paris. 

Monogram of Charles VI. (1711—1740). 

Tiiese two monograms occur on a German spontoon ; they 
are the initials of Marie The'rese and Francois of Lor- 
raine, who maiTied the Empress in 1738. The last is 
very similar to that of the Palatine Charles Theodore. 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Escutcheon on a German boar-spear used for hunting in 
the seventeenth century. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

WiLFiNG. Signature on a wheel-lock arquebuse of the eighteenth 

Museum of Artillery, Paris, 

IJaniel Anthoise, of Berlin. Signature on a small German sword 
belonging to a Prussian officer of the reign of Frederick II. (1740 — 

I'TTER, of Warsaw. Signature on a wheel-lock arquebuse with rifled 
barrel, dated 1759. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

I. A. Joseph Geae. The initials and the signature of a German 
armourer, found on a carbine. 

Tdesohen-Eeith. Inscription on a carbine. 

1 'leioh Wasnee, of Eychstett. Same as above. 

Habtmann. The name of a German armourer who worked in Am- 
sterdam. In the Museum of Artillery there is a flint-lock musket 
by the same maker. 

r)58 Armourers' Monograms and Names. 

Rewer, of Dresden. Sigaature on a wlieel-look carbine, dated 1797. 

Tower of Londi);:, 

Daniel Heisohaupe, of Ulm, an armouri'r of the middle of the eighteenth 
oentui-y. He made the flint-lock ciirbine preserved in the Museum 
of Artillery iu Paris, marked 51. 343. 

/WALTER. Signature on a flint-lock carbine. 

EoKART, of Prague. Signature on a flint-lock carbine. 

Pgeettel, of Dresden. Signature on a iiint-loek carbine. 

JoHAxs Hereiter, of Salzburg. Signature on a carbine with rifled; 
barrel in the Museum of Artillery in Paris. 

liiEGEL, of Zweibriicken, an armourer of the eighteenth century, wliose 
signature is on a flint-lock gun in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Andreas Gans, of Augsburg. Signature on a German Inuiting-gun. 

BI. 1288, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
Sr-.AziEHEE, of Prague. 

SI. ]2S9, Miisenm of Artillery, Parix. 


M. 1291, Museum of Artillery, Par/.-'. 
T. W. Peter, of Ottingen. 

BI. 1292, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
I;etel, of Dresden. 

M. 1294, Museum of Artillery, Paris, and also Erhacli ColleHion. 

Christian, of Vienna. 

M. 1297. Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
F. L. L. I. G. The initials of an armourer of Bayreuth on a German 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Geors Iveisee, of Vienna. Signature in the Museum of Artillery, 

Christoi'h .Ioseph Prey, of Munich. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
Adam Kulnic, of Munich. 

Museura of Artillery, Parit 
IIeinrioh Kapel, of Munich. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Valentin Siegling, of Frankfort-on-the-Main, maker of an air-gun in 
the eighteenth century. 

i\[iiseum of Artillery, Paris. 
Fi. BosiER, of Darmstadt. 

Museum of Artillery, I'aris. 
Vrel, of Ooblentz. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris, 
S. Geklaoh, of Berlin, 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Armo^l/rers' Monograms and Names. 559' 

S. Gerlach, of Meerholz. Maker of an air-gun. 

Erbach Collection. 
JICllek, of Warsaw. 

Museum of Artillery, Farig. 
C'oxTBiNEE, of Vienna. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
Stephan Stookmar, of Potsdam, died in 1782 ; lie was celebrated for 
his guns. 

J. C. Sabs, of Berlin, celebrated for Ms air-guns. 

C. Z. with half a carriage wheel, is the badge of the manufactory of 
ZiEGLER at Dresden, in the eighteenth century, famous for sword 

Valentin Makl, a German ai-mourer, who lived at Copenhagen ; his- 
signature occurs ou a flint-lock pistol. 

Mvseum of Artillery, Paris, 

J. A. KucHENKEiTEE, of Eogensburg. Signature on a flint-lock pistol. 
This armoui'cr is held in very high repute in Germany. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

JoH. AnDKEAS KucHENKEiTER. Ou 3, flint-look gun, eai'ly present 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

1. 1. Behr. Signature on a rampart gun of the eighteenth century. 
(See page 560). 

May, of Mauheim. Same as above. 
Geoks Koint. Same as above. 
Nock. Signature on a rampart gun, dated 1793. 
Stiblets. Signature on a rampart gun. 

C. NuTERiscH, of Vienna, is an armourer of the second half of the 
eighteenth century, whose signature is on a carbine. 

Tov:er of London. 

Q_ E, F, Initials of an armourer on a flint-lock gun in the Erbach 

H. T. of Heubach. 

Erbach Collectioji. 

J. Belen, Atjgtjste Hoetez, p. G. Guaz, Isidore Soler, N. 0. and 
P. E. Bis, are all German armourers, whose names and monograms, 
as they occur on the arms preserved in the Almeria Real of 
Madrid, have been given by Don Jose Maria Marches! in the table 
of monograms of armourers who lived at Madrid from 1684 to 

Manuel Soler, Martin Mantjel, Samuel Till, and Peedinahi) De7 — 
names of German armourers collected from the list of armoui'ers 
who visited Madrid, collected by the same author as above. 


Armourers^ Monograms and Names. 


Heikkich Albrecht, of Daimstadt. 

Anschutz, of Sulil. 
Aegens, of Stuttgiirdt. 
David Aknth, of Mergontheim. 
V. Baktholomae, of Potsdan-.. 
Baumann, of Villingen. 
Behk, of Wallenstein. 




Calvis, of Spaiidnu. 

Claus, of Halberstadt. 

•CoRNELRS Coster. 

DiNKEL, of Hall. 

S. DisoK. 

Eeert, of Sondershausen. 

ICcHL the elder, younger, and third, of Berlin. 

EcHii (von der), of Berlin. 

TjEOpold Eckhaud, of Prague. 

J. M. Felber (if Riveubberg. 

Martin Fischer, of Suhl. 

Chbistoph Wilhelm Fretjnd, of Fiirstcnaii. 

Oael Fkeund, of Fiirstenau. 

Fbemmery, of Berlin. 

Fkiedleh, of Ulm. 

Erhacli Collection. 

Erhaeli Collection 
Erhacli Cnllection. 
Erhacli Cullectior.. 
Erhacli CulJection. 
Erhacli Collection. 
Erhacli Collection. 
Erhacli Collection. 
Erhach Collection. 
Erhacli Collection. 
Erhach Collection. 

Erhach Collection. 
Erhach Collection. 
Erhacli Collection. 

Armourer^ Monograms and Names. 


J. Georg, of Stuttgardt. 
.lEAif Gkenet, of Perleberg. 

GoTTSCiiALCK, of Ballensladt. 
J. C. GoBGAS, of Ballenstadt. 


Sta ;k, of Vienna. 

Tanneb, of Cothen. 

Toll, of Sahl. 
Ui.EicH, of Ebemdorf. 

Chebtian Yoigt, of Altburg. 
J. Jos. Vett. 

Waas, of Bamberg. 
Wamtee, of t~iuirbiuck. 

M. Webtschges, of Willingen. 
JuAK Zeegh. 

Zdbich, of Vienna. 
Pfaff, of Cassel. 
Pfaff, of Posen. 
PisrOE, of Scbmalkalden. 

A. PoTzi, of Carlsbad. 
PoLZ, of Carlsbad. 
Peesselmeteb, of Vienna. 
Qdade, of Vienna. 
Rasch, of Brunswick. 
David Eeme. 

JoH. EisCHEE, of Spandau. 
C Rexek. 

J. EoscHEE, of Carlsbad. 


! J. And. Eechold, of Dolp. 
- ^ ^ PhaaE Saetee, of Lemgo, in Lippe-Detmold. 

Erbach Volleclion. 

Erbach Colleetion. 

El-bach Collection. 

Erbach Collection aitd Dresden ^luseum. 

Erbach Collection. 

Erbach Collection. 

Erbach Collection. 

Erbach Collection. 

Erbach Collection. 

Erbach Collection. 

Erbach Collection. 

Erbach Collection. 

Erbach Collection. 

Erbach Collection , 
2 o 

502 Armourers' Monograms and Names. 

Geokq Eeck (1769—1782). 

Erbach Collection, 
Suhackat;, of Bamberg. 
ScHEDEL, of Stuttgardt. 
ScHiRRMANN, of Basewalk. 
SoHEAMM, of Zelle. 
Fr. Sohdlze, of Breslau. 
Si'ALDEOK, of Vienna. 
Hakz, of Cranacl). 
Havser, of Wurzburg. 
Hebek, of Carlsbad. 
Chkist. Hii:.*ch. 

Erhach Collection. 
Jach, of Speier, iiuiker of a double gun witli damasked barrel. 

Erbach Collection. 
F. Jaiedtel, of Vioima. 

Erhacli Collection. 
Junker, of Grambacli. 

Erbach Collection 
J TNG, a German armourer establisbed at Warsaw. 

George KAYsiiH, of Vienna. 

IvEMMEEER, of Tliorn. 
G. Kalb. 

\I. H. Kappe. 
J. C. Klett, of Potsdam. 
Kkopf, of Salztlial. 
liEAWiNSKY, of Posen. 
IvBrGEE, of Piatibor. 
Kleinschmidt, of Wisterberg. 

J. Lammerer, of Crauaoh. 
LiOHTENPELS, of Carlsruhe. 
Lipi'e (Van der), of iStettin. 
LiPPEKT, of Cotheu. 
Marter, of Cologne. 
Damien Marter, of Bonn. 
]\Iathe, of Manheiiu. 

MijLLEE, of Bernberg. 
MuLLER, of Steinau. 

Erbach Collection. 
Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Erbach Collection. 

ErlMch CollectioH. 

Erbach Oollectioiu 

Armourers' Monograms and Names. 563 

Navmask, of Gassel. 

JoH. Neureuter, of Salzburg (a very famous maker). 

XoEDMAHN, of Berlin. 

Oktel, of Dresden, established at Amsterdam. 

M. OiT, of Wiesbaden. 

Otto, of Brandenburg. 


Danielo I)E Castelo Milano, of 147.'5. Name of an armourer in the 
Dresden Museum, which, in the author's opinion, is wrongly said to 
be that of a Spaniard. 

A, Bi ^ ^ monogram of about 1480. 

B. A. B. ditto- 
S. ditto. 

A>iTONio KoMERO, a celebrated armourer of the sixteenth contury. 

Phildppi Nigboli, of Milan, of about 1522. 

S. Pi Qi Ri Iiiitials found on a round Italian shield, belonging to 
the middle of tlie sixteenth century, in the Museum of Artillery, 
Paris. They are tlie first letters of the words Senatus Populus que 

Baetolam Biella. Signatm-e on a damascened hunting weapon in tlie 
Dresden Museum. 

Johannes db la Orta. Signature on a sword of the middle of the six- 
teenth century, which has also the arms of the Montmorency 

MtMeum of Artillery, Paris. 

Johannes de l'Orta. The same signature, though a little varied, 
found on a weapon in the Dresden Museum, wrongly classed among 
Spanish arms. 

Monogram of an Italian armourer of the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, found on an Italian gisarme in 
the Soter Collection at Augsburg. It is called the 
Scorpion mark. 

AuTONio PicciNiNO. Signature on a rapier marked No. A^, of the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century, preserved in tlie Tower ci 

564 Ao-mourej-s' Monograms and Names. 

.* * 

Monogram of armourer on a Venetian sword,* of the clay- 
more shape, preserved in the Museum of Sigm&ringen. 

Lazako Lazaeoni, of Venice, lived about 1640 ; he was celebrated for 
his fire-arras. 

Aneeea, of Ferrara. Signature on a sword, wrongly called a claymore, 
of the seventeenth century. 

No. J. 118, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Ventuba Gani. Signature on an Italian wheel-lock arquebuse, of the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 

Mtiseum of Artillery, Paris. 

Lazaeino Cominazzi (sometimes Commazzo). Signature of a celebrated 
, armourer on some pistols in the Sigmaringen Museum. 

Lazaeino Cominaco. Signature of the same armourer on a wheel-lock 
arquebuse of the second half of the seventeenth century, and on 
a gun of the eighteenth century, No. M. 113 and 1285, in the 
Museum of Artillery, Paris, as weU as on a flint-lock gun in the 
Erbach Collection. 

Colombo. Name found on an Italian musket of the seventeenth century. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Matteo Badile. Signatm-e on a pistol, a small musket, and a wheel- 
lock aiquebuse, of the second half of the seventeenth century ; in 
the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Geo. Bat. Fkanoino. Signature on a wheel-lock arquebuse, and on a 
pistol, of the second half of the seventeenth century, in the Museum 
of Artillery, Paris. A pistol with the same signature is in the 
Tower of London. 

Geeonimo Mutto or Motto, of the middle of the eighteenth centmy. 

BoESELLi, of Kome. Signature on a wheel-lock gun. 

Labo Zabino, or Lazaeo Lazaeino. Signature on a pistol of the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century. 

Aktonio Bonisolo. Same as above. 

GloOATANE. Signature on a pistol of the eighteenth century. 

Baetolomeo Cotel, an armourer of about the year 1740, according to 
the signature on a gun in the Tower of London. 

JoHANDT, of Brescia, and Postimbol, of Spezzia, both lived about the 
latter part of the eighteenth century, and were celebrated for tlieir 

Cablo CoNTmo. Name of an armourer fotmd on a fiint-lock gun in the 
Erbach Collection. 

♦ These sorts of swords were used by the gnard of the Doges', and 
were called Schiavona. 

Armourers' Monograms and Names. 565 


C. A. Mora, about 1586, found in the Museam of Dresden. 

SEBASTEEir Hehnahdez, about J599, found in the Museum of Dresden. 

Johannes Kucoca, in the Dresden Museum. 

Mabtinez Detvan, in the Dresden Museum. 

Juan Tenoinas. The name of an armourer which occurs on the cross- 
bow of Ferdinand I. in the Spengel Collection at Munich. This 
weapon was made about the year 1533. 

Thomas di Ajala. Name of an armourer of the sixteenth century, in 
raised letters on some arms in the Dresden Museum. 

With regard to the armourers of Toledo we know the 
names of the most celebrated, and their stamps, from the 
second haK of the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, thanks 
to the work of Don Manuel Kodriguez Palamiao, who has 
made an exact copy of the records of Ayuntamiento. From 
this we learn that several of these armourers worked also 
at Madrid, Cordova, Cuen9a, Catugel, Saint-Clement, Cuella, 
Badajoz, Seville, Valladolid, Saragossa, Lisbon, Orgoz, and 
Bilbao, but the principal towns that were celebrated for the 
manufacture of Spanish arms were Toledo, Saragossa, Seville, 
and Saint-Clement. 

Of the 99 monograms the most sought after are the scissors 
(No. 21), the wolf or the goat (No. 59), and the No. 76, used 
by Lupus Aguado. The Spanish armourers used often to 
have their name, as well as their monogram, engraved either 
on the blade or on the tang. 

The following are the monograms : 

566 Armourers Monograms and JVames. 

f? [p a 

^(^^ h 

W I'^Ary KTJW 

© ^ 

'YI X 

[^1 lAJ 

^ X m \i 

fi^ <j r^ 

e^D^t^ * 






y^j ]<^f T<r^T N"^^/ 

Armourer^ Monograms and Names. 


"^"^^ ff 

All these monograms belong to the armourers of Toledo. 
Madrid, Cordova, Cuen5a, Catugel, Saint-Clement, Cuella. 
Badajoz, Seville, Valladolid, Saragossa, Orgoz, and Bilbao, 
and they have been placed in the following order : 





Alonzo de Sahagun, senior, lived about 1570. 

Alonzo de Sahagun, junior, lived about 1570. 

Alonzo Perez. 

Alonzo de los Eios, who worked at Toledo and Cordova 

Alonzo de Caba. 

Andres Martinez, son of Zabala. 

Andres Herraez, who worked at Toledo and CuenQa. 

Andres Munesten, who worked at Toledo and Catup;el. 

Andres Garcia. 

Antonio de Butna. 

Anton Guttierrez. 

Anton Guttierrez. 

568 Armourers Monograms and Names. 

13. Anton. Euy, who worked at Toledo and Madrid. 

14. Adrian de Lafra, who worked at Toledo and Samt-CIemeat. 

15. Baitholome di Nieva. 

16. C. Alcado dl Nieva, who worked at Cuella and Badajoz. 

17. Domingo di Orosco. 

18. Domingo Maestre, senior. 

19. D>jmingo Maestre, junior. 

20. Domingo Rodriguez. 

21. Domingo Sanchez Clamade. 

22. Domingo, of Aquirre, son of Hortuno. 

23. Domingo de Lama. 

24. D imiiigo Corrientez, who worked at Toledo and Madi-id. 

25. Favian de Zafia. 

26. t'l-aucisco Buiz, senior. 

27. Francisco Ruiz, junior, brother of Antonio. 

28. Frant'isoo Gomez. 

29. Francisco de Zamora, "who worlced at Toledo and Seville. 

30. Francisco rie Alcoces, who worked at Toledo and Madrid. 

31 . Francisco Louidi. 

32. Francisco Gordoi. 

33. Francisco Perrez. 

34. GIraldo Eeliz. 

35. Gonzalo Simon. 

36. Gil de Alman. 

37. Ditto. 

38. Hnrtuno de Aquirre, senior. 

39. Juan Martin. 

40. .Tuan de Leizade, who worked at Toledo and Seville. 

41. Juan Martinez, senior, ditto. 

42. Juan Martinez, junior, ditto. 

43. Juan de Alman. 

44. Juan de Tore, son of Pedro Toro. 

45. Juan Ruiz. 

46. Juan Martus de Garata Zabala, senior. 

47. Juan Martinez Menchaca, wlio worked at Toledo and I isbon. 
■3 8. Juan Eos, who worked at Toledo and Lisbon, 

49. Juan de Salccdo, who worked at Toledo and Yalladolid. 

50. Ditto, ditto. 

51. Juan de Maladocia. 

52. Juan de Vergos. 

53. Joaunez de la Horta, who lived about 1545. 

54. Joannez de Toledo. 

55. Joannez de Alquiviva. 

56. Joannez Maleto. 

57. Joannez, senior. 

58. Joannez Uriza. 

59. Julian del Rey, who worked at Toledo and Saragoasa, 

60. Julian Garcia, who worked at Toledo and Cuenja. 

61. Julian Zamora. 

62. Josepe Gomez. 

Armourers MuHograms and Names. 569 

<63. Josepe fie la Hera, senior. 

CI. Josepe de l;i Heiu, junior. 

Go. Josepe de l.i Hei-a, grandson. 

^Q Josepe de la ileia, 

07. Josepe de la Herj, sou of Sj-lve»tur. 

68. Ygnueio Fernandez, tenim. 

69. Yguacio Fernandez, junior. 

70. Louis de Eivez. 

71. Louis de Ayala. 

72. Louis de A'tliuonfe. 

73. Louis de ^al.agim the Ist. 

74. Louis de baiiagun tlie ii;d. 

75. Louis de Xirvu. 

76. Lupus Aguado, who worked at Toledo and Sidnt-Clenjeiit. 

77. Miguel Cantero. 

7S. Miguel Suarez, who worked at 'Toledo and Lisbon. 
7;i. Ditto, ditto. 

SO. Nicolas Hortuno de Aqujrre. 

81. Petro de Turo. 

82. Petro de Aiecliiga. 

53. Petro de Lop.-z, who worked at Toledo and Urgos. 

84. Petro de Lopez, who worked at Toledo and Seville. 

85. Petro de Lazaretta, who wojke.l at Toledo and LSilLao. 

86. Peti'o de Orezco. 

87. Petro de Vilmonte. 

88. Rogue Hernandez. 

89. Sebastian Hernandez, the elder, who lived about 1G37. 

90. Sebastian Hernandez, the younger, who worked at Toledo ami 


91. Silvestre Nieto. 

ii2. Silvestre Xieto, the sen. 

93. Thomas Ayala, who lived about 1625 (a fine sword by this ar- 
mourer is in the Slunich Arsenal). 

54. Zamorano, surnamed El Toledauo. 

95 to 99. Five monograms belonging to some armourers of Toledo 
whose names are unknown. 



, ^^T^J^ 

Armourers Monograms and Names. 




Marks and monograms of armourers who lived at Madrid, 
from 1684 to 1849. A list of these was published in 1849 
by Don Jose Maria Marchesi, in bis " Catalogo de la Eeal 
y^rmeria;" tbey belong to the followiiig German and Spanish, 
ai'mourers : 

Armourers' Monograms and Names. 571 

.\iBAKEZ (DiEG.) 

)!aeza (M. a.) 
Cano (I. P.) 

(rOJIEZ (A.) 

Lopez (F. E. C.) 

Lopez (G. E. E.) 

Santos (S. E. V.) 

Soto (Juan de). 



ZiLOAGA, and some others, as Acguste Hobtez, Isidore Soler, J. 

Beles. N. O. and E. E. N. Bis, German armourers established at 

irATHEO (on a sword). 
Daniel de. Com. (on a dagger). 
Leon (on a dagger). 
■loAN DE OiPE me fecit (on a crfi»^-bow). 
JoHAN, ditto. 

Salado (on a flre-arra). These six names of urmoui-ers are mentioned' 

by the same author, and all of them oecur on arms in the same 

armoury, but with no indication of epoch or nationality. 
Aporicio (A.) 
Baezina (J.) 
Cantero (Mancel). 
Dez (Febdinand), German. 


Fernandez (P.) 
Lopez (Balens). 




Mabtht, German. 
Matheo (Hilario). 
MoNTOEEES (Carlos). 
Xataeeo (Antonio). 
Kajiikez (P.) 
Kodrigue (Carl). 
Santos (Z.) 

,572 Armourers' Monograms and Names. 

SoLEH (Mandel), German. 

Til (M. S.), German. These twenty-one names of armonrers are to be 
found in the list of names and monograms in Marehesi's hoot, 
where they are described as having worked for a short time at 
Madrid ; no date is mentioned, but they have all been found on 
arms which are in the Museum of Madrid. 

•With regard to the marks and monograms which have 
rbeen collected at random from swords, daggers, lances, hal- 
bards, bucklers, etc., in the " Armeria Eeal," and published 
by M. Marches!, without any notes respecting the time of 
their manufacture or nationality, I have not thought it 
necessary to speak of them here, as they could be of no 
historic use. 

Baktolah Bieli.a is the name of an armouier on a fowling-piece of the 

sixteenth centru'y in the Museum of Dresden. 
JSastian Ak-mando. 
Be Peduo de Belmonte, armourer of the king. 


C!. A. MoKA (1586). 

i''KANCisoo, Antonio, and Fueuekico Picino are armourers of Toledo of 

the sixteenth century ; their names occur in the Museum of 

Dresden, but they are neither in the records of Ayuntamieuto. 

published by Manuel Rodriguez Palamino, nor in the catalogue of 

M. Marchesi. 

Armourer's mark found on a suit of Spanish armom' richly 
inlaid with gold, of the sixteenth century, in the Ar- 
senal of Vienna. 

Alonzo de Schagon, of the end of the sixteenth ceutury, wag also, 
according to Jager, one of the most celebrated armourers of 
Toledo ; his name has been omitted in the list of records. 

.JiAN and Clement Pedronsteva. 

EuDAL Pons and Martin Mahohal were celebrated at Toledo about 
the last years of the eighteenth century. 

Camo. Name of armourer on a sword of the seventeenth century, in 
the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Thomas Haiala. Id. 

Sahagom. Id. 


and V. Monogram and initial on a Spanish partizan of the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Armourers' Monograms and Names. 573 

Lasinto LArMANXiKEU, of Mamesa; he worked about the year 1739, 
according to the signature on a revolver in the Tower of London. 

G. MoEiNO, a Spanish armourer -who signed and dated (1745) a gun 
now in the Tower of London. 


Monogram fovmd on a suit of French (?) armour of the reign 
of Louis Xm. (1610—1643), in the IMuseiim of ArtDlery, 
Paris. It is marked in three places. 

V^ ^ Monogram found on a hatchet with jiammer and long 
handle, a weapon which appears to be Burgundian. 
— ^ *— CoUection of Colonel Meyer-Biermaan at Lucerne. 

"C^^^ Monogram found on a sword of the reign of Louis XIV. 
KC/1 (1643-1715). J. 133, in the Museum of Artillery, 

J C) L Paris. 

Claude Thomas, of Spinal, 1623. On pistols in the Erbach Collection. 

D. Ju^rEAu. Signature on a wheel-lock aiquebuse of the first half of 
the seventeenth century. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Akbois, probably the name of the town of Ai-bois, found on a cuirass of 
the sixteenth century. 

Jean Sdionix, of Lunevdle. Xame found on an arquebuse with wheel- 
lock, dated 1627. 

Gabkiel. Name of an armourer of the seventeenth centui'y, on a pistol 
in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

PlEBEE Baeot, who died at Paris in 1780, was tlie inventor of an 
ingenious four-barrelled flint-lock gun, which is in the Arsenal of 

PiEBEE Beviek, a watch-movcment maker and armourer of the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth centitty, invented a double pistol-lock of 
peculiar character, in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

BoriLLET frferes, of Saint-Etienne, were armourers in the reign of Louia 
XV. (1715 — 1774), celebrated for their air-guns. 

De Thuraine, of Paris, made a flint-lock carbine in the time of Louis 
XV. (1715—1774).' 

Bbezol-Laine, of Charleville. Name of armourer found on a blunder- 
buss in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

MABOHAir, of Grenoble, armoiuer of the eighteenth century, maker of a 
flint-lock gun in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

574 Armourers' Monograms and Names. 

IPhilippe le Seller, armourer of (he eigliteeutli century, and juaker of 
two flint-lock guns preserved in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
There is another in the Erbach Collection. 

H. Eeniek, of Paris, maker of flint-look pistols of the eighteenth ce:i- 

'liiouviLLE, of Paris. Id. 

Lame, of Me'zieres, mater of flint-lock gun in the Erbach CoUeotion. 
•Chateau, of Paris Id. 

ISouTET, armourer of Marseilles, end of tlie eighteenth century . 
Fkappiee, of Paris. On a pistol in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
Lamaree. Name on a pistol with flint-look, in the Museum of Artilleiy, 

,Jeax Dubois, of Sedan. Name of an armoui'er on a pistol. 

Hubert, of Bordeaux. Signature of an armourer found on a lar^'e 

rampart gun, brought from the citadel of Blaye. 

Museum of ArtiUenj, Paris. 
-UlVERDE, HiLPEET aud EueeksbtjeCt, of Strasburg, were armourers 

celebrated for their tire-arms in Ihe latter part of the eighteentli 

Vincent. On a flint-lock gun in the Erbach Collection. 

..Tean Geiottiek, maker of a double-barrelled gun in the Erbarli 

,Jban Eeniee, armourer of the middle of the eighteenth century, wliose 
name is engraved on a pistol in the Museum of Artillery in Paris. 

■Gustave Delvigne, who since 1S26 has been continually improving un 
rifled barrels so that the ball need not be hammered witli a mallet. 

. JuLiEN Lekoy, Gastine Eenatte, and Lefauoheux, are other armourers 
celebrated for their breech-loading guns. 

In addition, MM. Egbert Manoeaux and Viellaed, and last of all 
M. Chassepot, are names well-known in the army for their improvements 
in fire-arms. 


Eadoo, an armourer of the end of the sixteenth century, whoso name is 
known on account of a payment which was made to him by tlie 
chamberlain of the city of Norwich, as compensation for clianging 
the wheel-lock on a pistol for a snaphaunce. 

H. Maetin Mulee is the name of an armourer on a musket witli rifled 
bari'el, the stock of which is ornamented with tlie arms of Englam 1 
andother inlaid work. It is probably of tlie reign of James II. 

Museum of Artillfry, Farif. 

Armourers' Monograms and Names. 



witli a crown, is the mark of the companj- of armourers of 
Loudon of the reign of George I. (ITl-t — 1727). 

A. R. 

Tliese initials are on two rampart guns of the years 1739 and 
1740, in the Tower of London. 

Stephen, of London, an armourer of the end of tlie eighteentli century, 
wliose name is on a nhtcl-lock j;nn, as well as on an air-guu, pre- 
served in the Museum of Artillery, Palis. 

X. Thomson, born in England, and established at Rotterdam, about the 
end of the eighteenth century, celebrated for his fire-arms. 

Bate, an ai-mourer whose name is engraved on the supposed look of an 
air-gun iu the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

FoHSYTH, a Scotch armourer, who invented in 1807 the percussion or 
piston gun. 

Joseph Egg, an English armourer, who was inventor of the percussion 


^ t yj ^^^''^ found on a Swiss halbard of the fifteenth century, iu 

3U '""'"^ ^■""" 

the Author's Collection. 

Mark found on a Swiss halbard of the sixteenth century, iu 
the Author's Collection. 

Mark found on a partizan, probably of the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, in the Collection of Colonel Meyer- 
Biermann at Lucerne. 

Same description as for preceding one. 

Zell Blasi, 1614. Signature on a serpentine in the Arsenal of Bale. 

Wys, of Zurich, -who died in 1788, was celebi'ated for his fii-e-arms. 

Btk.\hgle and Michel, father and son, who lived in the last years 
the eighteenth century, were celebrated for their fire-arms. 

576 Armourers' Monograms and Names. 

Feoekee, ofWiuteithur, and Htjsbaum, of Berne, were celebrated at the 
end of the eighteenth century for their tire-arms. 

VlTT, of Schaffhauscn. On a fire-arm with rifled barrel, in the Erbach 

Pauly, of Geneva, "S'ho invented about fh" year 1808 a percussion-gun 
which differed frum that of Forsyth, and which was a breech- 


Jacobus van Oppy, of Antwer]]. Signature on a rampart gun of the 
middle of the seventemth century, in the Tower of London. 

Johannes Wyndd. Found on an infantry sword of the seventeenth 
century, which has the badge of tlie fiare. 

J. 103, Museum of ArtiUery, Varis. 

Cloede Hiquet, of Liege. Signature on a flint-lock gun and on a 
pistol of the end of the seventecntli century, in the Museum of 
Artillery, Paris. 

Gathy, of Liege. Signature found on a pistol with flint-look, of the 
eighteenth century, in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

L. GostiNi, of Liiige. Signature on a musket. 

Le Clekk, of Maestricht. 

Erhacli Collection. 
Van Walsen, of Maestricht. Id. 

MiOHAEius, of Breda, on a flint-lock gun. Id. 

Tendermann, of Utrecht, on a flint-lock. Id. 

Mbeoier, of Lifege, on a double-barrelled damasked musket. Id. 
Fachtek, of Liege, celebrated for his air-guns. 

Facka Spegee is the name of a Dutch armourer, occurring on an air- 
gun of the eighteenth century, the air-chamber of which is in 
the butt. 

Museum of Artillery, Paris. 


On a large number of Christian and Turkish arms taken from 
<j"\ the ancient church of Saint Irene at Constantinople, 

I ly Avhere the Arsenal of Mahomet IL was. The arms may 

be of the end of the fifteenth, or beginning of the six- 
teenth century. The mark is not an armourer's badge, 
but probably the stamp of the Arsenal, and means, in 
Cufic character, Allah. This monogram is also on a 
janissary's cuirass in the JNInseum of Artillery at Paris. 

Armourers' Monograms and Names. 577 

HrsSEiN, of abont the year 1094 of the Hegira (1680). 

This mark is supposed to have been on sword blades that the 
Crnsaders had bad either made or stamped at Jerusalem. 
I have found it, however, on a sword in the Arsenal of 
Berlin, the handle of which indicates the sixteenth 

NrBWTE is the name of a town in Central India where there was a 
manufectoiy of fire-arms in the eiguteenth century. This name 


has been found with the initials 


of the armourer, and 

the date 


of the Hindoo era (1786 of the Christian era), 

on a gun with match-lock in the Tower of London. 

Shahjehanabad. The name of a town of India where a manufactory of 
arms once flourished. The name occurs on some damascened arm- 
guards, at present in the Tower of London. 

GwALiOE and LrsHEtrR are names of towns famous for their manufactory 
of blades. The names frequently occur on the weapons, and that of 

Laeobe occurs on fire-arms. 


A. F.I 605. 

Initials and date engraved on a halbard in the Tower 
of London. 

Tatbas. Signature found on a ouii-ass in the Tower ; date, about the 
latter part of the seventeenth century. 


by the side of a punch mart in the shape of a swan, engraved 
on a pistol in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 

Jean-Paci, Cleft. Signature on a wheel-lock pistol of seventeenth- 
century date, in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 
EtTDOLSTADT (town). Id. M. 

A. C. 

Monogram on a bayonet of the time of Louis XTTL 

2 P 



THE institution of Free Tribunals (Fehmgerichte) (the 
origin of which must be ascribed to the disorder and 
er.cessive subdivision consequent from a rigid enforcement 
of the feudal system) does not date as far back as Charle- 
magne, the period usually assigned to it ; but there is little 
doubt that it practically resulted from the want of harmonious 
legislation in the wide dominion of that monarch. 

Notwithstanding the partial enforcement of the Jus Eoma- 
num, the remembrance of national rights claimed and exer- 
cised in broad daylight by freemen (the origin of trial by 
jury), as well as that individual character which is so innate 
in the Germanic races, gave rise, as soon as regular justice 
had been rendered nugatory by physical force, to this speedy 
and terrible means of administrating justice, a law at once 
secret and powerful, and which romance has clothed with 
such terrors and mystery. 

If, as has been lately shown, many places where these 
tribunals used to sit were openly known, historical researches 
have yet failed to disprove their secret administration of 
justice, as well as their summary and dread punishments. 
The " Kedland," a name used to designate, in the symbolical 
language of the members, Westphalia, the place where these 
secret tribunals were first organized, and where every magis- 
trate or free judge [Freisclioffe) was enrolled and initiated, 
was literally a land dyed with human blood. 

There is also tolerable proof that a large number of courts 
organized in addition to the regular courts, used to sit in 
places known only to the initiated (die Wissenden). In 
such places hatred, envy, and private vengeance, had full 
scope for action under the mask of justice. 

The arms attributed to the tribunals of Free Judges are 
rarer in collections than the instruments of tortiire used by 

Arms and Monograms of the Free Judges. 579 

them to extort confessions from their victims, and even these 
few, as well as the alphabets, ciphers, and marks, are of very 
dubious authenticity. 

The dagger with three forks belonging to the Museum of 
Sigmaringen, and attributed to these Free Judges {Fehm- 
richter), is in every respect similar to the mains gauches with 
springs, which were in use from the fifteenth to the seven- 
teenth centuries. 

580 Arms and Monograms of the Free Judges. 

1. Executioner's sword of the Free 
Judges. On the blade are en- 
graved three circles, the centre 
one being described around a 
Greek cross with four crescents, 
and possessing a symbolical 
meaning in these secret tribu- 
nals; the other two have an S 
inscribed in each, these being 
the initial letters of the words 
Sacrifieium Sanotum. 

Musewm of Sigmaringen. 

Dagger of the Free Judges, with 
an inscription nearly obliterated. 
The blade divides into three 
pieces on the pressure of a 
small button which communi- 
cates with a spring. It is pro- 
bable that this weapon was 
used in administering an oath 
in the name of the Trinity. 
Its length is about 18 inches. 
Museum of Sigmaringen, 

Iron cross (about 8J by 15J 
inches) of the Free Judges. It 
was in use among them as a 
sign of the justice of their tri- 
bunal. It was usually inserted 
in a tree above the victim, and 
was also employed in summon- 
ing the accused to appear before 
his judges. In the latter case 
the cross was inserted in the 
door of the house or castle above 
the summons {Ladung). 

Museum of Sigmaringen. 

The double S separated by a cross 
is generally supposed to denote, 
as mentioned above, Sacrifieium 

Arms and Monograms of the Free Judges. 581 

Thetl^ foUowing alphabeta are supposed to have been used by 
three of these tnbnnala {Frmstiihle) in wStphalia : ' 



^ ^. ;/ X, ^. ^. 
-^.T J- m oi-- V 

it u "^ 

« /I <? fX. ? 

T V '^' '^ W ^ 

Advice to Amateur Collectors. 583 



WITH a view tu avoid the constant cleaning which iron 
or steel arms have usually to he subjected to, it is 
advisable to cover them with a light coat of colourless copal 
varnish, previously diluted in essential oil. Through this 
all the niceties of workmanship can be clearly seen. 

Iron is easily cleansed from rust by rubbing with emery 
powder or paper which has been dipped in a composition of 
petroleum or benzine, essential oil, and spirits of wine. All 
arms elaborately damascened, polished, engraved, or en- 
amelled, which would bo damaged by rubbing with emery, 
should be immersed" from eight days to a month in a bath 
of benzine, and afterwards rubbed briskly with woollen rags. 
Every piece of armour after being cleaned should be dried 
before a fire, and lightly moistened with oil. 

In order to rust pieces of armour which have been restored, 
and to produce cavities such as accumulate through age, 
muriatic acid diluted with water should be used. Iron, after 
being dipped in this corrosive solution, should be exposed 
to the air for one or more days, and again moistened, until 
the required amount of oxydization is obtained ; it should 
then be rinsed in spring water, and greased to stop all 
further action. 

To obtain little inequalities in the surface, it will be 
necessary to sprinkle the iron with lithographic ink ; every 
portion touched by the ink will be kept free from rust, while 
the acid eats away the rest of the surface. 

Steel can easily be distinguished from iron by dropping 
on the polished surface a little diluted sulphuric acid ; if the 
liquid produce a black stain, due to charcoal, the metal is 
steel ; if the stain be greenish, and easily removed by water, 
it is iron. 

584 Advice to Amateur Collectors. 

Cast iron, whicli in some counterfeit productions is ivith 
difficulty distinguishable from wrought iron, and which can 
even be rendered malleable, has often puzzled amateurs. 
The file must be used to detect the grain, which, when sub- 
jected to the microscope, appears at once coarser and 

Museums and Arsenals keperked to m this Wurs. 


Antiquities, at Vienna. 

Arsenal of Vienna. 

Artillery, at Paris. 



Belvedere, «ee Vienna. 






City of Vienna. 






FriboHrg, Switzerland. 




Indastry at Vienna. 










Medals, at Paris. 







Prince Charles at Berlin. 










Stockholm, see Sweden. 

Szokau (Hungary). 


Tzarskoe Selo, see Petersburg 

Tower of Loudon, 











Charles XV., King of Sweden. 

Charles, Prince of Prussia. 













Meyer Biermanu. 


Napoleon III. 






Bomano, Collegio. 








Waldburg "Wolfegg. 

Warwick Castle. 


Xames of armourers and gunsmiths will be found from page 551 to p-'ige 


Abbeville, manufacture of arms at, 

Abyssinian arms, 419. 

Acinace, 25, 95. 

-Vkinace, see Acinace. 

Air-guns, 537, 538, 539. 

Albanian arms, 392. 

Alliiimbra, sculptures in the, 188. 

Alphabets of the Free Judges,. 581, 

Amalzen (monk), 59. 

Ambras Collection, 9, 194, 195, 196, 
198, 204, 205, 211, 214, 216, 238, 
247, 265, 270, 273, 283, 297, 303, 
304, 308, 318, 322, 323, 325, 336, 
346, 347, 351, 352, 353, 360, 364, 
365, 378, 381, 416, 418, 423, 441, 
445, 462, 465, 471, 480, 493, 500, 
501, 503, 512, 516, 517, 518, 534, 

Amentum, 28, 106. 

American arms, 84, 88. 

Amsterdam, antiquities in the city 
of, 193. 

collection of the Archaso- 

logical Society in, 16. 

Amussette of Marshal Saxe, 73. 

Anelace, 372, 378, 401, 407. 

Ar.gers, sculptures at, 168. 

Anglo-Saxon arms, 167. 168, 416. 

Artennffi, 109. 

Antwere, 455. 

Arab arms, 349, 365, 368, 377, 396. 

Aretin, Baron, 13. 

Arm guard, 328, 329, 330. 

Armet, 278. 

Armet in leather, 278. 

Armorial bearings, 47. 

Armourers, names of, 551 to 557. 

Armour in detail, 222. 

for horses, 49, 349. 

Armstrong, 66, 509. 

Arms of the stone age, 75. 

of bronze and iron, 85. 

of the bronze age, 127. 

of the iron age, 145. 

of the Renaissance, 196. 

of different nations, see their 


of the Christian middle ages, 


of the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries, 218. 

Ai'naut, see Albanim. 

Arosa, Gustave, 393. 

Arquebus, 68, 487. 

with matchlock, 487. 

with suaphaunce lock, 69 and 


with wheel lock, 487, 520. 

with rifled barrel, 68, 487. 

Assagai (lance), 416. 

Assyrian and Babylonian equip- 
ments, 22. 

and Babylonian weapons, 77, 


coat of arms, 100. 

pavois, 100. 

Augsburg, Museum of, 109, 110, 
129, 156, 248, 414. 

Avenches, Museum of, 29, 121, 124, 



Aventizum. see Avenchea. 

Az Collection, 130, 149, 267, 270, 

294, 398, 416, 423, 432, 434, 442, 

453, 481. 

Badajoz, manufacture of anus at, 

BaliJrick of a musketeer, 535. 
Balista, 14, 455. 
Barbed bolts, 483. 
Barde (horse armour), 49, 114, 352, 

Bardiche (pole-axe), 440. 
Busillos, 65. 

Basle, Arsenal of, 15, 504. 
Bassinet, large, 257, 258, 259. 

small, 43, 249. 

Bastardeau, 401, 409. 
Battering rams, 30, 116, 455. 
Bavaria, Museum of, sef Munich. 
Baveux tapestry, 37, 56, 171, 172, 

246, 290, 315, 356, 367, 374, 415, 

420, 439. 
Bayon, chymist, 72. 
Bayonet, 70, 448. 
Beejanuggur, 26. 
Belgian arms, 495, 550. 
Belvedere, Museum of the, 103. 
Bergbarthe (miner "s hatchet), 442. 
Berlin, Arsenal of, 11, 66, 268, 293, 

363, 383, 418, 419, 445, 454, 465, 

Library of, 179, 181, 253, 263, 

Museum of, 77,84, 87, 95, 105, 

108, 110 115, 157, 257, 267, 344, 

346, 349, 394. 
Museum of Montbiiou at, 2G1, 

269, 293, 301, 360, 363, 440, 484, 

521, 534. 
Berne, Arsenal of, 15, 294, 399, 423, 

437,440,444, 511. 
BerthoUet (chymist), 72. 
Besieging basket, 462. 
Bilbao, manufacture of arms at, 

Bi-lobed sword, 174. 
Birmingham, manufacture of ami., 

at, 550. 
Blind, 63, 492. 

Blow-pipe, 468. 
Bogaert Collection, 15. 
Bohemian arms, 78, 177, 379, 450. 

bassinet, 257. 

Bombardes (cannons), 61. 
Bonstetten Collection, 112. 
Bore (of a cannon), 490. 
Bossof shields, 113, 287. 
Bessettes (of a bridle ), 360. 
Bouldure (chymist), 72. 
Braquemart (sword), 272. 
Brayette, 229. 
Brazilian arms, 349. 
BreastpJate, 226, 238. 
Bridles and b;ts, 366, 367, 368. 
Biigantine jackets, 43, 44, 309, 317, 

Brioude, sculpture at, 162. 
British armour and arms, 78, 136, 

166, 180, 227, 250, 251, 253, 254, 
255, 258, 259, 262, 267, 274, 278, 
300, 335, 344, 347, 348. 363, 375, 
379, 388, 398, 405, 407,' 431, 440, 
441, 442. 449, 550. 

British Museum, 22, 23, 24, 93 lo 
100, 105, 109, 113, 137, 138, 106, 

167, 168. 245, 216, 247, 373, 375, 
398, 405. 

Brittany, arms in. 31. 
Brockberger. 545. 
Brunswick, Museum of, 276. 
mural paintings in the Cathe- 
dral of, 171. 361. 
Buchholzer Collection, 376, 409. 
Buffcoat, 312, 320. 
Burgundian arms, 153, 154, 155. 
Buskin, 106. 

Cabassets (casques), 276, 277. 

Calibre, 64, 490. 

Calthrop, 124, 465. 

Camail, 39. 

Cannons, 61, 66, 490, 492 to 509. 

covered with leather, GC, 


hand, 485, 511 to 517. 

Cap in mail. 249. 
Caparisons, 349. 
Capsules for muskets, 535. 
small. 72, 73. 



Carbine, 71, 488. 

of Versailles, 69. 

revolver, 527. 

Carlsmhe, Museum of, 114, 384. 

Cartridge, 71. 

Oascabel of tlie cannon, 490. 

Casques, 239 to 287. 

from the antique, 280. 

Cassel, Museum of, 4, 131, 132, 365. 

Catapults, 30, 455. 

Ciitugel, manufacture of arms at, 

Caucasian arms, 440. 

Celt (weapon), 31, 127, 133, 135. 

Centurion, 118. 

Chain shot, 510. 

Chaldean equipment, see Assy- 

Ciiambly, manu&cture of arms at, 
43, 310, 549. 

Chamfron, 351. 

Cliarlemagne, 36. 

, arms of, 36. 

Charles XV., King of Sweden, col- 
lection of, 14, 66, 259, 409. 

Charles, Prince of Prussia, collection 
of, 405, 423, 440, 484, 521. 

Charles II., arms of, 36. 

Charleville, manufacture of arms af, 

Chassepot, 74, 528, 

Chemnitz, manufacture of arms at, 

Chevaux de frise, 465. 

Childerio, arms of, 36, 151, 155. 

Chinese arms, 58, 286, 393, 394, 
419, 442, 485, 514. 

Christv Collection, 15, 78, 82, 83, 396. 

Claymore, 371, 379. 

Clouet, damascener, 560. 

Cluny Museum, 316. 318. 

Colichemarde (sword), 370. 

Collar, 244, 326. 

Colt, 74, 533. 

Comnena, Anna, 41, 357. 

Compenhouten, 10. 

Copenhagen, Museum of, 15, 78, 79, 
83, 139, 140, 141, 112, 143, 157, 
158, 173, 185, 344, 367, 368, 374, 
464, 477. 

Cordova, manufacture of arms at, 

Creese (dagger j, 402, 413. 
Cremation, 133. 
Cross-bow, 55, 56, 473 to 482. 

barrelled, 58, 475, 481. 

Chinese, 58, 475, 481. 

• with goat's-foot lever, 58, 474, 

with latch or windlass, 58, 

474, 478, 479. 
German, 58, 474, 480. 

or prodd, to shoot pebbles, 58, 

475, 480, 481. 
Crupper, or croupifere, 353. 
Cuirasses and coats, 309, 324, 325, 

326, 327. 
Cuissards, 9r ouishes, 231, 234, 235. 
Culeman Collection, 262, 449. 

Dacian arms, 121, 123. 

Daggers, 400. 

Damascened worlr, 540. 

Danish arms, see Scandinavian. 

Darmstadt Library, 169, 246, 317. 

Demmin Collection, 78, 82, 135, 202, 
218, 226, 275, 335, 340, 344, 345, 
348, 349, 363, 364, 380, 385, 391, 
407, 413, 444, 455, 472, 534, 536. 

Denon, 101, 103, 104. 

Destailleur Collection, 545. 

Divers objects of war and chase, 

Doghead, 71. 

Ddlmens, 22, 133. 

Dresden, Museum of, 8, 69, 73, 236, 
237, 268, 274, 299, 316, 317, 318, 
320, 347, 368, 379, 392, 399, 411, 
418, 426, 437, 441, 454, 464, 512, 
515, 533, 551, 553. 

Dress (of a diver), 462. 

Dutch armour, 193, 218. 

Egyptian equipments, 26. 

arms, 77, 101. 

Elbow-shaped cannon, 496. 

Epinal Museum, 489. 

Erbach Museum, 12, 121, 131, 291, 

301, 302, 319, 374, 389 555, 556, 




Esqualada, manufacture of arms at, 

Essen, manufacture of arms at, 550. 
Etruscan arms, 106. 
equipment, 28. 

Failly Collection, 388. 

Falcon or parrot-beaked war-ham- 
mers, 436, i37, 438. 

Ferguson, 71. 

Fiery cross-bow bolt, 483. 

fish, 456. 

Fire-chamber, 61. 

FlaUs, 424. 

Flaming dagger, 402, 409. 

Flanchard, 352, 363. 

Flemish arms, 495, 550. 

armourers, 576. 

FUnt-lock gun, 488, 525. 

Flint weapons, chipped, 75 to 79. 

polished, 80 to 84. 

Flissa, 395. 

Florence, manufacture of arms at, 

Fluted ai-mour, 46, 202. 

Fore carriages, 64. 

Porks, military, 452. 

Fork of a gun, 514, 517. 

Korayth, 72. 

Fourcroy, 72. 

Fragment of cuirass, 157. 

Frame work for hats, 269. 

helmets, 265. 

Fianoisque, 36. 

Frankiah arms, 150, 156. 

Free Judges, 578. 

French arms, 168, 182, 3S5, 418, 
421, 447, 450, 550. 

armourers, 573, 574. 

Fribourg, Museum of, 78. 

Fulminates, 72. 

Gallic arms, 32, 78, 82, 83, 134. 
Gambeson, or Gamboison, 42, 316. 
Garde reins, 230. 
Gauntlet, 48, 231, 331 to 336. 

articulated, 335. 

mitten, 334. 

Geneva, Arsenal of, 15, 272, 278, 

281, 389, 405, 425, 437, 453, 482, 


Geneva, Museum of, 144, 150. 

Germanic Museum at Nuremberg, 

Germanic arms, 33, 77, 129, 130, 
131, 149, 151, 153, 154, 155, 1.56, 
157, 163, 164, 165, 169, 170, 174. 

German arms, 169, 170, 175, 176, 
178, 181, 186, 194, 19.5, 196, 197, 
198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 
205, 206, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 
213, 216, 219, 222, and on almost 
every succeeding page. 

armourers, 551 to 563. 

• salade, 259. 

Gisarmes, 430, 431, 432. 

Golden casque, 286. 

helmet, 89. 

shield, 90. 

standard, 91. 

Grape shot, 510. 

Greaves, 114, 231, 337. 

Greek arms, 108. 

equipment, 27, 28. 

Guard and counter-guard, 369. 

Guard for the arm, 328, 329, 330. 

for the leg, 354. 

Gun-carriages, fixed, 64. 

movable, 64. 

on wheels, 64. 

Gunpowder, 61. 

Guns, with flint locks, 488, 525. 

snaphaunce locks, 487, 522. 

percussion locks, 527. 

wheel lock, 487, 519, 520. 

match lock, 487, 512. 

Gun, raquette, 527. 

repetition, 525, 528. 

■ revolving, 525. 

needle, 528. 

Gwahor, manufecture of arms at, 

Hague, Museum of the, 66. 

Hafi, Museum of the Porte de 

Halbards, 443. 
Hallstatt cemetery, 32. 
Hamata, 29. 

Hameus ferreus, see Calthrop. 
Handles fof the cannon), 490. 



Hanover, Museum of the city of, 

77, 132, 149, 157, 344. 
Guelph Museum at, 272, 

Harquebus, 487, 513. 

double, 487. 

Haizberg, manufacture of arms at. 

Hastarius, 118. 
Hauberk, great, 309, 315. 

small, 315. 

■ white, 42. 

Hauslaub Collection, 433, 454, 458, 

459, 462, 463, 464, 465, 471, 47-2, 

475, 480, 496, 497, 499, 511, 545. 
Heaumes, 240, 250 to 255. 
Hefner-Alteneck, author, 543. 
— - Collection, 257, 258, 264. 
Heimburg, sculptures at, 170. 
Helvetian and Swiss arms, 78, 8o, 

157, 167, 187, 398, 431, 440, 447, 

450, 514. 
Hewitt, 11. ■ 

Hildeshelm, sculptm-es in the cathe- 
dral of, 246. 
Hindoo arms, 87, 285, 321, 375, 391, 

Hoplites, 110. 
Hungarian armour, 220, 221, 273, 

Hungul stones, 26. 
Hunting spears, 418. 

Iberian arms, 78, 83. 
Imbricated coats, 314, 319. 
Incendiary torches, 456, 463. 
Indian or Hindoo arms, 87, 285, 

321, 375, 391, 550. 

equipment, 26. 

Iron hand, 454. 

Italian arms, 183, 184, 192, 207, 

215, 325, 432, 440, 445, 471, 535, 


armourers, 563, 564. 

Ivory arm brace, 471. 

Jackets, 311, 315, 319. 
Jiinissariea, 327. 
Japanese arms, 122, 286, 394. 
Javanese, 87, 413. 

Javelins, 106. 
Joust, 53. 

Kabyle aissa, 395. 

Kandgiar, 395. 

Keltic arms, 31, 78, 82, 83, 135. 

Kensington Museum, 87, 286. 

Khorassan, 540. 

Khouttar, 402, 413. 

Kitchen midden, 20, 80. 

Klemm Collection, 129, 131, Ht. 

Klosterdorf, manufacture of arms 

at, 550. 
Knout, 426. 
Koukri, 371. 

Lacustrine dwellings, 20, 83, 154. 

Lahore, 550. 

lances, 414 to 419. 

Langues de boeuf daggers, 413. 

swords, 378. 

Latch cross-bow, 479. 

Lausanne, Museum of, 144, 15!), 
405, 431, 495. 

Leathern casque, 108. 

Leggings, 337. 

for horsemen, 339, 340, 341. 

for horses, 354. 

Liege, manufacture of arms at, 541, 

Liesthal, Arsenal of, 15. 

Lintz, manufacture of arms at, 550. 

Lobster tails, 219, 325. 

Loohaber axe, 440. 

Locks of firearms, 69 to 72. 

Lowenberg Collection, 299, 533. 

London, manufacture of arms at, 550. 

, collection in the Tower of, 11, 

73, 108, 123, 13S, 150, 155, 250, 
253, 255, 260, 2U2, 272, 274, 277, 
278, 284, 286, 295, 344, 351, 3,59, 
360, 364, 375, 376, 4(15, 442, 449, 
495, 497, 515, 530, 533, 552. 

Louvre, Museum of the, 24, 93, 96, 
97, 98, 99, lUO, 105, 108, 109,110, 
111, 134, 135, 151, 154, 155, 244, 
344, 348, 373. 

Lucerne, Arsenal of, 15, 297, 421 
433, 439. 



Lund, Mnsevun of, 154, 155. 
Lushkur, manufacture of arms at, 

Lyons, Museum of, 362. 

Maces, 420, 421. 

Mackay, General, 70. 

Macled coat, 313. 

Madrid, manufacture of arms at, .5+2. 

Armeria of, 2S0, 296, 351, 384, 


Mahratta arms, 285. 

MaU, 314, 315, 316, 317, 321. 

double, 310. 

Mains gauches, 401, 409, 411, 412. 

Malta, Museum of, 15. 

Mantle, Bishop's, 311, 316. 

Massettes, tilling with, 256. 

Matchlock case, 534. 

Mattas, bird bolt, 59. 

Maubeuge, manufacture of arms at, 

Maximilian armour, 202. 

Mayence, Museum of, 108, 109, 110, 
113, 114, 115, 121, 123, 155. 

Mayenfisoh, Baron, 13. 

Mazis Collection, 12. 

Median equipment, see Persian. 

Meiningen, Museum of, 302, 

Merville Collection, 390. 

Mexican arms, 88, 89, 90, 91, 

Meyer Biermann CoUeetion, 434, 436. 

Meyrick Collection, 11, 78, 83, 110, 
137, 156, 236, 238, 262, 274, 281, 
282, 285, 298, 300, 302, 321, 323, 
324, 327, 346, 347, 351, 360, 363, 
368, 411, 413, 417, 421, 425, 429, 
432, 437, 439, 440, 441, 444, 446, 
447, 484, 535. 

Milan, manufacture of arms at, 550. 

Misericorde (dagger), 400. 

Monchsbiiohse, 69, 515. 

Mondoneda, painting at, 191. 

Mongolian casque, 285. 

coat, 320. 

Monograms of armourers, 551 to 

of the Free Judges, .578 to 581. 

Morat, gymnasium of, 344, 423, 
495, 512. 

Morions, 275, 276. 

Morning star, 422. 

Mortars, 488 to 497. 

Mundayien, manufacture of arms at, 

Munich, Arsenal of the city of, 276. 

300, 480, 483, 552. 
Library of, 163, 217, 249, 251, 

421, 427, 471, 512. 
Cabinet of engravings at, 439, 

440, 454. 
National Museum of, 82, 130, 

131, 134, 149, 153, 155, 170, 316, 

318, 321, 345, 346, 357, 374, 375, 

377, 378, 379, 380, 389, 412. 
Musket with wheel lock, 520. 
Muzzles for horses, 354. 

Naples, Museum of, 100 

Napoleon III., collection of 
Emperor, 197. 

Naumbourg, sculptures at, 169. 

Needle gun, 74, 488, 528. 

Neuchatel, sculptures at, 187. 

Neuveyille Museum, 499. 

Neville Museum, 344. 

Nieuwerkeike Collection, 1 5, 38, 
182, 197, 235, 237, 238, 245, 
257, 258, 262, 276, 277, 302, 
324, 351, 352, 360, 374, 375, 
378, 405, 407, 409, 411, 445, 

Norraau arms and equipments, 
171, 172, 290. 

Nuremberg, Arsenal of, 65, 67. 

Germanic Museum at, 

359, 360. 

Nurwur, 550. 


1, 4(1, 


Obsidian, 84. 

Ocreai, 29, 118. 

Odet Collection, 183, 184, 357. 

Oil paintings; 183, 184. 

Olbernhan, manufacture of arms at, 

Olivier de la Maiche, 430. 
Onagre, 55, 457. 
Orange, Arch of, 135. 
Organs, death, 65. 
Ossine, 76. 



Oviodo, manufacture of arma at, 

Oziersky Collection, 14-1. 

Padua, 67. 

Paixhans, QQ. 

Palettea, 197, 211, 223, 227. 

Paiazonium, 115, 121, 378. 

Paiham Collection, 251. 

Paris, Museum of Artillery at, 12, 
73, 96, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 
113, 114, 115, 121, 122, 123, 124, 
125, 134, 135, 150, 151, 153, 154, 
155, 156, 198, 203, 227, 228, 229, 
230, 232, 234, 235, 238, 248, 249, 
250, 251, 253, 254, 255, 258, 259, 
261, 262, 266, 268, 269, 270, 272, 
274, 277, 278, 280, 281, 282, 288, 
284, 286, 292, 293, 295, 296, 297, 
298, 300, 301, 320, 321. 322, 323, 
327, 334, 340, 341, 346, 347, 351, 
354, 357, 363, 364, 365, 368, 374, 
376, 378, 383, 385, 387, 388, 389, 
391, 392, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 
399, 407, 409, 412, 413, 416, 418, 

419, 425, 427, 429, 431, 436, 437, 
439, 440, 441, 442, 445, 447, 455, 
462, 471, 479, 481, 497, 512, 520, 
539, 551, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 
557, 558, 559, 563, 564, 572, 573, 
574, 575, 576, 577. 

Imperial Library at, 166, 244, 

252, 263. 
Liln-ary of the Arsenal at, 189, 

420. 428. 

, Cabinet of Medals at, 109, 152, 

Partisan, 446. 
Pas d'ane (of a sword), 372, 380, 

385, 387, 389, 390. 
Passau, manufacture of arms at, 

Passot, e'pe'e de, 372. 
PaTois (shield), 293, 294. 
Paw-shaped solerets, 202, 203, 206, 

Peabody, 74. 
Pear-shaped casque, 276. 
Peascod armom, 3^5. 
Penguilly I'Haridon, ]2, 14, 35. 

Pennated dagger, 401, 409, 580. 

Pennons, 415. 

Persian arms, 282, 320, 349, 365, 

392, 413, 471, 550. 

equipment, 217. 

ancient arms, see Assyrian, 

leather cuirass, 327. 

Perugia, 67, 71. 

Petard, 65. 

Petronel, 68. 

Pikes, 451. 

Pilum, 29, 35, 81. 

Pistol, 529. 

Plascencia, manufactm'e of arms at, 

Poignards, 400. 

Polish arms, 273, 284, 348, 442. 
Polygar arms, 285, 321. 

casque, 285. 

coat of mail, 321. 

Polyspastes, 30. 

Pot helms, 242, 266. 

Poulaine, 49. 

Powder horns and flasks, 535, 536. 

Prague, manufacture of arms at, 

Museum of, 78, 135, 144, 260, 

268, 348, 363, 409, 425, 511, 

— Librai-y of, 264. 
Prisse d'Avesnes, 27, 103, 105. 
Puffed armour, 204. 
Pulvermassen, 73, 535. 
Puyse'gTir, 448. 
Pyrites, 68, 69, 71. 

Quadi equipment, 34. 
Quarrels, or bolts, 482, 483. 
Quillons (of a sword), 369. 

Eanseurs, 445. 

Kapier, 370, 387. 

liaquette gun, 527. 

lliitisbon, 359. 

Itaudnitz, collection of arms at, 378, 

450, 534, 539. 

library at, 177, 427. 

Receipts for amatexu-s, 582. 
Eemsohied, manufacture of arms at, 




Benne Collectiou, 237, 259, 262, 316. 

359, 416, 437. 
KeTOlvers, 73, 74, 525, 527. 
Kibaudequins, 501. 
Binged caat, 31B. 
Bodies, 55, 116. 

Bodolph of Nnremberg, 41, 543. 
Koman arms, 117, 121. 
Bomano, Collefpio, 123. 
Bondache, 297. 

Eussian arms, 84, 144, 283, 440. 
Bnssiton,' Castle of, 455. 
Bnstred coat, 313. 

Sabre, 370. 

Sabres of Mohammed, 3 / 1 . 

Sacken, Baroii, 10, 128. 

Saddles, 50, 855 to 360. 

Saint Blaisien, manu&ctuie of arms 

at, 550. 
Clement, manufacture of arms 

at, 542. 
Etienne, manufactm-e of arms 

at 550 
■' Gali Libmy of, 161, 164, 169, 

Germain, Museum of, 15, 84, 

122, 134, 144, 153, 155. 
Maurice, curiosities found at, 

165, 245. 
Salades Icasques), 260, 261, 262. 
Salzburg, Museum of, 416. 
Samnite unus, 122. 
Saracenic arms, 322. 
Saragossa, manufacture of ai-ms at, 

Savoyan arms, 389. 
Scala libromm, 64. 
Scaled coat, 314. 
Scaling ladder, 464. 
Scandmayian arms, 139, 162, 17?, 

185, 367. 
Sohaffhausen, Museum of, 359. 
Schiavona (sword), 388. 
SchiespiTlgel, 423. 
Sehwerin, Museum of, 15. 
Scimitars, 25, 370, 393. 
Sclavonic arms, 152, 441. 
Scorpion, 424. 
Scottish arms, 379, 388, 441. 

Suramasax, 35, 150, 151, 152, 400. 

Sedan, Museum of, 12. 

Serpentine cannons, 500, 

hand cannons, 517. 

Seville, manufactuTL- of arms at, 

Shahjehanabad, 550. 

Sheffield, 550. 

Shot, cannon, 63. 

united together, 510. 

chain, 510, 

with connecting link, 510. 

conical, 63. 

iron, 63. 

leaden, 63. 

red hot, 63. 

Shoulder plate, 226, 231. 

Sigmaringen, Museum of, 13, 15, 
35, 65, 73, 77, 129, 130, 131, 132, 
150, 153, 155, 156, 157, 195, 256, 
268, 293, 294, 318, 346, 347, 348. 
362, 363, 365, 383, 384, 386, 387, 
388, 393, 405, 409, 411, 412, 423, 
428, 431, 432, 436, 437, 442, 444, 
445, 451, 454, 465, 472, 500, 520, 
521, 52.'>, 530, 536, 580. 

Signum, 125. 

Six Collection, 181. 

Size of men in the Middle Ages, 

Skirted armour, 211. 

Skull cap, 267, 268, 269. 

SHng and staff sling, 466. 

Small buckler, 166, 179, 182, 189, 
288, 291. 

Snafae, 366. 

Snaphaunce, 10. 

Soter Collection, 256, 325, 3-17, 37S, 
407. 449, 472. 

Solerets, 48, 49, 231, 337 to 341. 

Soleure, Arsenal of, 15, 270, 273, 
283, 326, 427, 431, 504. 

Sollen Collection, 124. 

Soltikoff Collection, 409, 418. 

Span, 529. 

Spandau, 550. 

Spanish arms, 173, 188, 214, 292, 
348, 384, 393, 449, 542. 

armourers, 565 to 573. 

Spears, boar, 418, 419. 

2 ft 



Spengel Collection, 260, 266, S77, 

Spontoons, 451. 
Spurs, 342 to 349. 
Squamata, 29, 118. 
Stiletto, 401,409, 412. 
Stirrups, 361 to 368. 
Strap of buckler, 113. 
Strasburs, Arsenal of, 12. 
Stuttgard, Library of, 163, 160, 167, 

Sureoat, 181. 
Sweden, see Collection of King 

Charles XV. 
Swiss Arsenals, 15. 

armoui-ers, .57.'>, 576. 

glaive, 428. 

Swords, 369 to 399. 
- — two-handed, 418, 419. 
S word-breaker, 27, 104, 411. 
Szokau, Museum of, 442. 

Tail guard for horses, 353. 

Tang (of a sword), 369. 

Targes, 294 to 298, 300, 301, 302. 

Tassets, 228, 229. 

Terzerole, 71. 

Ternow Collection, 534. 

Tesehen, 550. 

Tlieodosian Column, 122, 159, 

Tilting heaumes, 254, 255. 
Toledo, 550. 

Tombs, construction of, 22, 13S. 
Tormentum, 455. 
Tortoise, 31, 116. 
Touarique arms, 397. 
Toucii-hole, 71 . 
Touch-box, 535. 
Troyon Collection, 431. 
Turin, Armeria of, 13, 108, 110, 

273, 298, 302. 
Turin, 550. 

Turkish arms, 392, 393, 441. 
—— drums, 455. 
Tyrolose bolts, 4S3. 
Tzagra, 473. 
Tzarskoe Selo, Museum of, 15, 283, 

284, 285, 391, 413, 440. 

Umbrians, 109. 

"Valencia, 542. 

Valladolid, 542. 

Vamplate of lance. 235, 236. 

Vannes, Museum of, 82. 

Vauban, 71, 448. 

Vauquelin, 72. 

Velites, 29, 117. 

Venice, Museum oi^ 15. 

sculptures at, 192. 

Versailles, carbine of, 69. 

manufacture of arms at, 550. 

Veuglaire, 61. 

Vienna, Imperial arsenal o^ 10, 61, 
73, 199, 201, 202, 206, 208, 209, 
210, 212, 213, 215, 220, 221, 222, 
228, 235, 255, 269, 270, 275, 279, 
298, 323, 324, 332, 351, 380, 389, 
399, 407, 423, 427, 429, 444, 454, 

Arsenal of the city of, 269, 

409, 445. 

Cabinet of Antiquities at, 

82, 109, 125, 129, 131, 132, 149, 

Imperial Library at, 186. 

Industrial Museum of, 270 

271, 275, 379, 387, 436. 

Gewehrkammer of, 478. 

Museum of the Belvedere at, 


Vigna Ammandola, 32, 135. 

Villaseca Collection, 384. 

Volant piece, 237, 238. 

Voulge, 433. 

Waffenrook, or surox)at, 179, 181. 
Wagnuk, 402, 413. 
Waldburg-Wolfegg, Library of 

Prince, 457, 498. 
War engines, 50, 54, 55, 126, 455 

to 465. 

hammers, 435, 436, 437. 

hats, 263 to 269. 

Weapons in flint, 75 to 84. 

obsidian, 84. 

Wiener Neustadt, 550. 
Winglets, 43, 238. 
Wolf mark, 548. 



Wooden swords, 84. 
Yataghan, 394, 395. 
Zanguebar sword, 396, 397. 

Zend language, 25. 

Zurich, Arsenal of, 66, 266 322 

383, 416, 431, 442, 483, 504. 
Museum of Antiquities at, 83, 

150, 155, 157, 463. 






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( 27 ) 


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28 ) 




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( 29 ) 

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